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POLICE

PLANNING
BY: REYMARK E. LABITAD RCRIM
POLICE PLANNING AND
OPERATIONS
Planning is a management function
concerned with:

visualizing future situations


making estimates concerning them
identifying issues
needs and potential danger points
analyzing and evaluating the alternative
ways and means for reaching desired
goals according to a certain schedule
estimating the necessary funds and
resources to do the work
initiating action in time to prepare what
may be needed to cope with the changing
conditions and contingent events.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Plan - an organize schedule or sequence


by methodical activities intended to attain
a goal and objectives for the
accomplishments of mission or
assignment. It is a method or way of doing
something in order to attain objectives.
Plan provides answer to 5W’s and 1H
questions.
Planning - the process of preparing for change
and coping with uncertainty formulating future
causes of action; the process of determining the
problem of the organization and coming up with
proposed resolutions and finding best solutions.

Police Operational Planning - the act of


determining policies and guidelines for police
activities and operations and providing controls
and safeguards for such activities and
operations in the department. It may also be the
process of formulating coordinated sequence of
methodical activities and allocation of resources
to the line units of the police organization for the
attainment of the mandated objectives or
missions.
Operational Planning – it is the use of
rational design or pattern for all
departmental undertakings rather than
relying on chance. It is the preparation and
development of procedures and
techniques in accomplishing of each of the
primary task and function.

Police Planning - it is an attempt by


police administration to allocate
anticipated resources to meet anticipated
service demands.
Objective – it is a specific commitment to
achieve a measurable result within a
specific period of time.

Goal – it is a general statement of


intention and typically with the time
horizon. It is an achievable end state that
can be measured and observed. Making
choices about goals is one of the most
important aspects of planning.
Strategy – is a broad design, method; a
plan to attain a stated goal or objectives.

Tactic – it is a specific design, method or


course of action to attain a particular
objective in consonance with strategy.

Procedure – a sequence of activities to


reach a point or to attain what is desired.

Policy – a product of prudence or wisdom


in the management of human affairs.
Guidelines – a rule of action for the rank
and file to show them how they are
expected to obtain the desired effect.

Alternatives - are means by which goals


and objectives can be attained. They
maybe policies, strategies or specific
actions aimed at eliminating a problem.
Alternatives don’t have to be substitutes
for one another or should perform the
same function.
Strategic Planning - is a series of
preliminary decisions on a framework,
which in turn guides subsequent decisions
that generate the nature and direction of
an organization.
THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS
TASK 1 - Develop Mission and Objectives
TASK 2 - Diagnose Environmental Threats and
Opportunities
TASK 3 - Assess Organizational Strengths and
Weaknesses
TASK 4 - Generate Alternative Strategies
TASK 5 - Develop Strategic Plan
TASK 6 - Develop Tactical Plan
TASK 7 - Assess Results of Strategic and Tactical
Plan
TASK 8 - Repeat Planning Process
Fundamentals of Police Planning
What are the Objectives of Police Planning?

 To increase the chances of success by focusing on results and


not so much on the objectives.
 To force analytical thinking and evaluation of alternatives for better
decisions.
 To establish a framework for decision making consistent with the
goal of the organization.
 To orient people to action instead of reaction.
 To modify the day-to-day style of operation to future management.
 To provide decision making with flexibility.
 To provide basis for measuring original accomplishments or
individual performance.
 To increase employee and personnel involvement and to improve
communication.
What can be expected in planning?

 Improve analysis of problems


 Provide better information for decision-making
 Help to clarify goals, objectives, priorities
 Result is more effective allocation of resources
 Improve inter-and intradepartmental cooperation
and coordination
 Improve the performance of programs
 Give the police department a clear sense of
direction
 Provide the opportunity for greater public support
 Increase the commitment of personnel
What are the characteristics
of a good police plan?

 With clearly defined Objectives or Goals.


 Simplicity, Directness and Clarity
 Flexibility
 Possibility of Attainment
 Must provide Standards of Operation
 Economy in terms of Resources needed for
implementation
What are the guidelines in Planning?

 What to do? – mission/objective


 Why to do? – reason/philosophy
 When to do? – date/time
 Where to do? – place
 Who will do? – people involves
 How to do? – strategy
What are the Responsibilities
in Planning?
Broad External Policy Planning – Is the responsibility of the
legislative branch of the government. The main concern of the police
in this broad external policy planning is assisting the legislature in
their determining of police guideline through the passage of
appropriate laws or ordinances for the police to enforce.

