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5G Training Course

NR Frame Structure and

Air Interface Resources




1 Numerology

2 Time-Domain Resources

3 Frequency-Domain Resources

4 Space-Domain Resources

2 Huawei Confidential
Overview of NR Air Interface Resources (Time-, Frequency-
, and Space-domain Resources)
Numerology (system parameter): refers to subcarrier spacing (SCS) in New Radio (NR) and related
parameters, such as the symbol length and cyclic prefix (CP) length.
CP Basic scheduling unit
Slot Subframe Frame
1 slot = 14 symbols 1 subframe = 1 ms 1 frame = 10 ms
The SCS determines
Numerology the symbol length
One or more BWPs can be
and slot length. 1 RB = 12 subcarriers 1 RBG = 2 to 16 RBs 1 BWP = Multiple RBs/RBGs configured in one carrier.

SCS RB RBG Bandwidth part Carrier

Frequency-domain Data channel/control channel scheduling unit
Existed in LTE
REG CCE Unchanged in NR
1 REG = 1 PRB 1 CCE = 6 REGs Existed in LTE
Modified in NR
Space-domain resources Codeword Layer Antenna port
Added in NR

NR uses orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), same as LTE does.
The main description dimensions of air interface resources are similar between LTE and NR except that BWP is added to NR in the frequency domain.

3 Huawei Confidential
SCS–Background and Protocol-provided Definition
• Numerologies defined in 3GPP Release 15 (TS 38.211)
• Background with SCS identified by the parameter µ.
– Service types supported by NR: eMBB, URLLC, mMTC, etc.
– Frequency bands supported by NR: C-band, mmWave, etc. µ
0 15 kHz Normal
– Moving speed supported by NR: up to 500 km/h 1 30 kHz Normal
2 60 kHz Normal, extended
• Requirements for SCS vary with service types, 3 120 kHz Normal
frequency bands, and moving speeds. 4 240 kHz Normal

– URLLC service (short latency): large SCS *(LTE supports only 15 kHz SCS.)

– Low frequency band (wide coverage): small SCS • Available SCS for data channels and synchronization
channels in 3GPP Release 15
– High frequency band (large bandwidth, phase noise): large
Parameter Supported for Data Supported for Sync
– Ultra high speed mobility: large SCS 0 15 kHz Yes Yes
1 30 kHz Yes Yes
• NR SCS design principle 2 60 kHz Yes No
– NR supports a series of SCS values. 3 120 kHz Yes Yes
4 240 kHz No Yes

Based on LTE SCS of 15 kHz, a series of numerologies (mainly different SCS values) are supported to adapt to different requirements and channel characteristics.

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SCS: Application Scenarios and Suggestions
• Impact of SCS on coverage, latency, mobility, and phase noise • Coexistence of different SCS values and FDM
– Coverage: The smaller the SCS, the longer the symbol length/CP, and the – The eMBB and URLLC data channels use different SCS
better the coverage. values and coexist through FDM.
– Mobility: The larger the SCS, the smaller the impact of Doppler shift, and
the better the performance.
– Latency: The larger the SCS, the shorter the symbol length/latency.
– Phase noise: The larger the SCS, the smaller the impact of phase noise,
and the better the performance.
• SCS application suggestions for different frequency bands
(eMBB service data channel):
SCS (kHz) 15 30 60 120 240
good bad – The PBCH and PDSCH/PUSCH use different SCS values
good and coexist through FDM.
3.5 GHz Mobility
bad good

good bad
bad good
28 GHz bad good
Phase Noise
bad good

It is recommended that the SCS be 30 kHz for C-band and 120 kHz for 28 GHz. Different SCS values and coexistence through FDM are supported.
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SCS Configuration for Physical Channels and
Signals gNodeB UE

Channel SCS Defined in 3GPP Release 15 Configuration Scheme SCS: protocol-defined default value
RAN4 defines the
default SCS for each SCS: configured in MIB
Sub-6 GHz: 15/30 kHz
SS/PBCH frequency band (see
Above-6 GHz: 120/240 kHz
Table in 3GPP PRACH
TS 38.104). SCS: configured in RMSI

Sub-6 GHz: 15/30 kHz

Initial RMSI, Msg2/4 (PDSCH) MIB
Above-6 GHz: 60/120 kHz Msg2 (random access response)
access SCS: same as RMSI

Long PRACH: SCS = {1.25 5} kHz Msg3 (transmitted over PUSCH)

