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You are on page 1of 114

CHAPTER 7:

Rotational of rigid body

(8 Hours)

1

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Learning Outcome:

8.1 Rotational Kinematics (2 hour)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define and use:

average angular velocity (av)

instantaneous angular velocity ()

average angular acceleration (av)

instantaneous angular acceleration ().

Relate parameters in rotational motion with their

corresponding quantities in linear motion. Write and use,

2

v

s r , v r , at r , ac r 2

r 2

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Learning Outcome:

acceleration,

o t

1 2

ot t and

2

2 o 2 2

3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

1) Angular displacement,

is defined as an angle through which a point or line has

been rotated in a specified direction about a specified axis.

The S.I. unit of the angular displacement is radian (rad).

Figure 8.1 shows a point P on a rotating compact disc (CD)

moves through an arc length s on a circular path of radius r

about a fixed axis through point O.

Figure 8.1

4

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

From Figure 8.1, thus

s

θ OR s rθ

r

where θ : angle (angular displacement) in radian

s : arc length

r : radius of the circle

Others unit for angular displacement is degree () and

revolution (rev).

Conversion factor :

Sign convention of angular displacement :

Positive – if the rotational motion is anticlockwise.

5

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

2) Angular velocity

Average angular velocity, av

is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement.

Equation :

θ2 θ1 θ

ωav

t 2 t1 t

whereθ2 : final angular displaceme nt in radian

θ1 : initial angular displaceme nt in radian

t : time interval

Instantaneous angular velocity,

is defined as the instantaneous rate of change of angular

displacement.

Equation :

θ dθ

limit

t 0 t dt

6

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

It is a vector quantity.

The unit of angular velocity is radian per second (rad s-1)

Others unit is revolution per minute (rev min1 or rpm)

Conversion factor:

2 1

1 rpm rad s rad s 1

60 30

Note :

Every part of a rotating rigid body has the same angular

velocity.

Direction of the angular velocity

Its direction can be determine by using right hand grip rule

where

Thumb : direction of angular velocity

Curl fingers : direction of rotation

7

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Figures 8.2 and 8.3 show the right hand grip rule for determining

the direction of the angular velocity.

Figure 8.2

Figure 8.3

8

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.1 :

The angular displacement, of the wheel is given by

θ 5t 2 t

where in radians and t in seconds. The diameter of the wheel is

0.56 m. Determine

a. the angle, in degree, at time 2.2 s and 4.8 s,

b. the distance that a particle on the rim moves during that time

interval,

c. the average angular velocity, in rad s1 and in rev min1 (rpm),

between 2.2 s and 4.8 s,

d. the instantaneous angular velocity at time 3.0 s.

9

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

d 0.56

Solution : r 0.28 m

2 2

a. At time, t1 =2.2 s :

θ1 52.2 2.2

2

θ1 22 rad

180

θ1 22 rad 1261

π rad

At time, t2 =4.8 s :

θ2 54.8 4.8

2

θ2 110 rad

180

θ2 110 rad 6303

π rad

10

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

d 0.56

Solution : r 0.28 m

2 2

b. By applying the equation of arc length,

s rθ

Therefore s r r 2 1

s 0.28110 22

s 24.6 m

c. The average angular velocity in rad s1 is given by

θ 2 1

ωav

t t2 t1

ωav

110 22

4.8 2.2

ωav 33.9 rad s 1

11

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

c. and the average angular velocity in rev min1 is

33.9 rad 1 rev 60 s

ωav

1 s 2 rad 1 min

ωav 324 rev min 1 OR 324 rpm

d. The instantaneous angular velocity as a function of time is

dθ

ω

dt

ω

dt

d 2

5t t

ω 10t 1

ω 103.0 1

At time, t =3.0 s :

ω 29 rad s 1

12

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

3) Angular acceleration

Average angular acceleration, av

is defined as the rate of change of angular velocity.

Equation :

ω2 ω1 ω

av

t 2 t1 t

where ω2 : final angular ve locity

ω1 : initial angular ve locity

t : time interval

Instantaneous angular acceleration,

is defined as the instantaneous rate of change of angular

velocity.

Equation :

ω dω

α limit

t 0 t dt

13

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

It is a vector quantity.

The unit of angular acceleration is rad s2.

Note:

If the angular acceleration, is positive, then the angular

velocity, is increasing.

If the angular acceleration, is negative, then the angular

velocity, is decreasing.

Direction of the angular acceleration

If the rotation is speeding up, and in the same direction

as shown in Figure 8.4.

α

Figure 8.4

14

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

If the rotation is slowing down, and have the opposite

direction as shown in Figure 8.5.

α

Figure 8.5

Example 8.3 :

The instantaneous angular velocity, of the flywheel is given

by

ω 8t t

3 2

Determine

a. the average angular acceleration between 2.2 s and 4.8 s,

b. the instantaneous angular acceleration at time, 3.0 s.

15

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

a. At time, t1 =2.2 s :

ω1 82.2 2.2

3 2

ω1 80.3 rad s 1

At time, t2 =4.8 s :

ω2 84.8 4.8

3 2

ω2 862 rad s 1

Therefore the average angular acceleration is

ω2 ω1

αav

t 2 t1

862 80.3

αav

4.8 2.2

αav 301 rad s 2

16

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

b. The instantaneous angular acceleration as a function of time is

dω

α

dt

α

dt

d 3 2

8t t

α 24t 2 2t

At time, t =3.0 s :

α 243.0 23.0

2

α 210 rad s 2

17

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Exercise 8.1A :

1. If a disc 30 cm in diameter rolls 65 m along a straight line

without slipping, calculate

a. the number of revolutions would it makes in the process,

b. the angular displacement would be through by a speck of

gum on its rim.

