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# CorrectSPC

## PROCESS CONTROL FOR

STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.3 Acceptance Criteria for Initial Study
The organization shall use the following as acceptance
criteria for evaluating initial process study results
for processes that appear stable.
Results Interpretation
Index > 1.67 Meets acceptance criteria
1.33≤ Index ≤ 1.67 May be acceptable
Index ≤ 1.33 Does not meet acceptance criteria
STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.5 Processes with One-Sided Specifications or
Non-Normal Distributions
The organization shall determine with the authorized
customer representative alternative acceptance
criteria for processes with one sided specifications
or non-normal distributions.

STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.5 Processes with One-Sided Specifications or
Non-Normal Distributions

## NOTE: The above mentioned acceptance criteria

(2.2.11.3) assume normality and a two-sided
specification (target in the center).

## When this is not true, using this analysis may

result in unreliable information.

STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.5 Processes with One-Sided
Specifications or Non-Normal Distributions

## NOTE (cont.): These alternate acceptance

criteria could require different type of index
or some method of transformation of the data.
The focus should be on understanding reasons
for the non-normality (e.g. is it stable over
time?) and managing variation.

CONTROL CHART BASICS
NORMAL PROCESS: IN CONTROL
WITH CHANCE VARIATION

## IN ORDER FOR A PROCESS TO BE NORMAL, IT

SHOULD BE ABLE TO BE SET AT THE MEAN,
AND WILL CONTINUE TO RANDOMLY VARY
ABOUT THE MEAN WITHOUT ANY OPERATOR
INTERVENTION!
CONTROL CHART BASICS
EXAMPLES OF PROCESSES WITH
NORMAL VARIATION

CUTTING GRASS
CONTROL CHART BASICS
EXAMPLES OF PROCESSES WITH
NORMAL VARIATION

AUTOMATED BAKERY
WHAT IS CONTROL?
A process in control is in the ideal state
100% conforming and predictable

## must remain stable over time

must operate in a stable and consistent
manner
must be set at the proper level (centered)
the natural process spread must not
exceed the product’s specified tolerance
(capable)
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF
VARIATION CAUSES?
COMMON CAUSE
Inherent in the process
Affects every part
Examples: gravity, air pressure, tool wear
SPECIAL CAUSE
“Assignable”
Does not affect every part
Examples: tool breakage, start up, change of
operators
Expects all “special causes” have
been eliminated
Expects the remaining variation is
random, with most variation close to a
central value
Seeks to find trends from within an
otherwise random output to act upon
when they occur

Search for
Extraterrestrial
Intelligence
(SETI)

## Traditional SPC is like looking out into

space seeking signs of life

## Typically, you listen to random radio

frequency noise looking for a
“pattern” – as a pattern shows intent
Wow! signal was a strong
detected by
Dr. Jerry R. Ehman on
August 15, 1977, while
working on a SETI project
telescope of The Ohio
State University

## If you find such a trend, then you can take

action to determine its origin. This is
more “monitoring” than “control”
PROCESS DEFINITIONS
DEFINITION OF PRECISION MACHINING
A process where material is removed by a
cutting surface – such as grinding, honing,
turning, milling, etc.
The process must be controlled in a manner
that all variation (vibration, bearings, gage
error) is statistically insignificant except
tool wear.
CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

##  2Gage Error +  2Material +  2Temperature +  2Operator

+  2Other
PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

GRINDING EXAMPLE
PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

## “Process Control and Evaluation in

the Presence of Systematic
Assignable Cause”,
Ashok Sarkar and Surajit,Pal,
Quality Engineering, Volume 10(2),
1997-1998

PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

## The central limit theorem (CLT)

sufficiently large number of
independent random variables
each with finite mean and variance,
will be approximately normally
distributed (Rice 1995).

CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

## Precision machining has

sufficiently large number of
independent
dependent random variables
non-random variables
each with finite mean and variance,
will be not be normally distributed
The central limit theorem does not
apply!
CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

CONTROL CHART FEATURES
Interesting points:
The MEAN has no real value in
controlling a process with the uniform
distribution
“Running to the mean” is not how to
control a process with the uniform
distribution – it causes overcontrol!