Internal Policy Planning – Is the responsibility of the C/PNP and


other chiefs of the different units or headquarters within their area of
jurisdiction to achieve the objectives or mission of the police
organization. They are responsible for planning, organizing, staffing,
directing, coordinating, controlling, reporting and budgeting for the
police organization within existing policies and available resources.
For maximum police effectiveness, they shall be responsible for the
technical operation of the police organization and management of its
personnel.
What are the basic considerations
in Police Planning?

Primary Doctrines

FUNDAMENTAL DOCTRINE – Is the basic principle in planning,


organization and management of the PNP in support of the overall
pursuits of the PNP Vision, mission and strategic action plan of the
attainment of the national objectives.

OPERATIONAL DOCTRINE – Are the principles and rules


governing the planning, organization and direction and employment
of the PNP forces in the accomplishment of basic security
operational mission in the maintenance of peace and order, crime
prevention and suppression, internal security and public safety
operation.

FUNCTIONAL DOCTRINE – This provides guidance for specialized


activities of the PNP in the broad field of interest such as personnel,
intelligence, operations, logistics, planning, etc.
Secondary Doctrines

COMPLIMENTARY DOCTRINE – Doctrines


formulated jointly by two or more bureaus in
order to effect a certain operation with regard to
public safety and peace and order. This
essentially involves the participation of the other
bureaus of the BJMP, BFP, PPSC, NBI and other
law enforcement agencies.

ETHICAL DOCTRINE – That defines the


fundamental principles governing the rules of
conduct, attitude, behavior and ethical norm of
the PNP.
The Principles of Police Organization

PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OBJECTIVE – An organization is more effective if it


enables the individuals to contribute to the organization’s objective.

PRINCIPLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFICIENCY – Organization structure


is effective if it is structured to aid the accomplishment of the organization’s
objectives with a minimum cost.

THE SCALAR PRINCIPLE – The vertical hierarchy of the organization


defines an unbroken chain of scale of units from top to bottom describing
explicitly the flow of authority.

UNITY OF COMMAND – Subordinate should be under the control of only


one superior.

SPAN OF CONTROL – Control of superior should not be more than what he


can effectively direct.

DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY

CHAIN OF COMMAND
FUNCTIONAL PRINCIPLE – This implies a system of varied
function arranged into a workable pattern. The line organization
refers to the direct accomplishment of the objectives. The staff refers
to the line organization, which is an advisory of facilitative capacity.

PRINCIPLE OF BALANCE – The application of principles must be


balance to ensure the effectiveness of the structure in meeting
organizations objectives.

PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY RESULT – Authority delegated


be adequate to ensure the ability to accomplish results expected.

PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS OF RESPONSIBILITY – The


responsibility of the subordinates to their superior for their
performance is absolute and superior cannot escape responsibility
for the organization on activities performed by their subordinates.

PRINCIPLE OF PARITY AND RESPONSIBILITY – The


responsibility for actions cannot be greater than that implied by the
authority delegated nor should it be less.
AUTHORITY LEVEL PRINCIPLE – Maintenance
of intended delegation requires that decisions
within the authority of individual commander
should be made by them and not be referred
upward in the organization structure.

PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY- the more


provision made for building; the more the
organization can fulfill its purpose.
The Four (4) Primal Conditions
of the Police Organization
AUTHORITY – The right to exercise, decide and
command by virtue of rank and position.
DOCTRINE – It provides for the organizations
objectives. It provides the various actions.
Hence, policies, procedures, rules and
regulations of the organization are based on the
statement of doctrines.
COOPERATION/COORDINATION
DISCIPLINE – It is imposed by command or self-
restraint to insure supportive behavior.
Classifications of Police Plans

According to coverage
Local Plan
Regional Plan
National Plan
According to Time

Strategic or Long Range Plan

It relates to plans which are strategic or


long range in application, it determine the
organization’s original goals and strategy.
Ex. Police Action Plan on the Strategy
DREAMS and Program P-O-L-I-C-E 2000,
Three Point Agenda, GLORIA
Intermediate or Medium Range Planning

It relates to plans, which determine quantity and quality


efforts and accomplishments. It refers to the process of
determining the contribution on efforts that can make or
provide with allocated resources.