ANS. : 69 rev; 138 rad

2. During a certain period of time, the angular displacement of a

swinging door is described by

θ 5.00 10.0t 2.00t 2

where is in radians and t is in seconds. Determine the angular

displacement, angular speed and angular acceleration

a. at time, t =0,

b. at time, t =3.00 s.

ANS. : 5.00 rad, 10.0 rad s1, 4.00 rad s2; 53.0 rad, 22.0 rad s1,

4.00 rad s2 18

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.1.2 Relationship between linear and

rotational motion

Relationship between linear velocity, v and

angular velocity,

When a rigid body is rotates about rotation axis O , every

particle in the body moves in a circle as shown in the Figure 8.6.

y

v

P

r s

x

O

Figure 8.6

19

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Point P moves in a circle of radius r with the tangential velocity

v where its magnitude is given by

ds

v and s rθ

dt

d

vr

dt

v r

The direction of the linear (tangential) velocity always

tangent to the circular path.

Every particle on the rigid body has the same angular speed

(magnitude of angular velocity) but the tangential speed is not

the same because the radius of the circle, r is changing

depend on the position of the particle.

20

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Relationship between tangential acceleration, at and

angular acceleration,

If the rigid body is gaining the angular speed then the

tangential velocity of a particle also increasing thus two

component of acceleration are occurred as shown in

Figure 8.7.

y

at

P

a

ac

O

x

Figure 8.7

21

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

The components are tangential acceleration, at and

centripetal acceleration, ac given by

dv

at and v rω

dt

d

at r at r

dt

but v2

ac r v2

r

The vector sum of centripetal and tangential acceleration of

a particle in a rotating body is resultant (linear) acceleration, a

given by

a at ac Vector form

a at ac

and its magnitude, 2 2

22

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.1.3 Rotational motion with uniform

angular acceleration

Table 8.1 shows the symbols used in linear and rotational

kinematics.

Linear Rotational

Quantity Quantity

motion motion

s Displacement θ Angular displacement

(initial)

v Final velocity ω Angular velocity (final)

a Acceleration α Angular acceleration

t Time t time

Table 8.1

23

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Table 8.2 shows the comparison of linear and rotational motion

with constant acceleration.

a constant α constant

v u at ω ω0 αt

1 2 1 2

s ut at θ ω0 t αt

2 2

v 2 u 2 2as ω 2

ω0

2

2αθ

s v u t

1

θ ω ω0 t

1

2 2

where in radian. Table 8.2

24

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.3 :

A car is travelling with a velocity of 17.0 m s1 on a straight

horizontal highway. The wheels of the car has a radius of 48.0 cm.

If the car then speeds up with an acceleration of 2.00 m s2 for

5.00 s, calculate

a. the number of revolutions of the wheels during this period,

b. the angular speed of the wheels after 5.00 s.

Solution : u 17.0 m s 1 , r 0.48 m, a 2.00 m s 2 , t 5.00 s

a. The initial angular velocity is

u rω0

1

17.0 0.48ω0 ω0 35.4 rad s

and the angular acceleration of the wheels is given by

a rα

2.00 0.48α α 4.17 rad s 2

25

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : u 17.0 m s 1 , r 0.48 m, a 2.00 m s 2 , t 5.00 s

a. By applying the equation of rotational motion with constant

angular acceleration, thus

1 2

θ ω0 t αt

2

θ 35.4 5.00 4.17 5.00

1 2

2

θ 229 rad

therefore 1 rev

θ 229 rad 36.5 rev

2π rad

b. The angular speed of the wheels after 5.00 s is

ω ω0 αt

ω 35.4 4.17 5.00

ω 56.3 rad s 1

26

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.5 :

The wheels of a bicycle make 30 revolutions as the bicycle

reduces its speed uniformly from 50.0 km h-1 to 35.0 km h-1. The

wheels have a diameter of 70 cm.

a. Calculate the angular acceleration.

b. If the bicycle continues to decelerate at this rate, determine the

time taken for the bicycle to stop.

0.70

Solution : θ 30 2π 60π rad, r 0.35 m,

2

50.0 km 10 3 m 1 h

u 13.9 m s 1

,

1 h 1 km 3600 s

35.0 km 10 3 m 1 h

v 9.72 m s 1

1 h 1 km 3600 s

27

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

a. The initial angular speed of the wheels is

u rω0

13.9 0.35ω0 ω0 39.7 rad s 1

and the final angular speed of the wheels is

v rω

9.72 0.35ω ω 27.8 rad s 1

therefore

ω2 ω02 2αθ

27.8 39.7 2α60π

2 2

α 2.13 rad s 2

1

b. The car stops thus ω 0 and ω 0 27.8 rad s

Hence ω ω0 αt

0 27.8 2.13t

t 13.1 s

28

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.5 :

A blade of a ceiling fan has a radius of 0.400 m is rotating about a

fixed axis with an initial angular velocity of 0.150 rev s-1. The

angular acceleration of the blade is 0.750 rev s-2. Determine

a. the angular velocity after 4.00 s,

b. the number of revolutions for the blade turns in this time interval,

c. the tangential speed of a point on the tip of the blade at time,

t =4.00 s,

d. the magnitude of the resultant acceleration of a point on the tip

of the blade at t =4.00 s.

