Analysis of Structures

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Analysis of Structures

© All Rights Reserved

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By Ferdinand Beer and Russel Johnston

Introduction

• For the equilibrium of structures made of several

connected parts, the internal forces as well the external

forces are considered.

Law states that the forces of action and reaction

between bodies in contact have the same magnitude,

same line of action, and opposite sense.

a) Frames: contain at least one one multi-force

member, i.e., member acted upon by 3 or more

forces.

b) Trusses: formed from two-force members, i.e.,

straight members with end point connections

c) Machines: structures containing moving parts

designed to transmit and modify forces.

6-2

Consider parts of the column

100N

100N 100N

B

Load

FBD reaction From 2 to 1

From 1 to 2

A

Ay= 100N

Ay= 100N

External Forces

Internal Forces (to the column AB)

2-3

Definition of a Truss

• A truss consists of straight members connected at

joints. No member is continuous through a joint.

together to form a space framework. Each truss

carries those loads which act in its plane and may

be treated as a two-dimensional structure.

pinned together. Forces acting at the member ends

reduce to a single force and no couple. Only two-

force members are considered.

tension. When the forces tend to compress the

member, it is in compression.

6-4

Definition of a Truss

supporting large lateral loads. Loads must be applied at

the joints.

6-5

6-6

Simple Trusses

• A rigid truss will not collapse under

the application of a load.

successively adding two members and

one connection to the basic triangular

truss.

m is the total number of members

and n is the number of joints.

6-7

METHOD OF JOINTS

To determine the Internal Force of each member of the truss

the Method of Joints is more convenient to use

2-8

• Dismember the truss and create a freebody

diagram for each member and pin.

equal, have the same line of action, and

opposite sense.

joints at its ends are directed along the member

and equal and opposite.

2n equations for 2n unknowns. For a simple

truss, 2n = m + 3. May solve for m member

forces and 3 reaction forces at the supports.

provide 3 additional equations which are not

independent of the pin equations.

6-9

Joints Under Special Loading

• Forces in opposite members intersecting in

Conditions two straight lines at a joint are equal.

• The forces in two opposite members are

equal when a load is aligned with a third

member. The third member force is equal

to the load (including zero load).

• The forces in two members connected at a

joint are equal if the members are aligned

and zero otherwise.

• Recognition of joints under special loading

conditions simplifies a truss analysis.

6 - 10

Space Trusses

• An elementary space truss consists of 6 members

connected at 4 joints to form a tetrahedron.

extended when 3 new members and 1 joint are

added at the same time.

number of members and n is the number of joints.

equations. For a simple truss, 3n = m + 6 and the

equations can be solved for m member forces and

6 support reactions.

additional equations which are not independent of

the joint equations.

6 - 11

Example SOLUTION:

• Based on a free-body diagram of the

entire truss, solve the 3 equilibrium

equations for the reactions at E and C.

member forces. Determine these from the

joint equilibrium requirements.

member forces at joints D, B, and E from

joint equilibrium requirements.

Using the method of joints, determine

the force in each member of the truss. • All member forces and support reactions

are known at joint C. However, the joint

equilibrium requirements may be applied

to check the results.

6 - 12

SOLUTION:

• Based on a free-body diagram of the entire truss,

solve the 3 equilibrium equations for the reactions

at E and C.

MC 0

2000 lb24 ft 1000 lb12 ft E 6 ft

E 10,000 lb

Fx 0 C x Cx 0

C y 7000 lb

6 - 13

• Joint A is subjected to only two unknown

member forces. Determine these from the

joint equilibrium requirements.

4 3 5 FAD 2500 lb C

forces at joint D.

5 6 5

6 - 14

• There are now only two unknown member

forces at joint B. Assume both are in tension.

Fy 0 1000 54 2500 54 FBE

FBE 3750 lb FBE 3750 lb C

FBC 5250 lb FBC 5250 lb T

E. Assume the member is in tension.

Fx 0 53 FEC 3000 53 3750

FEC 8750 lb FEC 8750 lb C

6 - 15

• All member forces and support reactions are

known at joint C. However, the joint equilibrium

requirements may be applied to check the results.

Fy 7000 54 8750 0 checks

6 - 16

SEATWORK:

Determine the forces in each member of

the truss using the METHOD OF JOINTS

2 - 17

SEATWORK:

Determine the forces in each member of

the truss using the METHOD OF JOINTS

2 - 18

METHOD OF SECTION

To determine the Internal Force of specific member of the truss

the Method of Section is more convenient to use

2 - 20

Analysis of Trusses by the Method

of Sections • When the force in only one member or the

forces in a very few members are desired, the

method of sections works well.

section through the truss as shown and create

a free body diagram for the left side.

the equations for static equilibrium may be

applied to determine the unknown member

forces, including FBD.

6 - 21

Example SOLUTION:

• Take the entire truss as a free body.

Apply the conditions for static equilib-

rium to solve for the reactions at A and L.

• Pass a section through members FH,

GH, and GI and take the right-hand

section as a free body.

• Apply the conditions for static

equilibrium to determine the desired

member forces.

Determine the force in members FH,

GH, and GI.

6 - 22

SOLUTION:

• Take the entire truss as a free body.

Apply the conditions for static equilib-

rium to solve for the reactions at A and L.

20 m 1 kN 25 m 1 kN 30 m L

L 7.5 kN

F y 0 20 kN L A

A 12.5 kN

6 - 23

• Pass a section through members FH, GH, and GI

and take the right-hand section as a free body.

determine the desired member forces.

MH 0

7.50 kN 10 m 1 kN 5 m FGI 5.33 m 0

FGI 13.13 kN

FGI 13.13 kN T

6 - 24

FG 8 m

tan 0.5333 28.07

GL 15 m

MG 0

7.5 kN 15 m 1 kN 10 m 1 kN 5 m

FFH cos 8 m 0

FFH 13.82 kN

FFH 13.82 kN C

GI 5m

tan 2 0.9375 43.15

HI

3

8 m

ML 0

1 kN 10 m 1 kN 5 m FGH cos 10 m 0

FGH 1.371 kN

FGH 1.371 kN C

6 - 25

2 - 26

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