Ex. 6 Masters plans namely:


• Master Plan Sandigan-Milenyo (Anti-Crime Master Plan)
• Master Plan Sandugo (Support to Internal Security
Operations Master Plan)
• Master Plan Banat (Anti-Illegal Drugs Master Plan)
• Master Plan Sang-ingat (Security Operations Master
Plan)
• Master Plan Saklolo (Disaster Management Master Plan)
• Sangyaman (protection and Preservation of
Environment, Cultural Properties, and Natural Resources
Master Plan)
Operational or Short Range Planning

It refers to the production of plans, which


determine the schedule of special activity
and are applicable from one week or less
than year duration. Plan that addresses
immediate need which are specific and
how it can be accomplished on time with
available allocated resources.
Ex. OPLAN BANAT
TYPES OF POLICE PLAN
• Reactive Plans are developed as a result of
crisis. A particular problem may occur for which
the department has no plan and must quickly
develop one, sometimes without careful
preparation.
• Proactive Plans are developed in anticipation of
problems. Although not all police problems are
predictable, many are, and it is possible for a
police department to prepare a response in
advance.
• Visionary Plans are essential statements that identify
the role of the police in the community and a future
condition or state to which the department can aspire. A
vision may also include a statement of values to be used
to guide the decision making process in the department.

• Strategic Plans are designed to meet the long-range,


overall goals of the organization. Such plans allow the
department to adapt to anticipated changes or develop a
new philosophy or model of policing (e.g. community
policing). One of the most important aspects of strategic
planning is to focus on external environmental factors
that affect the goals and objectives of the department
and how they will be achieved. Important environmental
factors include personnel needs, population trends,
technological innovations, business trends and demand,
crime problems, and community attitudes.
• Operational Plans are designed to meet the
specific tasks required to implement strategic
plans. There are four types of operational plan:

• Standing Plans provide the basic framework for


responding to organizational problems. The
organizational vision and values, strategic
statement, policies, procedures, and rules and
regulations are examples of standing plans.
Standing plans also include guidelines for
responding to different types of incidents; for
example, a civil disturbance, hostage situation,
crime in progress, and felony car stops.
Functional Plans - include the framework
for the operation of the major functional
units in the organization, such as patrol
and investigations. It also includes the
design of the structure, how different
functions and units are to relate and
coordinate activities, and how resources
are to be allocated.
• Operational-efficiency, effectiveness, and
productivity plans are essentially the measures or
comparisons to be used to assess police activities and
behavior (outputs) and results (outcomes). If one of the
goals of the police department is to reduce the crime
rate, any change that occurs can be compared to past
crime rates in the same community or crime in other
communities, a state, or the nation. If the crime rate were
reduced while holding or reducing costs, that would
reflect an improvement not only in effectiveness but also
in departmental productivity.
• Time-specific Plans are concerned with a
specific purpose and conclude when an
objective is accomplished or a problem is
solved. Specific police programs or
projects - such as drug crackdown, crime
prevention program, or neighborhood
clean-up campaign – are good examples
of time-specific plans.
Procedural Plan – Standard-operating
procedures shall be planned to guide
members in routine and field operations
and in some special operations in
accordance with the following procedure:
1. Field Procedure – Procedures intended to be used in all situations of all
kinds shall be outlined as a guide to officers and men in the field.
Procedures that relate to reporting, to dispatching, to raids, arrest, stopping
suspicious persons, receiving complaints, touring beats, and the
investigation of crimes and so on are examples. The use of physical force
and clubs, restraining devices, firearms, tear gas and the like shall, in
dealing with groups or individuals, shall also be outlined.

2. Headquarters Procedures – To be included in these procedures are the


duties of the dispatcher, jailer, matron, and other personnel concerned
which may be reflected in the duty manual. Procedures that involves
coordinated action on activity of several offices, however, shall be
established separately as in the case of using telephone for local / long
distance calls, the radio teletype, and other similar devices.

3. Special Operation Procedures – Certain special operations also


necessitate the preparation of procedures as guides. Included are the
operation of the special unit charged with the searching and preservation of
physical evidence at the crime scenes and accidents, the control of
licenses, dissemination of information about wanted persons, inspection of
the PNP headquarters and the like.
• Tactical Plans – these are the procedures for
coping with specific situations at known
locations. Included in this category are plans for
dealing with an attack against buildings with
alarm systems and an attack against the PNP
headquarters by lawless elements. Plans shall
be likewise be made for blockade and jail
emergencies and for special community events,
such as longer public meetings, athletic
contests, parades, religious activities, carnivals,
strikes, demonstrations, and other street affairs.
• Operational Plans – These are plans for the operations
of special divisions like the patrol, detective, traffic, fire
and juvenile control divisions. Operational plans shall be
prepared to accomplish each of the primary police tasks.