Solution : r 0.400 m, ω0 0.150 2π 0.300π rad s 1 ,

α 0.750 2π 1.50π rad s 2

a. Given t =4.00 s, thus

ω ω0 αt

1

ω 19.8 rad s

29

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

b. The number of revolutions of the blade is

1 2

θ ω0 t αt

2

θ 0.300 4.00 1.504.00

1 2

2

θ 41.5 rad

1 rev

θ 41.5 rad 6.61 rev

2π rad

c. The tangential speed of a point is given by

v rω

v 0.400 19.8

v 7.92 m s 1

30

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

d. The magnitude of the resultant acceleration is

a ac at

2 2

2

v 2

a rα 2

r

7.92

2

2

a 0.400 1.50π 2

0.400

a 157 m s 2

31

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.6 :

A coin with a diameter of 2.40 cm is dropped on edge on a

horizontal surface. The coin starts out with an initial angular speed

of 18 rad s1 and rolls in a straight line without slipping. If the

rotation slows down with an angular acceleration of magnitude

1.90 rad s2, calculate the distance travelled by the coin before

coming to rest.

Solution : ω 18 rad s 1

0 ω 0 rad s 1

s

The radius of the coin is

d

r 1.20 10 2 m

2

32

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

The initial speed of the point at the edge the coin is

u rω0

u 1.20 10 2 18

u 0.216 m s 1

1

and the final speed is v 0 m s

The linear acceleration of the point at the edge the coin is given by

a rα

a 1.20 10 2 1.90

a 2.28 10 2 m s 2

Therefore the distance travelled by the coin is

v u 2as

2 2

0 0.216 2 2.28 10 2 s

2

s 1.02 m

33

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Exercise 8.1B :

1. A disk 8.00 cm in radius rotates at a constant rate of 1200 rev

min-1 about its central axis. Determine

a. its angular speed,

b. the tangential speed at a point 3.00 cm from its centre,

c. the radial acceleration of a point on the rim,

d. the total distance a point on the rim moves in 2.00 s.

ANS. : 126 rad s1; 3.77 m s1; 1.26 103 m s2; 20.1 m

Calculate

a. its angular velocity in rad s1,

b. the linear speed and the radial acceleration of a point on the

edge of the grinding wheel.

ANS. : 262 rad s1; 46 m s1, 1.2 104 m s2

34

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

revolution. Its angular speed at the end of the 3.00 s interval is

98.0 rad s-1. Calculate the constant angular acceleration of the

wheel.

ANS. : 13.6 rad s2

3.50 rad s2.

a. If the angular speed of the wheel is 2.00 rad s1 at t =0,

through what angular displacement does the wheel rotate in

2.00 s.

b. Through how many revolutions has the wheel turned during

this time interval?

c. What is the angular speed of the wheel at t = 2.00 s?

ANS. : 11.0 rad; 1.75 rev; 9.00 rad s1

35

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

velocity of the wheel is 4.00 rad s-1 at time t = 0 , and its angular

acceleration is constant and equal 1.20 rad s-2. A spoke OP on

the wheel coincides with the +x-axis at time t = 0 as shown in

Figure 8.8. y

P x

O

Figure 8.8

a. What is the wheel’s angular velocity at t = 3.00 s?

b. What angle in degree does the spoke OP make with the

positive x-axis at this time?

ANS. : 0.40 rad s1; 18

36

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Learning Outcome:

8.2 Equilibrium of a uniform rigid body (2 hours)

Define and use torque, τ

State and use conditions for equilibrium of rigid body,

F 0 and 0

37

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.2.1 Torque (moment of a force),

The magnitude of the torque is defined as the product of a

force and its perpendicular distance from the line of action

of the force to the point (rotation axis).

τ Fd

OR

F : magnitude of the force

d : perpendicular distance (moment arm)

Because of d r sin

where r : distance between the pivot point (rotation

axis) and the point of application of force.

Thus

rF sin OR r F

where : angle between F and r

38

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

It is a vector quantity.

The dimension of torque is

F d ML T

2 2

unlike the joule (unit of work), also equal to a newton metre,

which is scalar product.

Torque is occurred because of turning (twisting) effects of the

forces on a body.

Sign convention of torque:

Positive - turning tendency of the force is anticlockwise.

magnitude of applied force.

39

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Case 1 :

Consider a force is applied to a metre rule which is pivoted at

one end as shown in Figures 8.12a and 8.12b.

F τ Fd

(anticlockwise)

d

Figure 8.12a

Line of action of a force

Pivot point

(rotation axis) Point of action of a force

d r sin θ F

θ

τ Fd Fr sin θ

r (anticlockwise)

Figure 8.12b 40

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Case 2 :

Consider three forces are applied to the metre rule which is

pivoted at one end (point O) as shown in Figures 8.13.

F3 d1 r1 sin θ1 τ 2 F2 d 2 F2 r2 sin θ2

F1 τ 3 F3 d 3 F3 r3 sin θ3 0

r2 θ1 Therefore the resultant (nett)

torque is

τ

O

θ2 r1 τ1 τ 2 τ 3

d 2 r2 sin θ2 O

τ

F2 Figure 8.13

O F1d1 F2 d 2

Caution :

If the line of action of a force is through the rotation axis

then

τ Fr sin θ andθ 0

τ 0 41

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.2.2 Equilibrium of a rigid body

Rigid body is defined as a body with definite shape that

doesn’t change, so that the particles that compose it stay in

fixed position relative to one another even though a force is

exerted on it.

If the rigid body is in equilibrium, means the body is

translational and rotational equilibrium.

There are two conditions for the equilibrium of forces acting on

a rigid body.

The vector sum of all forces acting on a rigid body must

be zero.

F F nett 0

OR

F x 0, Fy 0, F z 0

42

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

The vector sum of all external torques acting on a rigid

body must be zero about any rotation axis.