Msg1 (PRACH), Msg3 SCS: configured in RMSI
Short PRACH: SCS = {15, 30, 60,
120} kHz, where: sub-6 GHz: 15/30 Msg4 (transmitted over PDSCH)
kHz, above-6 GHz: 60/120 kHz SCS: same as RMSI

Sub-1 GHz: 15/30 kHz

PDSCH/PDCCH/CSI-RS 1 GHz to 6 GHz: 15/30/60 kHz RRC signaling DL: PDSCH/PDCCH/CSI-RS
RRC Above-6 GHz: 60/120 kHz SCS: configured in RRC signaling
mode Sub-1 GHz: 15/30 kHz
PUSCH/PUCCH/SRS 1 GHz to 6 GHz: 15/30/60 kHz RRC signaling UL: PUSCH/PUCCH/SRS
Above-6 GHz: 60/120 kHz SCS: configured in RRC signaling

The protocol-defined SCS is used by the synchronization and broadcast channels involved in initial access. The SCS for other channels is
configured in the MIB, RMSI, and RRC signaling.
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1 Numerology

2 Time-Domain Resources: CP, Symbol, Slot, Frame Structure

3 Frequency-Domain Resources

4 Space-Domain Resources

7 Huawei Confidential
Time-domain Resources: Radio Frame, Subframe,
Slot, Symbol
Radio frame Inherited from LTE and has a
fixed value of 10 ms

... Inherited from LTE and has a

Subframe Subframe Subframe
fixed value of 1 ms

Slot Slot ... Slot Minimum unit for data scheduling

Symbol Symbol Symbol ... Symbol

Basic unit for modulation

Sampling Sampling Sampling

point point
... point Basic time unit at the physical layer
In the time domain, slot is a basic scheduling unit for data channels. The concepts of radio frames and subframes are the
same as those in LTE.
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Symbol Length–Determined by SCS

SCS = 15 kHz
 Symbol = CP + Data T_slot = 1 ms (14 symbols)

 SCS vs CP length/symbol length/slot length CP data …

– Length of OFDM symbols in data: T_data = 1/SCS
– CP length: T_cp = 144/2048 x T_data T_symbol
– Symbol length (data+CP): T_symbol = T_data +T_cp T_slot = 0.5 ms (14 symbols)

SCS = 30 kHz
Slot length: T_slot = 1 / 2^(µ)

Parameter/Numerology (µ) 0 1 2 3 4

SCS (kHz):
15 30 60 120 240
SCS = 15 x 2^(µ)
OFDM Symbol Duration (µs):
66.67 33.33 16.67 8.33 4.17 T_slot = 0.125 ms (14 symbols)
T_data = 1/SCS
CP Duration (µs):
4.69 2.34 1.17 0.59 0.29

SCS = 120 kHz

T_cp = 144/2048 x T_data
OFDM Symbol Including CP (µs):
T_symbol = T_data + T_cp
71.35 35.68 17.84 8.92 4.46 …
Slot Length (ms):
1 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.0625
T_slot = 1/2^(µ)

A symbol consists of a CP and data. The length of the data is the reciprocal of SCS. The larger the SCS, the smaller the symbol length and the slot length.
9 Huawei Confidential
CP: Background and Principles
 Multipath latency extension
– The width extension of the received signal pulse caused by multipath is the
difference between the maximum transmission latency and the minimum
transmission latency. The latency extension varies with the environment, terrain,
and clutter, and does not have an absolute mapping relationship with the cell

 Impact
– Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) is generated, which severely affects the
transmission quality of digital signals.
– Inter-Channel Interference (ICI) is generated. The orthogonality of the subcarriers
in the OFDM system is damaged, which affects the demodulation on the receive

 Solution: CP for reduced ISI and ICI

– Guard intervals reduce ISI. A guard interval is inserted between OFDM symbols,
where the length (Tg) of the guard interval is generally greater than the maximum
latency extension over the radio channel.
– CP is inserted in the guard interval to reduce ICI. Replicating a sampling point
following each OFDM symbol to the front of the OFDM symbol. This ensures that
the number of waveform periods included in a latency copy of the OFDM symbol
is an integer in an FFT period, which guarantees subcarrier orthogonality.

