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A

Seminar
on

DIESEL ENGINE

Submitted To: Submitted By:


Mr. Shashank Sahu Akshit Tyagi
Assistant Professor 1507740011
Department of Mechanical Engineering ME-A(Third Year)
KNMIET
Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam Technical University(Formerly
UPTU), Lucknow
Contents
SEMINAR OUTLINES
 History of Diesel Engine (DE)
 Types:
2- Stroke Diesel Engine
4-Stroke Diesel Engine
 Advantage & Disadvantage
 P-V Graph of Diesel Engine
 Difference between 2- Stroke & 4- Stroke
 Safety
 Applications
TYPES
1. 2-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE
2 2. 4-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE
TWO STROKE DIESEL
ENGINE
Two stroke diesel engine
was first described by
du gal clerk in 1878.
In two stroke engine
one cycle is completed
in every revolution of
crankshaft.
WORKING OF TWO STROKE
ENGINE

Two stroke engine is used where small power


required like motorcycle
it is compact in size ,easy to manufacture and
simple in operation & there is no inlet or
exhaust valve present in it as that in four
Stroke which complete its cycle in one
revolution .
 In this the end of the combustion stroke and
the beginning of the compression stroke
happens simultaneously and perform intake
and exhaust at same time .
Two stroke provide higher power to weight
ratio.
And have less moving parts and lighter than
that of four stroke engine. two stroke or two
cycle is a type of internal combustion engine
Compression stroke
when piston moves from
BDC To TDC , it first
closed the transfer port
and then exhaust port .
The charge of air –fuel
compressed and creates
high temprature.
At the same The vacuum is open so that the
fresh air is being drawn into it .
As the piston moves towards TDC the diesel is
added to pressurised
and high temperature gas which in turn ignites
the whole mixture inside the cylinder and
force the piston to move downwards.
COMBUSTION STROKE
In this stroke both the port are close,
the pressure of the expanding gases
force the piston towards BDC.
The pressure in the crank-
case is rising.
After expansion , the downward
stroke exhaust port will be open &
force out the burn gases after that
the inlet port will open
& intake the fresh charge of
fuel mixture & engine is
ready to start the cycle
FOUR STROKE DIESEL
ENGINE
Four stroke diesel engine was first demonsrate
by Nikolaus otto in 1876, hence it is also known
as otto cycle.
Its cycle complete in 4-stroke or we can say in 2
revolution of the crankshaft . Each stroke consist
180 degree rotation of crankshaft & cycle consist
of 720 degree of crankshaft rotation.
WORKING OF 4 - STROKE
DIESEL ENGINE
following are the four steps-
1. Intake/suction stroke
2. compression stroke
3. expansion stroke
4. exhaust stroke
1. INTAKE STROKE
In suction stroke the
piston start with top dead
centre (TDC) of a cylinder
and moves to the bottom
dead centre (BDC).
Outer valve will be closed
and inner valve should to
allow the fresh charge of
mixed fuel & air into cylinder.
2. COMPRESSION
STROKE
Incompression stroke , on
reaching the piston to BDC
& move back TDC , inlet
valve should be closed. As
the piston moves towards
TDC. It compress air inside
the cylinder& compression
takes place. It is called
compression stroke.
3. POWER STROKE
In expansion stroke ,both the valves are closed when
piston reaches top of
its stroke.the fuel is sprinkled
by the fuel injector and the
fuel mixture is ignited due to
high temprature & pressure
generated inside the cylinder.
And push down the piston to
BDC , the power generated
in the fly wheel
4.EXHAUST STROKE
The piston travelling from BDC
to TDC pushes out the products of
combustion.The exhaust valve is
open & the intake valve is closed
during this stroke.
ADVANTAGES
1. Diesels are more efficient. Most
gasoline engines convert about 30 percent of
their fuel energy into actual power. And
advanced diesels can hit about 50 percent.
2. Diesels are more reliable. Because
they don’t need high-voltage ignition systems,
diesel engines never fail for lack of a spark.
3. Diesels run cooler. Because they are
more efficient, diesel engines release less
waste heat while in operation.
4. Diesels last longer. Diesel engine
parts are generally stronger than gas engine
components, and they have more lubricating prop.
5. Diesel fuel is safer. Diesel fuel
doesn’t release fumes like gasoline does.
6. Diesels Cars offer better
mileage.
7. Diesels produce minimal carbon
monoxide. This makes diesel generators
useful in mines and submarines, environments in
which gasoline engine exhaust would prove
.
deadly
8. Diesel engines can easily accept
synthetic fuels. Non-petroleum-based
biofuels will run easily in diesel engines
1. Diesel costs just as much as
gasoline.
One of the main benefits of choosing diesel in
the past was that it was cheaper than gasoline.
But now, that isn’t the case as prices for both
seem to be level
2. DIESEL DOES NOT OFFER HIGH SPEED
PERFORMANCE
3. DIESEL CARS NEED REGULAR
MAINTAINANCE.
4. DIESEL MAY COST MORE WHEN
MAINTANENCE IS NEGLECTED
P-V DIAGRAM OF DIESEL ENGINE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 2- STROKE
AND 4-STROKE
2 -STROKE 4 -STROKE
 It has one power stroke for  It has one power stoke for
each revolution of 2 revolution of crankshaft
crankshaft .
 Engine is light  Engine is heavy
 Engine runs hotter.  Engine runs cooler
 More fuel consumption  Less fuel consumption.&
due to fresh charge mixed complete burning of fuel.
with hot burn gases.
 Engine require less space.
 Engine require more space.
DIFFERENCE

2-STROKE 4-STROKE
 Engine design is simple .  Engine design is
complicated.
 Few moving parts.  Moving parts are more in
number.
 Mechanical efficiency is
 Mechanical efficiency is
less.
more .
 Wear & tear is less.
 Wear & tear is more due to
small size of same power.
SAFETY
FUEL FLAMMABLITY
Diesel fuel is less flammable than
petrol, Leading to a lower risk of fire
caused by fuel in the vehicle equipped
with a diesel engine
APPLICATIONS
Passenger cars
diesel engine have long been popular in
bigger car and have been used in small cars they
are more economical at regular driving speed and
much better at city speed . Mercedes- benz in
conjunction produce diesel power car in 1936
which was used in large number all over the
world. Since the price of diesel engine was also
less than that of petrol engine
OTHER TRANSPORT USES
large transport applications (Trucks, buses
ets ) also benefit from diesel reliablity and
high torque output.
It is also used aircrafts and marines.

NON- ROAD DIESEL ENGINE


It includes mobile equipments and vehicals that are not used
in public roadways such as construction equipmets and
agricultural tractors