TYPES OF
VARIABLE CONTROL CHARTS
There are many types, but the most
common on the precision machining
shop floor is:
X Bar-R (or X Mean - R)
X-Moving Range
and then there is a new option:
X Hi/Low – R
But, which is best?
X-BAR R CHARTS

X-BAR R CHARTS

X-BAR R CHARTS
Control Chart Data Collection
Key Question For Machining Round Parts:
How many diameters are there in a circle?

X-BAR R CHARTS
Control Chart Data Collection
How many diameters are there in a circle?
There are an infinite number of diameters in a
circle!

CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

X-BAR R CHARTS

X-BAR R CHARTS
Control Chart Data Collection
There are also an infinite number of lengths
in a linear feature!

X-BAR R CHARTS
Why are X-bar – R chart control limits ridiculously tight
for precision machining?

## • Because they are based on the range of your sample.

• The variation of the range of your sample is nearly zero,
• It has nothing to do with your process variation over
time!

X-BAR R CHARTS
The X bar chart from the X bar – R charts
represent the average of an insignificant
sample of measurements for a of a
circular feature
Measuring multiple samples is a waste of
time in precision machining
R charts from the X bar – R charts
represent the range of measurement error
Control limits are calculated using
statistics for the wrong distribution – the
normal distribution
PRECONTROL CHARTS

X-MR CHART

X-MR CHART
• You might be able to use the X-MR chart if
• If you use the X-MR chart, you cannot use
limits for the X chart – you must use the
control limits for the uniform distribution
• If you use the X-MR chart, you can use
limits for the MR chart

Rule No.1
Original data should be presented in a
way that will preserve the evidence of
the original data for all the predictions
assumed to be useful.

## -Dr. Walter A. Shewhart

Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality
Control

CONTROL CHART DATA

Rule of life:
If you measure one diameter, you
will measure a good one
…and the customer will measure a

CONTROL CHART DATA
How do you control diameters?

## Measure the part and record the largest

and smallest diameters
– then you are controlling all possible
diameters!

CONTROL CHART DATA

CONTROL CHART DATA

## What else can you learn from the

largest and smallest diameter?

## The difference between the largest and

smallest diameter – by definition
– is the roundness!

CONTROL CHART DATA

ROUNDNESS STORY
CONTROL CHART DATA

CONTROL CHART DATA

TREND CHART

CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

TOTAL VARIANCE

##  2Gage Error +  2Material +  2Temperature +  2Operator

+  2Other
CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

TOTAL VARIANCE

##  2Gage Error +  2Material +  2Temperature +  2Operator

+  2Other
CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS
TREND CHART

EWMA chart
(or exponentially-weighted
moving average chart)

3D CHART: Xi, MR, X within

X HI/LO – R CHART

X HI/LO – R CHART

X HI/LO – R CHART

X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS

X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS

99.73%

75%

X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS

X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS
TOTAL VARIANCE

+  2Other
GAGE RESOLUTION

## There needs to be sufficient gage

resolution to eliminate “chunky” data and
insufficient warning

## ndcspc = ((UCL-LCL)*1.41)/GRR >= 10

X HI/LO – R CHART
TECHNIQUE
Start an OD with the “Lo” value at the
lower control limit. (Start at the center
during the special cause of ‘warm-up’)
Allow the tool to wear until the “Hi” value
hits the upper control limit,
Then adjust down until the “Lo” value hits
the lower control limit.

X HI/LO – R CHART
TECHNIQUE
Start an ID with the “Hi” value at the
upper control limit. (Start at the center
during the special cause of ‘warm-up’)
Allow the tool to wear until the “Lo” value
hits the lower control limit,
Then adjust down until the “Hi” value hits
the upper control limit.