CPs between OFDM symbols resolve ISI and ICI caused by multipath propagation.
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CP: Protocol-defined
 Key factors that determine the CP length  CP length for different SCS values:
– Multipath latency extension: The larger the multipath latency extension,
– If normal CP (NCP) is used, the CP of the first symbol
the longer the CP.
present every 0.5 ms is longer than that of other symbols.
– OFDM symbol length: Given the same OFDM symbol length, a longer
CP indicates a larger system overhead. 512  2   extended cyclic prefix
 NR CP design principle  
N CP ,l  144  2    16 normal cyclic prefix, l  0 or l  7  2 
– Same overhead as that in LTE 144  2  
– Aligned symbols between different SCS values and the reference  normal cyclic prefix, l  0 and l  7  2 
numerology (15 kHz)
Tcp  Ncp  Tc

Parameter SCS CP
µ (kHz) (µs)
1 1 0 15 NCP: 5.2 µs for l = 0 or 7; 4.69 µs for others
1 30 NCP: 2.86 µs for l = 0 or 14; 2.34 µs for others
NCP: 1.69 µs for l = 0 or 28; 1.17 µs for others
2 60
Extended CP (ECP): 4.17 µs
3 120 NCP: 1.11 µs for l = 0 or 56; 0.59 µs for others
0 12 3 1
4 240 NCP: 0.81 µs for l = 0 or 112; 0.29 µs for others

The CP length in NR is designed in line with the same principles as LTE. Overheads are the same between NR and LTE.
Aligned symbols are ensured between different SCS values and the SCS of 15 kHz.
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Frame Structure: Architecture

 Frame length: 10 ms Frame structure architecture:
 Example: SCS = 30 kHz/120 kHz
– SFN range: 0 to 1023
1 frame = 10 ms = 10 subframes = 20 slots
 Subframe length: 1 ms

SCS = 30 kHz
– Subframe index per system frame: 0 to 9
1 subframe = 1 ms = 2 slots
 Slot length: 14 symbols
Slot Configuration (NCP)
SCS 1 slot = 0.5 ms = 14 symbols
(kHz) Number of Number of Number of Slots
Symbols/Slot Slots/Subframe /Frame
1 frame = 10 ms = 10 subframes = 80 slots
15 14 1 10
30 14 2 20
60 14 4 40

SCS = 120 kHz

120 14 8 80 1 subframe = 1 ms = 8 slots
240 14 16 160
480 14 32 320

Slot Configuration (ECP) 1 slot = 0.125 ms = 14 symbols

60 12 4 40

The lengths of a radio frame and a subframe in NR are consistent with those in LTE. The number of slots in each subframe is determined by
the subcarrier width.
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Slot Format and Type
 Slot structure (section 4.3.2 of 3GPP TS 38.211)  Compared with LTE, NR has the following slot format features:
– Downlink, denoted as D, for downlink transmission – Flexibility: symbol-level uplink/downlink adaptation in NR and
– Flexible, denoted as X, for uplink or downlink subframe-level in LTE
transmission, GP, or reserved. – Diversity: More slots are supported in the NR system to cope
– Uplink, denoted as U, for uplink transmission with more scenarios and service types.
 Main slot types  Examples of application scenarios of different slots:
– Case 1: DL-only slot
Slot Type Application Scenario Example
– Case 2: UL-only slot
– Case 3: flexible-only slot Case 1 DL-heavy transmission

– Case 4: mixed slot (at least one downlink slot Case 2 UL-heavy transmission
and/or one uplink slot) 1. Forward compatibility: Resources are reserved for future services.
Case 3
2. Adaptive adjustment of uplink and downlink resources: such as dynamic TDD
Case 4-1 1. Forward compatibility: Resources are reserved for future services.
Case 1: DL-only slot Case 2: UL-only slot Case 3: flexible-only slot 2. Flexible data transmission start and end locations: such as unlicensed
Case 4-2 frequency bands and dynamic TDD
Case 4-3 Downlink self-contained transmission
Case 4-1 Case 4-2
Case 4-4 Uplink self-contained transmission
Case 4-5 Mini-slot (seven symbols) for URLLC services
Case 4-3 Case 4-4 Case 4-5

The number of uplink and downlink symbols in a slot can be flexibly configured. In Release 15, a mini-slot contains 2, 4, or 7 symbols for data
scheduling in a short latency or a high frequency band scenario.
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Self-contained Slots/Subframes
 The self-contained slot or subframe type is  Self-contained slot/subframe design objectives
not defined in 3GPP specifications. – Faster downlink HARQ feedback and uplink data scheduling: reduced RTT
– Shorter SRS transmission period: to cope with fast channel changes for
 The self-contained slots or subframes improved MIMO performance
discussed in the industry and literature are  Problems in application
featured as follows: – The small GP limits cell coverage.
– One slot or subframe contains uplink part, downlink part, and GP. Air interface Downlink data processing time:
– Downlink self-contained slot or subframe: includes downlink data and round-trip latency
Part of the GP needs to be reserved for
corresponding HARQ feedback. demodulating downlink data and
UL control or SRS generating ACK/NACK feedback.