τ nett 0

This ensures rotational equilibrium.

This is equivalent to the three independent scalar

equations along the direction of the coordinate axes,

τ any axis 0

Centre of gravity, CG

is defined as the point at which the whole weight of a body

may be considered to act.

A force that exerts on the centre of gravity of an object will

cause a translational motion.

43

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Figures 8.14 and 8.15 show the centre of gravity for uniform

(symmetric) object i.e. rod and sphere

rod – refer to the midway point between its end.

l

CG

l l

2 2

Figure 8.14

CG

Figure 8.15

44

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Problem solving strategies for equilibrium of a rigid body

problems involving the equilibrium of a rigid body:

Sketch a simple diagram of the system to help

conceptualize the problem.

Sketch a separate free body diagram for each body.

construct a table to resolve the forces into their

components and to determine the torque by each force.

Apply the condition for equilibrium of a rigid body :

F x 0; F

y 0 and τ any axis 0

Solve the equations for the unknowns.

45

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.7 :

A 35 O 75 B

cm cm

W1

W2

Figure 8.9

A hanging flower basket having weight, W2 =23 N is hung out over

the edge of a balcony railing on a uniform horizontal beam AB of

length 110 cm that rests on the balcony railing. The basket is

counterbalanced by a body of weight, W1 as shown in Figure 8.9.

If the mass of the beam is 3.0 kg, calculate

a. the weight, W1 needed,

b. the force exerted on the beam at point O.

(Given g =9.81 m s2) 46

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m 3 kg; W2 23 N N

The free body diagram of the beam :

0.20 m

A 0.35 m 0.75 m B

CG

O

W2 0.55 m 0.55 m

W1

Let point O as the rotation axis.

mg

W1 W1 W1 0.75 0.75W1

W2 23 230.35 8.05

mg

39.81 29.4 0.20 5.88

29.4

N N 0

47

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

Since the beam remains at rest thus the system in equilibrium.

a. Hence

τ O 0

0.75W1 8.05 5.88 0

W1 2.89 N

b. and F y 0

W1 23 29.4 N 0

2.89 23 29.4 N 0

N 55.3 N

48

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.9 :

A uniform ladder AB of length 10 m and

mass 5.0 kg leans against a smooth wall

as shown in Figure 8.10. The height of the A

end A of the ladder is 8.0 m from the

rough floor.

a. Determine the horizontal and vertical

forces the floor exerts on the end B of

the ladder when a firefighter of mass

60 kg is 3.0 m from B.

b. If the ladder is just on the verge of

slipping when the firefighter is 7.0 m smooth

wall B

up the ladder , Calculate the coefficient

of static friction between ladder and rough floor

floor. Figure 8.10

(Given g =9.81 m s2)

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : ml 5.0 kg; m f 60 kg

a. The free body diagram of the ladder :

Let point B as the rotation axis.

A N1

x-comp. y-comp. Torque (N m), 8

Force

(N) (N) B=Fd=Frsin α sin α 0.8

β 10

ml g

0 49.1 49.15.0sin β 6

sin β 0.6

147 10

mf g

0 589

589 3.0sin β 8.0 m CG 10 m

1060

N 1 10 sin α ml g β 3.0

N1 N1 0 m

8 N 1 N2

mf g β

N2 0 N2 0 5.0 m α

B

fs fs 0 0 fs

6.0 m

50

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

Since the ladder in equilibrium thus

τ B

0

147 1060 8 N 1 0

N 1 151 N

F x

0

N1 f s 0

Horizontal force: f s 151 N

F y

0

49.1 589 N 2 0

N

Vertical force:

2 638 N

51

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : sin α 0.8; sin β 0.6

b. The free body diagram of the ladder :

Let point B as the rotation axis. A N1

x-comp. y-comp. Torque (N m), α

Force

(N) (N) B=Fd=Frsin β

ml g

0 49.1 49.15.0sin β

147 mf g

β 10 m

mf g

0 589

589 7.0sin β 8.0 m

7.0 m

2474 ml g β

N1 N1 0 N 1 10 sin α

8 N 1 N2

5.0 m α

N2 0 N2 0 B

fs

fs μs N 2 0 0 6.0 m

52

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

Consider the ladder stills in equilibrium thus

τ B

0

147 2474 8 N 1 0

N 1 328 N

F y

0

49.1 589 N 2 0

N 2 638 N

F x 0

N 1 μs N 2 0

328 μs 638 0

μs 0.514

53

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.9 :

A floodlight of mass 20.0 kg in a park is

supported at the end of a 10.0 kg uniform

horizontal beam that is hinged to a pole as

shown in Figure 8.11. A cable at an angle

30 with the beam helps to support the light.

a. Sketch a free body diagram of the beam.

b. Determine

i. the tension in the cable,

ii. the force exerted on the beam by the

pole.

Figure 8.11

(Given g =9.81 m s2)

54

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m f 20.0 kg; mb 10.0 kg

a. The free body diagram of the

beam :

S T

30

O 0.5l CG

mb g

l

mf g

b. Let point O as the rotation axis.

Force x-comp. (N) y-comp. (N) Torque (N m), o=Fd=Frsin

mf g 0 196 196 l

mb g 0 98.1 98.10.5l 49.1l

T T cos 30

T sin 30

Tl sin 30 0.5Tl

S Sx Sy 0

55

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

b. The floodlight and beam remain at rest thus

i.