X HI/LO CHART
RULES
Look for trends in the “wrong” direction
Can occur with roughing/finishing operations
Roughing tool wears at a different rate that
finishing tool
Change in tool pressure can affect finished
dimension
As long as you know the cause – continue
If not, stop and assess the problem

R CHART
RULES
If the Range starts to increase, this
means the roundness is getting worse
indicator of tool wear, and by changing
the tool at the control limit for the range,
you will maintain more consistent results
and may catch the tool before it breaks

EVALUATING CAPABILITY

## The ratio of the tolerance to the

USL - LSL
Capability =
UCL - LCL

EVALUATING CAPABILITY
Process Variation (Control Limits)
versus Specifications

EVALUATING CAPABILITY

## Capability = USL - LSL

UCL - LCL

USL – LSL
1.33 =
.75(USL – LSL)
EVALUATING CAPABILITY

## Capability = USL - LSL

UCL - LCL

USL – LSL
1.66 =
.60(USL – LSL)
EVALUATING CAPABILITY

## Capability = USL - LSL

UCL - LCL

USL – LSL
2.00 =
.50(USL
.50 – LSL)
SAMPLING ERROR

SAMPLING ERROR

SAMPLING ERROR

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
REDUCE THE TOOL WEAR SLOPE!
Less operator intervention
Less PROCESS variation!

SPECIAL CAUSES
Machine Warm-up
Operator Breaks
Material Changes
Tool Breakage
Operator Changes
Training
CORRECT STEPS FOR SPC
1. Develop the total variance equation
2. Determine which variance factors are adjustable,
which are noise, and which can be set as a constant.
3. Minimize the variation of each of the participating
variables - get the process in a steady state and
capable.
4. Accurately determine the correct distribution of each of
the remaining variances
5. Determine which of the remaining variance factors you
are going to chart
6. Pick the correct chart to evaluate each of those
variance factors (variables)
CONCLUSION
• Precision diameters and lengths should
be primarily affected by tool wear
• Tool wear and associated adjustment for
tool wear generates the “sawtooth curve”
• The sawtooth curve’s distribution is the
uniform or rectangular distribution
• The uniform distribution is non-normal,
and does not follow the rules of
normality, such as Cpk calculations or the
‘Western Electric Rules” for control chart
evaluation
CONCLUSION
• The X bar chart from the X bar – R charts
represent the average of a statistically
insignificant sample of measurements for
a of a circular feature
• R charts from the X bar – R charts
represent the range of measurement error
• Control limits are calculated using
statistics for the wrong distribution – the
normal distribution

CONCLUSION
• X hi/lo – R charts represent the GD&T
characteristics of a circular feature:
diameter and the zone represented by
roundness (or length and parallelism for a
linear dimension)
• X hi/lo – R charts provide more valuable
data, such as tool wear rate
• X hi/lo – R charts use the correct uniform
distribution for precision machining

CONCLUSION
• X hi/lo – R charting techniques can be
expanded to control taper
• Automated tool wear compensation is not
statistical process control
• The algorithm for compensation
becomes the process, not tool wear
• Lose some benefits of SPC because
information
• Would help if the compensation was
tracked
CONCLUSION

## "The total information is

given by the observed
distribution.”
-Dr. Walter A. Shewhart
Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product

CorrectSPC

## PROCESS CONTROL FOR

CorrectSPC
•Bob Doering has been in the quality field for over 18 years.
•He is currently a quality engineer for an automotive component
manufacturing firm.
•He has industrial experience for over 33 years, many of which were in
precision machining of automotive and medical components.
•He is an adjunct instructor at Lorain County Community College in
Engineering Technology and Enrollment Services departments, and has
lectured classes in Metrology and Quality Management.
•He holds associates degrees from Lorain County Community College of
Elyria, Ohio and The University of Akron of Akron, Ohio; BA in Business and
MBA in Systems Management from Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, Ohio.
•He holds CMQ/OE, CQE, CQA, CMI (ASQ) certifications.
•He has implemented the CorrectSPC concepts in precision machining for
15 years with significant success.