– High requirements on UE hardware processing:

D U • Release 15 defines two types of UE processing capabilities. The
baseline capability is 10 to 13 symbols if the SCS is 30 kHz and self-
ACK/NACK contained transmission is not supported.
– Uplink self-contained slot or subframe: includes uplink scheduling – Frequent uplink/downlink switching increases the GP overhead.
information and uplink data. – In the downlink, only the retransmission latency can be reduced.
DL control • E2E latency depends on many factors, including the core network and
air interface.
D U • The latency on the air interface side is also limited by the
uplink/downlink frame configuration, and the processing latency on the
gNodeB and UE.
UL grant

Self-contained subframes reduce the RTT latency on the RAN side but limits cell coverage. Therefore, high requirements
are posed on hardware processing capabilities of UEs.
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Mini-slot: Support for the Length of 2, 4, or 7 Symbols in
Release 15
 Mini-slot: fewer than 14 symbols in the time  Application scenario
domain – Short-latency scenario: reduces the scheduling
waiting latency and transmission latency.
 Basic scheduling units are classified into
– Unlicensed frequency band: Data can be transmitted
the following types: immediately after listen before talk (LBT).
– Slot-based: The basic scheduling unit is slot, and the – mmWave scenario: TDM is applied for different UEs
time-domain length is 14 symbols. in a slot.
– Non-slot-based: The basic scheduling unit is mini-slot. In 1. URLLC for low latency
Release 15, the time-domain length is 2, 4, or 7 symbols.

2. eMBB in unlicensed band

Slot-based PDCCH PDSCH

3. mmWave
PDSCH (mini-slot)
Non-slot-based PDSCH

Release 15 supports mini-slots with the length of 2, 4, or 7 symbols, which can be applied in short latency and mmWave
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UL/DL Slot/Frame Configuration
 Configuration: in line with section 11.1 of 3GPP TS 38.213  Hierarchical configuration
– Layer 1: semi-static configuration through cell-specific RRC signaling If X slots/symbols are configured at the upper layer, D or U slots/symbols
are also configured at the lower layer.
– SIB1: UL-DL-configuration-common and UL-DL-configuration-common-Set2
– Period: {0.5,0.625,1,1.25,2,2.5,5,10} ms, SCS dependent 1. Cell-specific RRC configuration
– Layer 2: semi-static configuration through UE-specific RRC signaling
– Higher layer signaling: UL-DL-configuration-dedicated D D D

– Period: {0.5,0.625,1,1.25,2,2.5,5,10} ms, SCS dependent 2. UE-specific RRC configuration

– Layer 3: dynamic configuration through UE-group SFI
– DCI format 2_0 D D D D X
– Period: {1,2,4,5,8,10,20} slots, SCS dependent 3. SFI
– Layer 4: dynamic configuration through UE-specific DCI
– DCI format 0, 1
4. DCI
 Main characteristics: hierarchical configuration or
separate configuration of each layer D D D D D D D D U
– Different from LTE, the NR system supports UE-specific
configuration, which delivers high flexibility.  Separate layer configuration
– Support for symbol-level dynamic TDD Cell-specific RRC configuration/SFI


Frame configuration supports hierarchical configuration through RRC signaling and DCI to deliver symbol-level dynamic
TDD and high flexibility.
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UL/DL Slot/Frame Configuration: Cell-specific
Semi-static Configuration
 Cell-specific RRC signaling parameters  Single-period configuration: DDDSU
– Parameter: SIB1
X: DL/UL assignment periodicity
– UL-DL-configuration-common: {X, x1, x2, y1, y2}
– UL-DL-configuration-common-Set2: {Y, x3, x4, y3, y4}
– X/Y: assignment period
– {0.5, 0.625, 1, 1.25, 2, 2.5, 5, 10} ms y1: full UL slots
x1: full DL slots
– 0.625 ms is used only when the SCS is 120 kHz. 1.25 ms is used when
the SCS is 60 kHz or larger. 2.5 ms is used when the SCS is 30 kHz or y2: UL symbols
larger. x2: DL symbols
– A single period or two periods can be configured.
– x1/x3: number of downlink-only slots  Dual-period configuration: DDDSU DDSUU
– {0,1,…, number of slots in the assignment period}
– y1/y3: number of uplink-only slots X: DL/UL assignment periodicity Y: DL/UL assignment periodicity
– {0,1,…, number of slots in the assignment period}
– x2/x4: number of downlink symbols following downlink-only slots D D D D U
– {0,1,…,13}
– y2/y4: number of uplink symbols followed by uplink-only slots x1 y1 x3 y3
– {0,1,…,13} y2 y4
x2 x4