For example, patrol activities must be planned, the force


must be distributed among the shifts and territorially
among beats, in proportion to the needs of the service,
special details must be planned to meet unexpected
needs, and so on.
Likewise in the crime prevention and in traffic, juvenile
and vice control, campaigns must be planned and
assignments to assure the accomplishment of the police
purpose in meeting both average and regular needs.
• Extra-office Plans – PNP programs continuously seek
to motivate, promote, and maintain an active public
concern in its affairs. Plans made to organize the
community to assist in the accomplishment of objectives
in the fields of traffic control, organized crime, and
juvenile delinquency prevention.
The organizations may be called safety councils for
crime prevention. They shall assist in coordinating
community effort, in promoting public support, and in
combating organized crime.
Organization and operating plans for civil defense shall
also be prepared or used in case of emergency or war in
coordination with the office of the Civil Defense.
Field Operations and
How planning affects them
FIELD OPERATIONS - Operations in the
field shall be directed by the police
commander and the subordinate
commanders and the same shall be aimed
at the accomplishment of the following
primary tasks more effectively and
economically:
a. Patrol – The patrol force shall accomplish the primary responsibility
of safeguarding the community through the protection of persons
and property, the preservation of the peace, the prevention of crime,
the suppression of criminal activities, the apprehension of criminals,
the enforcement of laws and ordinances and regulations of conduct
and performing necessary service and inspections.

b. Investigation – The basic purpose of the investigation division unit


shall be to investigate certain designated crimes and clear them by
the recovery of stolen property and the arrest and conviction of the
perpetrators. To this end, the investigation division shall supervise
the investigation made by patrolman and undertake additional
investigation as may be necessary of all felonies.

c. Traffic Patrol – Police control of streets or highways, vehicles, and


people shall facilitate the safe and rapid movement of vehicles and
pedestrians. To this end, the inconvenience, dangers and economic
losses that arises from this moment, congestion, delays, stopping
and parking of vehicles must be lessened.
d. Vice Control – it shall be the determined stand of the PNP in the
control of vices to treat vice offenses as they shall do to any
violation, and exert efforts to eliminate them, as there attempt to
eliminate robbery, theft, and public disturbance. Control of vice,
shall be based on law rather than on moral precepts, and intensive
operations shall be directed toward their elimination. A primary
interest in vice control results from the close coordination between
vice and criminal activities. Constant raids of known vice dens shall
be undertaken.

e. Juvenile Delinquency Control – effective crime control


necessitates preventing the development of individuals as criminals.
The police commander shall recognize a need for preventing crime
or correcting conditions that induce criminality and by rehabilitating
the delinquent.
Special Operating Procedures
• SOP #01 – POLICE BEAT PATROL PROCEDURES -
This SOP prescribes the basic procedures to be
observed by all PNP Units and mobile patrol elements in
the conduct of visibility patrols.

• SOP #02 – BANTAY KALYE - This SOP prescribes the


deployment of 85% of the PNP in the field to increase
police visibility and intensifies anti-crime campaign
nationwide.

• SOP #03 – SIYASAT - This SOP prescribes the


guidelines in the conduct of inspections to ensure police
visibility.
• SOP #4 – REACT 166 - REACT 166 was launched in 1992 as the
people’s direct link to the police to receive public calls for assistance
and complaints for prompt action by police authorities. This SOP
prescribes the procedures in detail of Duty Officers, Telephone
Operators and Radio Operators for REACT 166; their term of duty
and responsibilities.

• SOP #5 – LIGTAS (ANTI-KIDNAPPING) - With the creation of the


Presidential Anti-Organization Crime Task Force (PAOCTF), the
PNP is now in support role in campaign against kidnapping in terms
of personnel requirements. SOP #6 sets forth the PNP’s guidelines
in its fight against kidnapping activities.

• SOP #6 – ANTI-CARNAPPING - This SOP prescribes the conduct


of an all-out and sustained Anti Carnapping campaign to
stop/minimize carnapping activities, neutralize syndicated
carnapping groups, identify/prosecute government personnel
involved in carnapping activities, and to effectively address other
criminal activities related to carnapping.
• SOP #7 – ANTI-TERRORISM - This prescribes the
operational guidelines in the conduct of operations
against terrorists and other lawless elements involved in
terroristic activities.

