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Lecture 9-12

Difference between cache & cookies

Cache Cookies
Make the loading of web Store information to track
pages faster. different characteristics
related to user.
Keep resource files such as Stores information such as
audio, video or flash files. user preferences.

Kept in the client’s machine Cookies expire after some

until they are removed time.
manually by the user.

Web browsing history - list of web pages a user has visited

recently. (Google Web History)
 What cookies does is to store information of your
browsing history. In this case it stores which website
you browsed and what kind of product you looked
for. That information now helps the advertisers to
show you the same product or related product in
their ads.

 The role of cache in this example is to store small

part of image of the products you browsed and other
web sources. Now, when you re-visit that website or
product the page or the image will load faster.
Because small part of images and other web
resources are already stored on your computer. So it
helps in boosting the loading time.
 Fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information
such as usernames, passwords and credit card
details by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an
electronic communication.
 Typically carried out by email spoofing or instant
messaging, it often directs users to enter personal
information at a fake website, the look and feel of
which are identical to the legitimate site.
Rogue Wi-Fi hotspots
(fake wi-fi hotspots / evil twin)
 By imitating a legitimate hotspot and tricking users into
connecting to it, a hacker or cybercriminal can then steal
account names and passwords and redirect victims to
malware sites, phishing sites, etc.
 The perpetrators can also view the contents of files that
the victims download or upload while they are connected
to the Evil Twin access point.
 Only log into your e-mail and other sites via HTTPS secured
pages instead of using HTTP unencrypted. Sites such as
Facebook, Gmail, and others feature HTTPS login options.
 Collects information about your surfing habits,
browsing history, or personal information (such as
credit card numbers), and often uses the Internet
to pass this information along to third parties
without you knowing.
 Keyloggers are a type of spyware that monitors
your keystrokes.
 New and/or unidentifiable icons may appear in the
task bar at the bottom of your screen.
E-mail encryption

 Email encryption refers to an encryption and

authentication mechanism of an email message to
prevent the contents from being read by an
unauthorized recipient.
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)
 It is a protocol for securing the communication between two systems e.g. the
browser and the web server.

Advantage of using HTTPS:

• Secure Communication: https makes a secure connection by
establishing an encrypted link between the browser and the server or
any two systems.

• Privacy and Security: https protects the privacy and security of

website users by preventing hackers to passively listen to
communication between the browser and the server.

• Provide the client with assurances about the server's identity,

protecting against phishing and other impersonation attacks.

• Faster Performance: https increases the speed of data transfer

compared to http by encrypting and reducing the size of the data.
Difference between HTTP & HTTPS
Http transfers data between the Https transfers data in the encrypted
browser and the web server in the format.
hypertext format