τ 0

O

196l 49.1l 0.5Tl 0

T 490 N

ii. F x

0

T cos 30 S x 0

S x 424 N

F y

0

196 98.1 T sin 30 S y 0

S y 49.1 N

56

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

b. ii. Therefore the magnitude of the force is

S Sx S y

2 2

S 424 2 49.12

S 427 N

and its direction is given by

1

Sy

θ tan

Sx

1 49.1

θ tan

424

θ 6.61 from the +x-axis anticlockwise

57

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Exercise 8.2 :

g = 9.81 m s2

Use gravitational acceleration,

1. F1

a B

A F2

D

C γ

Figure 8.12 F3

Figure 8.12 shows the forces, F1 =10 N, F2= 50 N and F3= 60

N are applied to a rectangle with side lengths, a = 4.0 cm and b

= 5.0 cm. The angle is 30. Calculate the resultant torque

about point D.

ANS. : -3.7 N m 58

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

2.

Figure 8.13

A see-saw consists of a uniform board of mass 10 kg and length

3.50 m supports a father and daughter with masses 60 kg and

45 kg, respectively as shown in Figure 8.13. The fulcrum is

under the centre of gravity of the board. Determine

a. the magnitude of the force exerted by the fulcrum on the

board,

b. where the father should sit from the fulcrum to balance the

system.

ANS. : 1128 N; 1.31 m 59

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

3.

Figure 8.14

A traffic light hangs from a structure as show in Figure 8.14. The

uniform aluminum pole AB is 7.5 m long has a mass of 8.0 kg.

The mass of the traffic light is 12.0 kg. Determine

a. the tension in the horizontal massless cable CD,

b. the vertical and horizontal components of the force exerted

by the pivot A on the aluminum pole.

60

ANS. : 248 N; 197 N, 248 N

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Exercise 5.2 :

4.

30.0 cm 50.0

15.0 cm

F

Figure 8.15

A uniform 10.0 N picture frame is supported by two light string

as shown in Figure 8.15. The horizontal force, F is applied for

holding the frame in the position shown.

a. Sketch the free body diagram of the picture frame.

b. Calculate

i. the tension in the ropes,

ii. the magnitude of the horizontal force, F .

ANS. : 1.42 N, 11.2 N; 7.20 N 61

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Learning Outcomes:

8.3 Rotational dynamics (1 hours)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define the moment of inertia of a rigid body about an

axis,

I mi ri 2

I

62

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.3.1 Moment of inertia, I

Figure 8.16 shows a rigid body about a fixed axis O with angular

velocity .

m1

mn r1

rn r2 m2

Or m3

3

Figure 8.16

is defined as the sum of the products of the mass of each

particle and the square of its respective distance from the

rotation axis.

63

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

n

OR I m1r12

m2 r22

m3 r32

...mn rn2

m r

i 1

i i

2

m : mass of particle

r : distance from the particle to the rotation axis

It is a scalar quantity.

Moment of inertia, I in the rotational kinematics is analogous

to the mass, m in linear kinematics.

The S.I. unit of moment of inertia is kg m2.

The factors which affect the moment of inertia, I of a rigid body:

a. the mass of the body,

b. the shape of the body,

c. the position of the rotation axis.

64

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Moments of inertia of various bodies

Table below shows the moments of inertia for a number of

objects about axes through the centre of mass.

Shape Diagram Equation

Hoop or ring or

thin cylindrical CM I CM MR 2

shell

1

Solid cylinder or

disk

CM I CM MR 2

2

65

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Shape Diagram Equation

Uniform rod or

long thin rod with

1

rotation axis CM

I CM ML2

through the 12

centre of mass.

Solid Sphere 2

CM I CM MR 2

5

66

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Shape Diagram Equation

Hollow Sphere or 2

thin spherical CM I CM MR 2

shell 3

67

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.10 :

Four spheres are arranged in a rectangular shape of sides 250 cm

and 120 cm as shown in Figure.

2 kg 3 kg

60 cm

A B

O

60 cm

5 kg 250 cm 4 kg

of inertia of the system about an axis

a. through point O,

b. along the line AB.

68

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m1 2 kg; m2 3 kg; m3 4 kg; m4 5 kg

a. rotation axis about point O,

m1 m2

r1 r2 0.6 m

1.25 m

O

r4 r3

m4 m3

2 2

1.39 m

and the connecting rods are light therefore

I O m1r12 m2 r22 m3r32 m4 r42

I O r m1 m2 m3 m4 1.39 2 3 4 5

2 2

I O 27.0 kg m 2

69

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m1 2 kg; m2 3 kg; m3 4 kg; m4 5 kg

b. rotation axis along the line AB,

m1 m2

r1 r2

A B

r4 r3

m4 m3

r1= r2= r3= r4= r=0.6 m therefore

I AB m1r12 m2 r22 m3r32 m4 r42

I AB r m1 m2 m3 m4

2

I AB 0.6 2 3 4 5

2

I AB 5.04 kg m 2

70

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.3.2 Torque,

Relationship between torque, and angular acceleration,

Consider a force, F acts on a rigid body freely pivoted on an

axis through point O as shown in Figure.

a1 m1

mn

r1 F

an rn

O

r2 a2

m2

is produced.

71

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

A particle of mass, m1 of distance r1 from the rotation axis O will

experience a nett force F1 . The nett force on this particle is

F1 m1a1 and a1 r1α

F1 m1r1α

The torque on the mass m1 is

1 r1F1 sin 90

1 m1r1

2

11

m r 2

m r

2 2

2

... m n n

r 2

n n

i 1

m r

i i

2

and i 1

mi i I

r 2

I 72

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

From the equation, the nett torque acting on the rigid body is

proportional to the body’s angular acceleration.