Cell-specific semi-persistent configuration supports limited configuration period options, and flexible static configuration of
DL/UL resources are realized through RRC signaling.
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UL/DL Slot Configuration: Dynamic Configuration
Through SFI
 Slot Format Indicator (SFI) is transmitted over the group-common PDCCH.
– SFI is identified by indexes in the following tables (reference: Table 4.3.2-3 in 3GPP TS 38.211).

The slot type can be notified to the UE through SFI over the PDCCH to dynamically set the slot/frame configuration.
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Comparison Among and Application of Different
Frame Configuration Schemes
 Features of the four configuration schemes
Configuration Scheme Feature and Resource Configuration Priority
Features: Cell-specific+static, or semi-persistent resource configuration
Cell-specific RRC signaling
Resource configuration priority: Highest. Cell-specific-signaling-indicated D or U cannot be modified through other configurations.

Features: UE-specific+static, or semi-persistent resource configuration

UE-specific RRC signaling Resource configuration priority: High. The X configurations indicated in cell-specific signaling can be further configured. UE-specific-signaling-
indicated D or U cannot be modified through SFI/DCI.

Features: UE- or UE group-specific+periodic (1–20 slots) dynamic configuration

Resource configuration priority: Low. The X configurations indicated in cell-specific or UE-specific signaling can be further configured.
Features: UE-specific+slot-specific dynamic configuration
DCI Resource configuration priority: Very low. The X configurations indicated in the cell-specific signaling/UE-specific signaling/SFI can be further

 Typical configuration schemes for commercial use:

– Unified static network-wide frame configuration with the configuration period within the protocol-specified range: configured in cell-
specific RRC signaling.
– Unified static network-wide frame configuration with the configuration period outside the protocol-specified range: configured in cell-
specific and UE-specific RRC signaling. SFI- and DCI-indicated configurations can be added.
– Dynamic TDD: Cell-specific RRC+SFI/DCI configurations or direct SFI/DCI configurations

Different configuration schemes are used to adapt to scenarios and requirements. The cell-specific RRC signaling
configuration scheme delivers unified static network-wide frame configuration.
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1 Numerology

2 Time-Domain Resources

3 Frequency-Domain Resources: RB, RBG, REG, CCE, BWP

4 Space-Domain Resources

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Basic Concepts of Frequency-Domain Resources
One subframe

 Resource Grid (RG)

– Physical-layer resource group, which is defined separately for ,
Nsymb OFDM symbols
the uplink and downlink (RGs are defined for each max, RB
k  NRB,
x Nsc 1
– Frequency domain: available RB resources within the
transmission bandwidth 𝑁RB
– Time domain: 1 subframe

N scRB subcarriers

block N scRB subcarriers

 Resource Block (RB)
– Basic scheduling unit for data channel resource allocation in
the frequency domain Resource Element
Resource element

Resource Grid N RB

– (k , l )

Resource Block
Frequency domain: 12 consecutive subcarriers
 Resource Element (RE)

– Minimum granularity of physical-layer resources
– Frequency domain: 1 subcarrier
– Time domain: 1 OFDM symbol
k 0
l 0 l  14  2   1

In NR, an RB corresponds to 12 subcarriers (same as LTE) in the frequency domain. The frequency-domain width is related
to SCS and is calculated using 2µ x 180 kHz.
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PRB/RBG and CCE: Frequency-domain Basic
Scheduling Units
 Basic scheduling unit for data channels:  Basic scheduling unit for control
PRB/RBG channels: CCE
– Physical RB (PRB): Indicates the physical resource block in the – RE Group (REG): basic unit for control channel
BWP. resource allocation
– Frequency domain: 1 REG = 1 PRB (12 subcarriers)
– Frequency domain: 12 subcarriers
– Time domain: 1 OFDM symbol
– Resource Block Group (RBG): a set of physical resource blocks
– Control Channel Element (CCE): basic scheduling unit
– Frequency domain: The size depends on the number of RBs for control channel resource allocation
in the BWP. – Frequency domain: 1 CCE = 6 REGs = 6 PRBs
BWP Size (RBs)
RBG Size – CCE aggregation level: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
Config 1 Config 2
1–36 2 4
37–72 4 8
73–144 8 16 REG DMRS
145–275 16 16
RB RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 RB6 RB7 RB8 RB9 RB10 RB11 RB12 …