• SOP #8 – JOINT ANTI-BANK ROBBERY ACTION


COMMITTEE (ANTI-BANK ROBBERY) - This SOP
provides overall planning, integration,
orchestration/coordination and monitoring of all efforts to
ensure the successful implementation.

• SOP #9 – ANTI-HIJACKING/HIGHWAY ROBBERY -


This SOP sets forth the guidelines and concepts of
operations to be observed in the conduct of anti-highway
robbery/hold-up/hijacking operations.
• SOP #10 – PAGLALANSAG/PAGAAYOS-HOPE - This
SOP sets for the concept of operations and tasks of all
concerned units in the campaign against Partisan Armed
Groups and loose fire.

• SOP # 11 – MANHUNT BRAVO (NEUTRALIZATION OF


WANTED PERSONS) - This SOP sets forth the
objectives and concept of operation tasks of all
concerned units in the neutralization of wanted persons.

• SOP #12 – ANTI-ILLEGAL GAMBLING - This SOP


sets forth the operational thrusts to be undertaken by the
PNP that will spearhead the fight against all forms of
illegal gambling nationwide.
• SOP #13 – ANTI-SQUATTING - This SOP sets forth the
concept of operation in the campaign against
professional squatters and squatting syndicates.

• SOP #14 – JERICHO - This SOP prescribes the


operational guidelines to be undertaken by the NHQ,
PNP in the establishment of a quick reaction group that
can be detailed with the office of the SILG (OSILG), with
personnel and equipment requirements of that reaction
group supported by the PNP.

• SOP #15 – NENA (ANTI-PROSTITUTION/VAGRANCY)


This SOP sets forth the operational thrusts to be
undertaken by the PNP that will spearhead the fight
against prostitution and vagrancy.
• SOP #16 – ANTI-PORNOGRAPHY - This prescribes the guidelines
to be followed by tasked PNP Units/Offices in enforcing the ban on
pornographic pictures, videos and magazines.

• SOP #17 – GUIDELINES IN THE CONDUCT OF ARREST,


SEARCH, AND SEIZURE - This SOP prescribes the procedures
and manner of conducting an arrest, raid, search and/or search of
person, search of any premises and the seizure of properties
pursuant to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Rules of Court, as
amended and updated decision of the Supreme Court.

• SOP #18 – SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SANDIGAN MASTER PLAN

• SOP #19 – ANTI-ILLEGAL LOGGING

• SOP #20 – ANTI-ILLEGAL FISHING

• SOP #21 – ANTI-ILLEGAL DRUGS


• Oplan Jumbo – Aviation Security Group Strategic Plan against terrorist
attacks

• Oplan Salikop – CIDG Strategic Plan against Organized Crime Groups


(OCG)

• LOI PAGPAPALA is the entry point in the conceptualization of the PNP


Pastoral Program for the next five years with a Total Human Development
Approach (THD Approach).

• The TMG through its "OPLAN DISIPLINA" that resulted in the


apprehension of 110,975 persons, the confiscation of 470 unlawfully
attached gadgets to vehicles, and rendering various forms of motorists
assistance.

• OPLAN BANTAY DALAMPASIGAN that sets forth the operational


guidelines on the heightened security measures and sea borne security
patrols.

• NAPOLCOM MC No. 95-03 – “Institutionalization of the Doctrine of


Command Responsibility at all levels of Command in the PNP

• EO No. 226 - “Institutionalization of the Doctrine of Command Responsibility


in all Government offices
Samples of the PNP
Programs and Strategies
POLICE 2000
• P-REVENTION and suppression of crime through
COPS
• O-RDER, maintenance, peacekeeping and internal
security
• L-AW enforcement without fear or favor
• I-MAGE, credibility and commonly support
• C-OORDINATION with other government agencies
and non-government agencies organizations and
international securities
• E-FFICIENCY and effectivenes in the development
and management of human and material resources
DREAMS

• D-ISPERSAL of policeman from the headquarters to the


street and enhancement of crime prevention program
• R-ESTORATION of trust and confidence of the people on
their police and gain community support
• E-LIMINATION of street and neighborhood crimes and
improvement of public safety
• A-RREST of all criminal elements common or organized in
coordination with the pillars of the CJS and other law
enforcement agencies
• M-APPING up and removal of scalawags from the pole of
ranks
• S-TRENGTHENING the management and capability of the
PNP to undertake/support the dreams operations and
activities
THANK YOU!!