Note :

Nett torqu e , I

is analogous to the

Nett force, F ma

73

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.11 :

Forces, F1 = 5.60 N and F2 = 10.3 N are applied tangentially to a

disc with radius 30.0 cm and the mass 5.00 kg as shown in Figure.

F2

O

30.0 cm

F1

Calculate,

a. the nett torque on the disc.

b. the magnitude of angular acceleration

1 influence by the disc.

( Use the moment of inertia, I CM MR )

2

74

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 0.30 m; M 5.00 kg

a. The nett torque on the disc is

1 2

RF RF 1 R F1 F2

2

1.41 N m

b. By applying the relationship between torque and angular

acceleration,

1 2

I 2 MR

1 2

1.41 5.000.30

2

6.27 rad s 2

75

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.12 :

A wheel of radius 0.20 m is mounted on a frictionless horizontal

axis. The moment of inertia of the wheel about the axis is

0.050 kg m2. A light string wrapped around the wheel is attached

to a 2.0 kg block that slides on a horizontal frictionless surface. A

horizontal force of magnitude P = 3.0 N is applied to the block as

shown in Figure. Assume the string does not slip on the

wheel.

b. Calculate the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the

wheel.

76

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 0.20 m; I 0.050 kg m 2 ; P 3.0 N; m 2.0 kg

a. Free body diagram :

for wheel,

T

S

W

a

for block,

N

T P

Wb

77

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 0.20 m; I 0.050 kg m 2 ; P 3.0 N; m 2.0 kg

b. For wheel,

τ Iα Iα

RT Iα T (1)

For block, R

F ma P T ma (2)

By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2), thus

Iα

P ma and a Rα

R

Iα

P mRα

R

0.050α

3.0 2.00.20 α α 4.62 rad s 2

0.20

78

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.13 :

An object of mass 1.50 kg is suspended

from a rough pulley of radius 20.0 cm by light

string as shown in Figure. The pulley has a

moment of inertia 0.020 kg m2 about the axis

of the pulley. The object is released from rest

and the pulley rotates without encountering

frictional force. Assume that the string does R

not slip on the pulley. After 0.3 s, determine

a. the linear acceleration of the object,

b. the angular acceleration of the pulley,

1.50 kg

c. the tension in the string,

d. the liner velocity of the object,

e. the distance travelled by the object.

(Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

79

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution :

a. Free body diagram :

for pulley,

S

τ Iα a

RT Iα and α

a R

RT I R

T

W Ia

T 2 (1)

for block,

T R

F ma

a mg T ma (2)

mg

80

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 0.20 m; I 0.020 kg m 2 ; m 1.50 kg;

u 0; t 0.3 s

a. By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2), thus

Ia

mg 2 ma

R

0.020 a

1.50 9.81

2

1.50a a 7.36 m s 2

0.20

b. By using the relationship between a and , hence

a Rα

7.36 0.20α

α 36.8 rad s 2

81

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 0.20 m; I 0.020 kg m 2 ; m 1.50 kg;

u 0; t 0.3 s

c. From eq. (1), thus

Ia

T 2 T

0.020 7.36

R 0.20 2

T 3.68 N

d. By applying the equation of liner motion, thus

v u at

v 0 7.36 0.3 v 2.21 m s 1

(downwards)

e. The distance travelled by the object in 0.3 s is

1 2

s ut at

2

s 0 7.36 0.3

1

s 0.331 m

2

2

82

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Exercise 8.3 :

Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s2

1. Figure 7.16 shows four masses that are held at

the corners of a square by a very light 70 g

frame. Calculate the moment of inertia 40 cm

of the system about an axis perpendicular 80 cm

B

to the plane

a. through point A, and 150 g A 150 g

b. through point B. 80 cm

ANS. : 0.141 kg m2; 0.211 kg m2

70 g

83

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

frictionless horizontal table is

connected to a string that passes 2.00 m s 2

over a pulley and then is fastened

to a hanging 9.00 kg object as in T1

Figure 8.17. The pulley has a

radius of 0.250 m and moment of

inertia I. The block on the table is T2

moving with a constant

acceleration of 2.00 m s2.

a. Sketch free body diagrams of

both objects and pulley.

b. Calculate T1 and T2 the tensions Figure 8.17

in the string.

c. Determine I.

ANS. : 10.0 N, 70.3 N; 1.88 kg m2

84

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Learning Outcomes:

8.4 Work and energy of rotational motion(2 hours)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Solve problems related to:

1 2

Rotational kinetic energy, K r I

2

Work, W

Power, P

85

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.4 Work and energy of rotational motion.

8.4.1 Rotational kinetic energy, Kr

Consider a rigid body rotating about the axis OZ as shown in

Figure.

Z

v1 m1

mn r1

vn rn r2 v2

O m2

r3 v3

m3

86

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

The rigid body has a rotational kinetic energy which is the total

of kinetic energy of all the particles in the body is given by

1 1 1 1

K r m1v1 m2 v2 m3v3 ... mn vn2

2 2 2

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

K r m1r1 ω m2 r2 ω m3 r3 ω ... mn rn2 ω2

2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

1 2

K r ω m1r12 m2 r22 m3 r32 ... mn rn2

2

1 2 n n

2

2 i 1

2

i 1

K r ω mi ri and mi ri I

1 2

K r Iω

2

87

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

From the formula for translational kinetic energy, Ktr

1 2

K tr mv

2

After comparing both equations thus

is analogous to v

I is analogous to m

For rolling body without slipping, the total kinetic energy of

the body, K is given by

K K tr K r

where K tr : translati onal kinetic energy

K r : rotational kinetic energy

88

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.14 :

A solid sphere of radius 15.0 cm and mass 10.0 kg rolls down an

inclined plane make an angle 25 to the horizontal. If the sphere

rolls without slipping from rest to the distance of 75.0 cm and the

inclined surface is smooth, calculate

a. the total kinetic energy of the sphere,

b. the linear speed of the sphere,

c. the angular speed about the centre of mass.