In the frequency domain, the PRB or an RBG is a basic scheduling unit for data channels, and the CCE is a basic scheduling
unit for control channels.
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Channel Bandwidth and Transmission Bandwidth
 Channel bandwidth
– Channel bandwidth supported by the FR1 frequency
band (450 MHz to 6000 MHz): 5 MHz (minimum),
100 MHz (maximum)
– Channel bandwidth supported by the FR2 frequency
band (24 GHz to 52 GHz): 50 MHz (minimum), 400
MHz (maximum).
 Maximum transmission bandwidth
(maximum number of available RBs)
– Determined by the channel bandwidth and data
channel SCS.
– Defined on the gNodeB side and UE side separately.
Active RBs
For details about the protocol-configuration of the
UE side, see the figure on the right. Guard band
 Guard bandwidth
– With F-OFDM, the guard bandwidth decreases to
about 2% in NR (corresponding to 30 kHz SCS, 100
MHz channel bandwidth).
Compared with the guard bandwidth (10%) in LTE, NR uses F-OFDM to reduce the guard bandwidth to about 2%.
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Maximum Number of Available RBs and Spectrum Utilization
 Spectrum utilization = Maximum transmission bandwidth/Channel bandwidth
– Maximum transmission bandwidth on the gNodeB side: See Table 5.3.2-1 and 5.3.2-2 in 3GPP TS 38.104.
5 10 15 30 20 25 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
NRB and Spectrum Utilization (FR1:400 MHz to 6000 MHz)
25 52 79 [160] 106 133 216 270 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
90% 93.6% 94.8% [96%] 95.4% 95.8% 97.2% 97.2% \ \ \ \ \
11 24 38 [78] 51 65 106 133 162 [189] 217 [245] 273
79.2% 86.4% 91.2% 91.8% 93.6% 95.4% 95.8% 97.2% 97.7% 98.3%
N/A 11 18 [38] 24 31 51 65 79 [93] 107 [121] 135
79.2% 86.4% 86.4% 893% 91.8% 93.6% 94.8% 93.6% 97.2%

50 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 400 MHz

NRB and Spectrum Utilization (FR2: 24
GHz to 52 GHz)
66 132 264 N/A
95% 95% 95% \
32 66 132 264
92.2% 95% 95% 95%

– Maximum transmission bandwidth on the UE side: See 3GPP TS 38.101-1 and TS 38.101-2.

Spectrum utilization is related to the channel bandwidth. The higher the bandwidth, the higher the spectral efficiency.
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RB Location Index and Indication
 BWP is introduced to the NR system, which causes Reference
Location 0 CRB Index in RG
differences in the RB location index and indication Offset
0 PRB Index in BWP
from LTE.
 Related concepts (section 4.4 of 3GPP TS 38.211)
– RG: In the frequency domain, an RG includes all available 0 1 2 3 … 0 1 2 3 … Freq.
RBs within the transmission bandwidth.
– BWP: new concept introduced in the NR system. It refers to Point A BWP

some RBs in the transmission bandwidth and is configured Point A Reference Location Offset
by the gNodeB. PCell DL
SSB start location UEs are informed of this information through the RMSI.
UEs perform blind detection to obtain this Parameter:
– Point A: basic reference point of the RG (TDD/FDD)
information. PRB-index-DL-common
– Defined for the uplink, downlink, PCell, SCell, and SUL separately PCell UL
UEs are informed of this information through the RMSI.
Same as Point A for the PCell downlink Parameter:
– Point A = Reference Location + Offset (TDD)
– For details about the reference location and offset for different Frequency-domain location of the ARFCN UEs are informed of this information through the RMSI.
PCell UL
reference points, see the figure on the right. (FDD)
UEs are informed of this information Parameter:
through the RMSI (SIB1). PRB-index-UL-common
– Common RB (CRB): index in the RG
UEs are informed of this information through RRC
– The center of 0# subcarrier of CRB#0 is aligned with that of Point A. SCell
Frequency-domain location of the ARFCN signaling.
UEs are informed of this information Parameter:
– Physical RB (PRB): index in the BWP DL/UL
through the SCell configuration message. PRB-index-DL-Dedicated
i 1
– Index: 0 to N BWP,
size PRB-index-UL-Dedicated

– Relationship between PRB and CRB: nCRB  nPRB  N BWP, i

start UEs are informed of this information through RRC
Frequency-domain location of the ARFCN
N BWP,i SUL UEs are informed of this information
is the number of CRBs between the BWP start position and through the SCell configuration message.

