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CDMA Network Plan

Network Plan&Simulation Department


CDMA Division, ZTE
Reasons of Network Planning
Complexity of the practical network
Coverage varies with the following
parameters:
 System Loading;
 Data Rate
 Velocities of mobile users
Boundary of soft handoff is variable
The Aim of Network Planning
Enlarge the coverage
Minimize interference to obtain larger
capacity
Optimize system parameters for better QOS
Optimize BS network structure according to the
variety traffic load
General Procedure of Network Design
Site Survey RF Device

Traffic Load RF Interference Link


Prediction Analysis Budget

Determine Cell site, Propagation model, Antenna


system

Model correction PN Planning

System Simulation

Y Meet requirements of the N


Output reports operator?
Network Planning Steps
Requirements analysis :Collect the needed information for the network planning
 The information of the service areas
-------Physical environment
-------Wireless interference environment
-------Traffic load distribution
 The information of BS system
Field measurement :
 With client’s authorization, scan the service areas to affirm the working frequency band is
clean.
 Provide practical information on radio propagation to correct relative model.
Cell site planning

 Link budget and capacity analysis


 Make out the topology structure of the network
 Survey the sites and determine the antenna system
and feeder cable
Simulate to verify and adjust the planning scheme
PN planning
Output the planning result
Collect information
User’s requirements to the network:
coverage and capacity requirements.
Local propagation environment
Traffic distribution in service areas
Feasible prediction to short-term and
long-term traffic demand in service areas
Running status and development plan of

existing network
Coverage requirements 1(medium city)
Coverage requirements 2(large city)

E E
E B CD
E
F F
B G G CD B
B ECD F B
B A GF F
B G
CD F G
CD
CD I
A
A
G G
I
G
A CD I
K
Coverage requirements 3 (dense area)

Red line is the

coverage boundary,

green one point out

the important areas .


Capacity analysis(1): Quantity of existing fixed telephones and traffic
load

 The telephone
symbol means the
location and
quantity of fixed
telephone
 Bigger telephone
symbol represent
larger quantity
Capacity analysis(2): according to traffic of existing mobiles

The denser the point, the larger the traffic


Field Measurements
 With client’s authorization,
scan the service areas to
affirm the working
frequency band is clean

 Provide practical
information on radio
propagation to correct
relative model.
Field Measurements -wideband interference
The influence of wideband interference
Field Measurements -narrowband interference
Site Planning
Based on radio
propagation ,link
136
14 14 budget and capacity
40
28

4 0

32 44
analysis ,we can
196
124

148
36 48

13 12
20 20 15 15
100
88

8 0 2
work out the ideal
2 4 6

96 92
10 10
16

52
4
4

20 56 topology structure
208
220

8
24 12 60

22 21
of network.
21
184

112

160

22
4 2
8 6

18 11 16
19 12 16
64
76

2 8 0 6 8 4

80 68
172

84 72

18 17
0 6
Site Planning --Link Budget Model
Cable Antenna Antenna Cable
Mobile Path loss Margin BTS
loss gain gain loss

downlink

uplink
Link budget
– Determine maximum
path loss allowed building

– Determine maximum
cell radius
Downlink and uplink Margin:slow fade + penetration
loss+...
– Keep balance
Site Planning CDMA2000 1X Capacity
in Cellular

mVa ni 1
 
W i
W 1 f
RV R D_i
1 1
Eb Eb
( ) V_req ( ) D_req_i
Nt Nt
Site Planning -Ideal Topology Network

-Blue represent 1 pilot


received
-Green represent 1 pilot
received
-Yellow represent 3
pilot received
-Red represent 4 or
above pilot received
-White represent areas
can’t be covered
Site Planning -Unsuitable Topology
Structure
-Blue represent 1 pilot
received
-Green represent 1 pilot
received
-Yellow represent 3 pilot
received
-Red represent 4 or above
pilot received
-White represent areas
can’t be covered
Site Planning -Pilot Population Simulation of Practical
Urban Network
In general ,The Pilot
Population is caused by
irregular cell sites, the
reflection and obstruction
from hills or high buildings .
Site Planning-Design the Topology Structure of
Network
Site Planning - Site Density
Calculating needed BTS number based
on coverage and capacity.
Determining the BTS number of special
area according to capacity analysis
At initial stage, coverage first
0.4% 话务量(E)
1.9%
2.3%
2.6% 金昌路分局 1,572.83
7.0% 武都路分局 848.53
31.2% 东 岗分局 488.61
7.1% 大沙坪分局 197.11
西 站分局 853.70
福利路分局 359.2
费家营分局 355.02
16.9% 红 古分局 129.74
永 登分局 114.02
16.8% 榆 中分局 96.15
3.9%
9.7% 皋 兰分局 22.07
Site Planning-Topology Structure of Large City
Network
Site Planning- Large City Traffic Analysis

Traffic Simulation

Practical Traffic Density


Site Planning -Perform Analysis(Large City
Network)
仿真话务分布图与实际话
务分布图对比
Select the site type

Macro BTS
Micro BTS(10W、20W、40W)
Remote RF(10W、20W、40W)
Repeater
Survey the Planning Cell Sites

Longitude and latitude,antenna


height、antenna type 、cable loss、
transmitter power, Frequency clean
The digital photos of site environment
Interference, isolation, transition and power supply conditions
Site Choice(1)
Try to choose specified ideal position in regular cellular mesh,
the deviation should not be larger than 1/4 of the cell radius for
convenient cell division

Density layout of BTS should be according to traffic density


distribution; Avoiding strong wireless transmitter、radar or
other serious interference

Convenient traffic、reliable power supply、safe


environment, and impropriates less area
Site Choice(2)
Avoiding high building’s obstruction in city environment

At initial stages, coverage of important users and


dense areas should be satisfied

Selecting existing telecom center building、or microwave site


first without impacting the network structure,
and utilizing its existing equipment room、power
supplyment 、 tower and so on
Site Survey-Obstructer
Site Survey- Avoiding Waveguide
Propagation along Vector
Site Survey -Clutter
Site Survey -Sites Distribution
Distribution is regular and
consistent with traffic load

Irregular cell sites


Comprehending the Views of Client,
and Providing the Candidate Scheme
Simulation to Verify and Adjust the Planning Scheme

Selecting the best scheme from


the candidates

Making sure the scheme meet


the requirement of client
Simulation-Verifying the Coverage
Forward Rx Power on the
half load condition

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Simulation-Verifying Traffic Density
Traffic Simulation

Practical Traffic Density


Simulation-Network Perform Analysis
PN Offset Planning
Avoid an alias of PN sequences
in a CDMA network
Provide enough separation between
adjacent PN offset.
Keep the reused distance larger center

enough
Avoid neighbor list error caused by reuse
of PN offset .
PN Planning

54
Preferential 3 90 22 2

141

63
47 30 9 3 99 23 1

135

69
PN set

9
7

4 71 30 3 3 45 17 7 405 23 7

15
45
Preserved 38 21 3 35 18 3
126

78
3
1 1

4 62 29 6 3 39 17 1 414 24 6

21
39
PN set 3 75 20 7 3 57 18 9
117

30

87
4 53 28 5 3 66 19 8 4 23 25 5
111

93
Boundary PN
44 27 9 42 26 1
102
7 9

set 4 38 27 0
Completing Wireless Network Design
Report
Example of CDMA Network
Coverage Analysis Wireless Network Simulation Analysis
Design Report

Capacity Analysis Design Topology Coverage Planning Scheme


Structure of Simulation
Network