2

(Given the moment of inertia of solid sphere is I CM mR 2and

the gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s2) 5

89

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 0.15 m; m 10.0 kg

s 0.75 m R

h s sin 25

v CM 25

a. From the principle of conservation of energy,

E E

i f

mgh K

K mgs sin 25

K 10.0 9.810.75sin 25

K 31.1 J

90

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 0.15 m; m 10.0 kg

b. The linear speed of the sphere is given by

K K tr K r 1 2 1 2 v

K mv Iω and ω

2 2 R

2

1 2 12 2 v

K mv mR

2 25 R

7

K mv 2

10

31.1 10.0 v 2

7

v 2.11 m s 1

10

c. By using the relationship between v and , thus

v Rω 2.11 0.15ω

ω 14.1 rad s 1

91

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.4.2 Work, W

Consider a tangential force, F acts on the solid disc of radius R

freely pivoted on an axis through O as shown in Figure 8.19.

ds

d

R

R F

O

Figure 8.19

The work done by the tangential force is given by

dW Fds and ds Rdθ

dW FRdθ

θ2 θ2

dW θ1

τdθ W θ1

τdθ

92

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

If the torque is constant thus

2

W d

1

W 2 1

W is analogous to the W Fs

where τ : torque

Δθ : change in angular displacement

W : work done

Work-rotational kinetic energy theorem states

W K r K r f K r i

1 2 1 2

W Iω Iω0

2 2

93

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.4.3 Power, P

From the definition of instantaneous power,

dW

P and dW τdθ

dt

τdθ and dθ

P ω

dt dt

P τω is analogous to the P Fv

Caution :

The unit of kinetic energy, work and power in the

rotational kinematics is same as their unit in translational

kinematics.

94

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.15 :

A horizontal merry-go-round has a radius of 2.40 m and a

moment of inertia 2100 kg m2 about a vertical axle through its

centre. A tangential force of magnitude 18.0 N is applied to the

edge of the merry-go- round for 15.0 s. If the merry-go-round is

initially at rest and ignore the frictional torque, determine

a. the rotational kinetic energy of the merry-go-round,

b. the work done by the force on the merry-go-round,

c. the average power supplied by the force.

(Given g = 9.81 m s2)

Solution :

R 2.40 m F

95

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 2.40 m; I 2100 kg m 2 ; F 18.0 N;

t 15.0 s; ω0 0

a. By applying the relationship between nett torque and angular

acceleration, thus

τ Iα

RF Iα 2.4018.0 2100 α

α 2.06 10 2 rad s 2

Use the equation of rotational motion with uniform angular

acceleration, ω ω0 αt

ω 0 2.06 10 15.0

2

ω 0.309 rad s 1

Therefore the rotational kinetic energy for 15.0 s is

1 2

K r 2100 0.309

1

K r Iω 2

2 2

K r 100 J

96

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 2.40 m; I 2100 kg m 2 ; F 18.0 N;

t 15.0 s; ω0 0

b. The angular displacement, for 15.0 s is given by

1 2

θ ω0t αt

2

1

2

θ 0 2.06 10 2 15.0

2

θ 2.32 rad

By applying the formulae of work done in rotational motion, thus

W τθ W RFθ

W 2.40 18.0 2.32

W 100 J

c. The average power supplied by the force is

W 100

Pav Pav

t 15.0

Pav 6.67 W

97

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Learning Outcome:

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define and use the formulae of angular momentum,

L Iω

State and use the principle of conservation of angular

momentum

98

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.5 Conservation of angular

momentum

8.5.1 Angular momentum, L

is defined as the product of the angular velocity of a body

and its moment of inertia about the rotation axis.

L I

OR

is analogous to the p mv

I : moment of inertia of a body

ω : angular velocity of a body

It is a vector quantity.

Its dimension is M L2 T1

The S.I. unit of the angular momentum is kg m2 s1.

99

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

The relationship between angular momentum, L with linear

momentum, p is given by

vector notation : L r p r mv

magnitude form :

where

r : distance from the particle

to the rotation axis

θ : the angle between r with v

Newton’s second law of motion in term

of linear momentum is

dp

F Fnett

dt

hence we can write the Newton’s second

law in angular form as

dL

τ τ nett

dt

and states that a vector sum of all the torques acting on a

rigid body is proportional to the rate of change of angular

momentum. 100

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

8.5.2 Principle of conservation of angular momentum

states that a total angular momentum of a system about an

rotation axis is constant if no external torque acts on the

system.

OR

I constant If the

τ 0

Therefore

dL

τ

dt

0

dL 0 and dL L f - Li

Li L f

101

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.16 :

A 200 kg wooden disc of radius 3.00 m is rotating with angular

speed 4.0 rad s-1 about the rotation axis as shown in Figure. A

50 kg bag of sand falls onto the disc at the edge of the wooden

disc.

ω0

R R

Before After

Calculate,

a. the angular speed of the system after the bag of sand falling

onto the disc. (treat the bag of sand as a particle)

b. the initial and final rotational kinetic energy of the system.

Why the rotational kinetic energy is not the same?