Point A is the basic reference point in the RG. CRB is the RB index in the RG, and PRB is the RB index in the BWP.
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BWP Definition and Application Scenarios
 Definition and characteristics
– The Bandwidth Part (BWP) is introduced in NR. It is a set of contiguous bandwidth resources configured by the gNodeB for UEs to
achieve flexible transmission bandwidth configuration on the gNodeB side and UE side. Each BWP corresponds to a specific numerology.
– BWP is specific to UEs (BWP configurations vary with UEs). UEs do not need to know the transmission bandwidth on the gNodeB side
but only needs to support the configured BWP bandwidth.

 Application scenarios
– Scenario#1: UEs with a small bandwidth access a large-bandwidth network.
– Scenario#2: UEs switch between small and large BWPs to save battery power.
– Scenario#3: The numerology is unique for each BWP and service-specific.

#1 #2

BWP Bandwidth

Carrier Bandwidth Carrier Bandwidth

Numerology 1 Numerology 2

Carrier Bandwidth

BWP is a set of contiguous bandwidth resources configured by the gNodeB for UEs. The application scenario examples are as follows: UEs supporting small
bandwidths, power saving, and support for FDM on services of different numerologies.
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BWP Types
 BWP types
– Initial BWP: configured in the initial access phase. Signals and channels are transmitted in the initial BWP during initial access.
– Dedicated BWP: configured for UEs in RRC_CONNECTED mode. A maximum of four dedicated BWPs can be configured for a UE.
– Active BWP: one of the dedicated BWPs activated by a UE in RRC_CONNECTED mode. According to Release 15, a UE in
RRC_CONNECTED mode can have only one active BWP at a given time.
– Default BWP: It is one of the dedicated BWPs and is indicated by RRC signaling. After the BWP inactivity timer expires, the UE in
RRC_CONNECTED mode switches to the default BWP.

Random Access Procedure RRC Connected Procedure

PDCCH indicating downlink assignment
Default UE2 BWP inactivity
UE1 UE2 Dedicated Dedicated UE2 switches to the default
Initial BWP
Carrier Bandwidth
UE1 Active BWP UE2 Active BWP UE1 Active BWP UE2 Active BWP
Carrier Bandwidth Carrier Bandwidth

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Initial BWP Configuration
 Initial DL BWP definition and configuration  Initial UL BWP definition and configuration
– Function: The PDSCH used to transmit RMSI, Msg2, and Msg4 must be – Function: The PUSCH used to transmit Msg3, PUCCH used to
transmitted in the initial active DL BWP. transmit Msg4 HARQ feedback, and PRACH resources during
– Definition of the initial DL BWP: frequency-domain location and bandwidth of initial access must be transmitted in the initial active UL BWP.
RMSI CORESET (control channel resource set) and a numerology – The initial DL BWP and initial UL BWP are separately configured.
corresponding to the RMSI – Numerology: same as that of Msg3 (configured in RMSI).
– The frequency-domain location and bandwidth of the RMSI CORESET are – Frequency-domain location:
indicated in the PBCH (MIB). The default bandwidth is {24,48,96} RBs. – FDD (paired spectrum), SUL: configured in RMSI
– TDD (unpaired spectrum): same as the center frequency
band of the initial DL BWP
– Bandwidth
PDSCH – Configured in RMSI and no default bandwidth option is

Initial DL BWP available.

Frequency offset
The frequency offset in PRB level which is between RMSI CORESET
and SS/PBCH block is defined as the frequency difference from the
lowest PRB of RMSI to the lowest PRB of SS/PBCH block.
 Procedure for UEs to determine the initial BWP
UEs search for the SSB UEs demodulate the PBCH to obtain UEs receive the RMSI to obtain the
to obtain the frequency- the frequency offset and bandwidth frequency-domain location,
domain location of the information of the RMSI CORESET and bandwidth, and numerology
SSB. determine the initial DL BWP. information of the initial UL BWP.