Thus, https prevents hackers from reading and modifying the data during the
transfer between the browser and the web server. Even if hackers manage to
intercept the communication, they will not be able to use it because the
message is encrypted.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
 An encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network.
 The encrypted connection helps ensure that sensitive data is safely
 It prevents unauthorized people from eavesdropping on the traffic and allows
the user to conduct work remotely.
 Extends a corporate network through encrypted connections made over the
Internet. Because the traffic is encrypted between the device and the
network, traffic remains private as it travels.
This solves the privacy and security problem for us in a couple of ways:
 The destination site sees the VPN server as the traffic origin, not you.
 No one can (easily) identify you or your computer as the source of the data,
nor what you’re doing (what websites you’re visiting, what data you’re
transferring, etc.).
 Your data is encrypted, so even if someone does look at what you’re sending,
they only see encrypted information and not raw data.
When you use a VPN service, your data is encrypted (because you’re using
their app), goes in encrypted form to your ISP then to the VPN server. The
VPN server is the third party that connects to the web on your behalf.
VoIP (voice over IP)
 The transmission of voice and multimedia content over Internet Protocol
(IP) networks.
 A method for taking analog audio signals, like the kind you hear when you
talk on the phone, and turning them into digital data that can be
transmitted over the Internet.
 VoIP can turn a standard Internet connection into a way to place free
phone calls.
 Chances are good you're already making VoIP calls any time you place a
long-distance call.
 Uses Packet Switching.
 Example: Skype
Advantages of telecommuting
 More Flexibility. Many work-from-home jobs allow for a flexible schedule, so if you need to
go grocery shopping or do a load of laundry in the middle of the day, it’s simple: you can.
Or, if you’re a morning person or a night owl, you can adjust your work schedule
 Eco-friendly. Reduces climate change, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Properly
using videoconferencing and other remote communication tools can help companies reduce
business travel, which also cuts pollution. People who work from home also use less
electricity, fewer supplies, and less office equipment, reducing waste.
 Reduces cost. Hiring and training new workers is expensive. But companies that embrace
telecommuting may also save money on the purchase or leasing off office space. Work
flexibility also tends to reduce employee absenteeism, and it can allow companies to more
easily match their payrolls to seasonal or other shifts in employment, bringing additional
cost benefits. Finally, when a company’s employees can work from home, that business
doesn’t have to worry about losing productivity when a huge power outage hits the office,
or a storm or other natural disaster prevents travel.
 Fewer sick days. Working in a traditional office exposes you to many people’s germs, but if
you work from home, you have less exposure to people, and therefore, to their germs. Also,
if you’re feeling under the weather, it’s much easier to pamper yourself and still get some
work done when you’re at home, meaning you’ll probably take fewer sick days.
Disadvantages of telecommuting
 Distraction. Being able to work remotely or from home is losing concentration
on the task at hand. If an employee is within the comforts of his or her home,
distractions like watching television, social media activities and even
household chores can be tempting. This can also result to less productivity
and loss of sales and profit.
 Breach of Security. If an employee works from another location, he or she
will be given a pass code to get connected. This can be exposed to hackers or
unwanted intruders since accessing from a remote location can sometimes
create holes in connection security.
 Lack of oversight. Employers are often concerned that telecommuting will
limit their ability to supervise their workers. For sure, trust is an essential
ingredient in telecommuting. But even though the vast majority of
telecommuters experience higher productivity levels, you should be aware of
the fact that a small percentage of workers use telecommuting as an
opportunity to slack off.
 Lack of communication.
Management levels
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
 A computerized system records the daily routine transactions necessary to
conduct business.
Management Information Systems (MIS)
 MIS summarize and report on the company’s basic operations.
 The basic transaction data from TPS are compressed and are usually
presented in long reports that are produced on a regular schedule.
 MIS transforms transaction level data from inventory, production, and
accounting into MIS files that are used to provide managers with reports.
Decision Support Systems (DSS)
 DSS help managers make decisions that are
unique, rapidly changing, and not easily specified
in advance.
 They address problems where the procedure for
arriving at a solution may not be fully predefined
in advance.
 Although DSS use internal information from TPS
and MIS, they often bring in information from
external sources, such as current stock prices or
product prices of competitors.
 DSS have more analytical power than other
systems. They use a variety of models to analyze
data, or they condense large amounts of data into
a form in which they can be analyzed by decision
 DSS are designed so that users can work with
them directly; these systems explicitly include
user-friendly software. DSS are interactive; the
user can change assumptions, ask new questions,
and include new data.
Executive Support Systems (ESS)
 Senior managers use executive support systems (ESS) to help them make
 ESS are designed to incorporate data about external events, such as new tax
laws or competitors, but they also draw summarized information from
internal MIS and DSS.
 They filter, compress, and track critical data, displaying the data of greatest
importance to senior managers. (Highly summarized information)
 ESS employ the most advanced graphics software and can present graphs and
data from many sources.
 ESS are not designed primarily to solve specific problems. Instead, ESS provide
a generalized computing and communications capacity that can be applied to
a changing array of problems.
 Although many DSS are designed to be highly analytical, ESS tend to make less
use of analytical models.
Advantages of CBIS
 Promotes better communications between departments in a workplace:
When managers, department heads and employees are sharing the same
information, there is better communication between them to identify problem
areas and find mutually agreeable solutions.
 Strengthens a company's competitive advantage: Running a more efficient
business by reducing and eliminating weaknesses and non-performing areas
increases a company's competitive advantage over its rivals.
 Improves the quality of decisions: Better availability of information reduces
uncertainty and lets managers make more rational decisions based on reliable
 Cost effectiveness and productivity – the IS application promotes more
efficient operation of the company and also improves the supply of information
to decision-makers; applying such systems can also play an important role in
helping companies to put greater emphasis on information technology in order
to gain a competitive advantage.
Disadvantages of CBIS
 Unemployment and lack of job security. Most paperwork’s can be processed
immediately, financial transactions are automatically calculated, etc. As
technology improves, tasks that were formerly performed by human
employees are now carried out by computer systems.
 Security issues – thieves and hackers get access to identities and corporate
saboteurs target sensitive company data. Such data can include vendor
information, bank records, intellectual property and personal data on
company management. The hackers distribute the information over the
Internet, sell it to rival companies or use it to damage the company’s image.
 Implementation expenses – to integrate the information system it require
pretty good amount of cost in a case of software, hardware and people.
Software, hardware and some other services should be rented, bought and
supported. Employees need to be trained with unfamiliar information
technology and software.
Importance of Information Systems
 Organised Data. Your company will be well organised, come up with quick
solutions and make faster decisions under any circumstance. The employees
will be able to manage all their information and improve the execution of
their business processes
 Information Storage. Information system groups your important data by date
and time, making the process of finding it really convenient. Every valuable
bit of information is stored in a comprehensive database which is at your
disposal 24 hours a day.
 Avoiding Crisis. Using a high-quality information system, your company can
analyze stocks and see their past performance in order to predict a potential
crisis. The MIS keeps track of margins and profits to have every data
necessary for analyzing and averting a crisis.
 Easier Decision Making. Use the information system to develop strategic
plans and make the best choices when it comes to the next business steps of
the company.