1

(Use the moment of inertia of disc is MR2 )

2 102

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 3.00 m; ω0 4.0 rad s 1 ; mw 200 kg; mb 50 kg

a. The moment of inertia of the disc,

I w mw R 200 3.00

1 2 1 2

2 2

I w 900 kg m 2

The moment of inertia of the bag of sand,

I b mb R 2 50 3.00

2

I b 450 kg m 2

By applying the principle ofconservation of angular momentum,

L L

i f

I wω0 I w I b ω

900 4.0 900 450 ω

ω 2.67 rad s 1

103

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : R 3.00 m; ω0 4.0 rad s 1 ; mw 200 kg; mb 50 kg

b. The initial rotational kinetic energy,

K r i I wω0 900 4.0

1 2 1 2

2 2

K r i 7200 J

The final rotational kinetic energy,

1 2 1 2

2 2

K r f 4812 J

thus K r i K r f

It is because the energy is lost in the form of heat from the

friction between the surface of the disc with the bag of

sand.

104

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.17 :

A student on a stool rotates freely with an angular speed of 2.95 rev

s1. The student holds a 1.25 kg mass in each outstretched arm that

is 0.759 m from the rotation axis. The moment of inertia for the

system of student-stool without the masses is 5.43 kg m2. When the

student pulls his arms inward, the angular speed increases to 3.54

rev s1.

a. Determine the new distance of each mass from the rotation axis.

b. Calculate the initial and the final rotational kinetic energy of the

system.

2.95 rev 2 rad 1

Solution : 0 18.5 rad s

1s 1 rev

3.54 rev 2 rad 1

22.2 rad s

1 s 1 rev

105

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m 1.25 kg; ω0 18.5 rad s 1; I ss 5.43 kg m 2 ;

rb 0.759 m; ω 22.2 rad s 1;

0

rb rb

m m

ra ra

Before After

106

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m 1.25 kg; ω0 18.5 rad s 1; I ss 5.43 kg m 2 ;

rb 0.759 m; ω 22.2 rad s 1;

a. The moment of inertia of the system initially is

I i I ss I m I i I ss mrb mrb

2 2

I ss 2mrb

2

2

I f I ss 2mra

2

5.43 21.25 2

ra

I f 5.43 2.5ra

2

thus

Li L f

I i ω0 I f ω

6.87 18.5 5.43 2.5ra 2 22.2

ra 0.344 m 107

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m 1.25 kg; ω0 18.5 rad s 1; I ss 5.43 kg m 2 ;

rb 0.759 m; ω 22.2 rad s 1;

b. The initial rotational kinetic energy is given by

K r i 1

I i ω0

2

2

6.87 18.5

1 2

2

K r i 1.18 103 J

and the final rotational kinetic energy is

K r f 1

I f ω2

2

1

2

5.43 2.50.344 22.2

2

2

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Example 8.18 :

The pulley in the Figure has a radius of

0.120 m and a moment of inertia 0.055

g cm2. The rope does not slip on the

pulley rim.

Calculate the speed of the 5.00 kg

block just before it strikes the floor.

(Given g = 9.81 m s2) 5.00 kg

7.00 m

2.00 kg

109

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m1 5.00 kg; m2 2.00 kg; R 0.120 m; h 7.00 m

The moment of inertia of the pulley,

m

3 4 2

I 0.055 g 1 cm

10 kg 10

2

5.5 10 9

kg m 2

1 cm2

1 g

m1 m2 v

7.00 m 7.00 m

m2 v m1

Initial Final

E i U1 E f Ktr1 Ktr 2 K r U 2

110

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Solution : m1 5.00 kg; m2 2.00 kg; R 0.120 m;

h 7.00 m; I 5.5 10 9 kg m 2

By using the principle of conservation of energy, thus

E Ei f

U 1 K tr1 K tr 2 K r U 2

1 1 1 2

m1 gh m1v m2v Iω m2 gh

2 2

2 2 2 2

1 v

m1 m2 gh v m1 m2 I

1 2

2 2 R

2

v

5.00 2.00 9.817.00 v 5.00 2.00 5.5 10 9

1 2 1

2 2 0.120

v 7.67 m s 1

111

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Exercise 8.5:

Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s2

1. A woman of mass 60 kg stands at the rim of a horizontal

turntable having a moment of inertia of 500 kg m2 and a radius

of 2.00 m. The turntable is initially at rest and is free to rotate

about the frictionless vertical axle through its centre. The

woman then starts walking around the rim clockwise (as viewed

from above the system) at a constant speed of 1.50 m s1

relative to the Earth.

a. In the what direction and with what value of angular speed

does the turntable rotate?

b. How much work does the woman do to set herself and the

turntable into motion?

ANS. : 0.360 rad s1 ,U think; 99.9 J

112

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

a. about its rotation axis (assume the Earth is a uniform solid

sphere), and

b. about its orbit around the Sun (treat the Earth as a particle

orbiting the Sun).

Given the Earth’s mass = 6.0 x 1024 kg, radius = 6.4 x 106 m

and is 1.5 x 108 km from the Sun.

ANS. : 7.1 x 1033 kg m2 s1; 2.7 x 1040 kg m2 s1

3. Calculate the magnitude of the angular momentum of the

second hand on a clock about an axis through the centre of the

clock face. The clock hand has a length of 15.0 cm and a mass

of 6.00 g. Take the second hand to be a thin rod rotating with

angular velocity about one end. (Given the moment of inertia of

thin rod about the axis through the CM is 1 ML2 )

ANS. : 4.71 x 106 kg m2 s1 12

113

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8

Summary:

Linear Motion Relationship Rotational Motion

d

v

ds

v r

dt dt

dv d

a a r

dt dt

n

m I mi ri 2 I

i 1

F ma rF sin I

p mv L rp sin L I

W Fs W

P Fv P

114

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