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Dedicated BWP Configuration
 Dedicated BWP configuration  UE Dedicated PRB Location
– Sent to UEs through RRC signaling – Dedicated BWP locations of all UEs in a cell are based on the same
– FDD (paired spectrum): Up to four downlink common reference point (Point A).
dedicated BWPs and four uplink dedicated BWPs – UEs determine the start location of the dedicated BWP based on the
can be configured. offset relative to Point A.
– TDD (unpaired spectrum): A total of four – Based on the dedicated BWP bandwidth, UEs obtain the end location of
uplink/downlink BWP pairs can be configured. the dedicated BWP.
– SUL: 4 uplink dedicated BWPs – UEs obtain the frequency-domain location and size of the dedicated
– The smallest unit is one PRB. The dedicated
BWP is equal to or smaller than the maximum UE2 Offset
bandwidth supported by a UE.
– Each dedicated BWP can be configured with UE1 Offset
the following attributes through RRC signaling:
– Numerology (SCS, CP type)
– Bandwidth (a group of contiguous PRBs)
UE1 Active BWP UE2 Active BWP
– Frequency location (start location)
Point A
– UEs can activate only one dedicated BWP at Cell Carrier Bandwidth

a given time as the active BWP. • Offset: UEs can obtain the offset for each dedicated BWP from
RRC signaling.
After a UE accesses the network, the dedicated BWP is configured through RRC signaling. A maximum of four
dedicated BWPs can be configured.
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BWP Adaptation
 BWP Adaptation  BWP Adaptation application scenarios
 UEs in RRC_CONNECTED mode switch between
dedicated BWPs (only one dedicated BWP can be – The BWP bandwidth changes: e.g. switching to the
activated at a given time). power saving state.
 BWP Adaptation is completed through switchovers and – BWP location movement in the frequency domain:
involves the following: e.g. to increase scheduling flexibility.
– DCI – The BWP numerology changes: e.g. to allow
 FDD: downlink: downlink DCI, uplink: uplink DCI different services.
 TDD: If the uplink or downlink DCI includes a
switchover indication, BWP switchovers are
performed in the uplink and downlink.  RF conversion time (defined in RAN4,
– Timer mechanism sub-6 GHz)
 If the BWP inactivity timer expires, UEs switch to the
default BWP (one of the dedicated BWPs).
 Timer granularity: 1 ms for sub-6 GHz, 0.5 ms for Relationship Intra-Band
mmWave Between Same Different Inter-Band
PDCCH indicating downlink assignment BWP1 and Center Center
UE BWP inactivity timer
BWP2 Frequency Frequency
The UE switches to the default Time ≤ 20µs 50–200 µs ≤ 900 µs

In RRC connected mode, switching between BWPs is realized through DCI or timer mechanisms.
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1 Numerology

2 Time-Domain Resources

3 Frequency-Domain Resources

4 Space-Domain Resources: Layer, Antenna Port, QCL

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Codewords and Antenna Ports
 Basic concepts  Protocol-defined number of codewords
– Codeword – 1 to 4 layers: 1 codeword
– Upper-layer service data on which channel coding applies. – 5 to 8 layers: 2 codewords
– Codewords uniquely identify data flow. By transmitting different data, MIMO
implements spatial multiplexing. The number of codewords depends on the
 Protocol-defined number of layers
rank of the channel matrix. – DL: up to eight layers for a single user and four layers
– Layer for multiple users
– The number of codewords is different from the number of transmit antennas. – UL: up to four layers for a single user or multiple users
Therefore, codewords need to be mapped to transmit antenna.
 Protocol-defined number of antenna ports
– Antenna port
– Logical ports used for transmission. Antenna ports do not have a one-to-one Maximum
relationship with physical antennas. They can be mapped to one or more Channel/Signal Number of Antenna Port#
physical antennas. Ports
– Antennas ports are defined based on reference signals. {0,1,2,…,7} DMRS type 1
PUSCH with DMRS 8 or 12
{0,1,2,…,11} DMRS type 2
UL PUCCH 1 {2000}
Codewords Layers Antenna ports
PRACH 1 {4000}
Modulation OFDM signal
Scrambling RE mapper SRS 4 {1000,1001,1002,1003}
mapper Antenna generation
Port {1000, 1001,…,1007} DMRS type 1
mapper PDSCH with DMRS 8 or 12
RE mapper
OFDM signal {1000, 1001,…,1011} DMRS type 2
mapper generation
DL PDCCH 1 {2000}
CSI-RS 32 {3000,3001,3002,…,3031}
Number of codewords ≤ Number of layers ≤ Number of antenna ports
SSB 1 {4000}

In NR, a maximum of two codewords are supported. The maximum number of DMRS antenna ports is increased to 12.

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Thank You

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