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# DEFENCE UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTEMENT OF ELECTRICAL
POWER TECHNOLOGY

## Ass.Lecturer Asamenew Nigussei

July, 2014
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Industrial installation.

## Hours of training-40 Hours

Theoretical: 16 Hrs
Practical: 24Hrs

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Course breakdown

I. Measuring Instruments
II. Electric symbols and wiring
III.Switches, Relay & Contactors
IV.Types of Connections of motor
V. Speed control of a three phase induction motors

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I. Measuring instruments
Introduction
An electric meter is a device used to measure the electrical
characteristics of an electrical circuit.
Electric meters are available in many different types and
designs and must be selected for their use in the industry.

## The electrical characteristics in a circuit that are most

important to industry technicians are volts, amperes, and
ohms.
Although there are other important characteristics, these
three are the most important.
Most popular electrical meters are built around these three
electrical characteristics. 4
The most common types of electric meters are the
voltmeter, the ammeter, and the ohmmeter.
Basic Principles
Most electric measuring instruments make use of the
magnetic effect of electric current. When electrons flow
through a conductor in an electric circuit, a magnetic field
is created around that conductor.

## Figure-1: magnetic field is produced around a conductor 5

This magnetic field is used to move the needle of a meter
a certain distance, which represents the amount of the
characteristic (volts, ohms, or amperes) being measured.

## The stronger the magnetic field, the larger the movement

of the needle. The weaker the magnetic field, the smaller
the movement of the needle.

## Differences Among Meters

The differences among the various electric meters are
not in the meter movements, except for digital meters, but
in the internal circuits of the meters and in how the
magnetic fields are created.
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For electrons to flow in an electric circuit, an electric load
must be present. This electron flow is somewhat different
for the clamp-on ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter.

## The clamp-on meter picks up the magnetic field

through a set of laminated jaws on the meter.
The voltmeter uses a resistor as a load to produce a
magnetic field when voltage is applied to the circuit in the
meter.
The ohmmeter has its own power supply and uses the
device being checked as the load to produce a magnetic
field.

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Meters may be made in a combination and mounted in
one case, or they may be completely separate.

Figure-2
(a) Analog clamp-on ammeter
with volt-ohm function (b) Analog volt-ohm meter 8
Figure-3 (c) Digital clamp-on ammeter (d) Digital volt-ohm meter
with volt-ohm function 9
While analog meters depend on a magnetic field to move
the needle, the digital meter makes use of Ohm’s law to
measure and display the electrical characteristics of the
circuit.

## AMMETERS (current measurement)

The ammeter measures current flow in an electric circuit.
There are basically two types of ammeters used in the
industry today:

##  the clamp-on ammeter

 the in-line ammeter.
The clamp-on ammeter is the most popular because it is
the easiest to use. 10
Figure-4: Scale of ammeter showing current flow.
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Just follow a few simple rules to use The clamp-on
ammeter.

## First, select the scale that is appropriate for reading the

current draw of the electrical device being checked.( If the
approximate current is unknown, use the highest scale until the correct scale can be
determined.)
Then jaws of the clamp-on ammeter are clamped around
one conductor that is supplying a load or circuit.( The
magnetic field created by the current flowing through the wire is picked up by the jaws of
the ammeter and funneled into the internal connection of the meter.)

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NB: Never clamp the jaws of the meter around two wires to obtain an ampere reading.
If the current flows in the wires are opposite, as they often are, the meter will read zero
because the current flows cancel each other out. If the current flows are not opposite,
the meter will read the current draw in both conductors.

Figure-5: Technician using clamp-on ammeter to read the current draw of a compressor
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VOLTMETERS (voltage measurement)
The voltmeter is used to measure the amount of
electromotive force available to a circuit or load.

## The voltmeter was designed much like the ammeter, but a

resistor is added to the circuit to prevent a direct short
and allow electrons to flow in the meter.

## The voltmeter uses two leads that are connected to jacks

that lead to the internal wiring. To obtain a reading, the
two leads must touch or be connected to the conductors
supplying the load or to the circuit that transfers the
electromotive force to the meter.
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Figure-6: Technician checking the voltage of a compressor at the contactor

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OHMMETERS (resistance measurement)

## The ohmmeter is used to determine the operating

condition of a component or a circuit.
The ohmmeter can be used to find :
an open circuit
 an open component
 a direct short in a circuit or component.
It can also be used to measure the actual resistance of a
circuit or component.

## The word continuity is used many times when referring

to the use of ohmmeters.
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Continuity means that a particular circuit or component
has a complete path for current to follow.

## An open component or circuit means that there is infinite

resistance in the circuit.
The term measurable resistance means the actual
resistance that is measured with the ohmmeter.

## The ohmmeter is a valuable tool for diagnosing and

correcting problems in electric circuits.
The ohmmeter provides an easy method for checking
circuits for opens (i.e., open circuits) and shorts (i.e., short
circuits) and for measuring resistance.
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Figure-7: Three conditions of a circuit as
read on an ohmmeter.
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In many cases, you will have to measure the resistance of a
component to ensure that the component is in good
operating condition.

## Figure-8: Technician reading the resistance of an electric motor.

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The meter movement of an ohmmeter is designed and
built for a very low current that is available from its own
power source, usually a battery.

## Figure-9: The internal wiring of an ohmmeter

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The ohmmeter works much like the ammeter and the
voltmeter except for the small current that is supplied
from the internal power source.

## The ohmmeter also uses a magnetic field to move the

needle, but the magnetic field is created by a self-
contained power source in the meter.

## Due to the low current that an ohmmeter is built to carry,

it should never be connected to a circuit or device that is
being operated. The ohmmeter must be used with the
circuit power off to prevent damage to the meter.
The function of the ohmmeter is merely to read the
resistance of a device or circuit. 21
Tachometer
The word is derived from the Greek words tachos,
meaning "speed," and metron, meaning "to measure.“

## A tachometer is an instrument designed to measure the

rotation speed of an object, such as the rotation speed
of a shaft in a motor or other machine.
The device usually displays the revolutions per minute
(RPM) in numerical readings .

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Megger (The insulation resistance (I.R) test)

## It uses an applied DC voltage to measure insulation

resistance in either kΩ, MΩ or GΩ.
The measured resistance is intended to indicate the
condition of the insulation or dieletric between two
conductive parts, where the higher the resistance, the
better the condition of the insulation.

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Insulation resistance (I.R) is a critical parameter as it’s
directly related to
personal safety
safety of machinery and
power reliability.

## The I.R value of an electric devise changes with

aging
 mechanical and electrical stresses
 temperature
 contamination
 atmosphere
humidity etc.
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Megger

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II. Electric symbols and wiring
symbols are used in wiring diagrams to represent
system components such as compressors, indoor fan
motors, thermostats, pressure switches, motors and
heaters.
Industry technicians must be able to identify most
symbols and know where to look up the remainder.

## Most manufacturers use similar symbols for each type of

electric component, although there are some minor
differences in symbols between some major
manufacturers.

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27
(a) Symbols for switches: An electric switch is a device that opens and closes
to control some load in an electric circuit.
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(b) Symbols for loads: Loads are electric devices that consume
electricity to do useful work. 29
(c) Symbols for safety controls

## (d) Symbols for contactors and relays:

Contactors and relays are devices that open
and close a set or sets of electric contacts by
the action of a solenoid coil.

## (e) symbols for transformer. 30

BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
An electric circuit is the complete path of an electric
current, along with any necessary elements, such as a
power source and a load.
When the circuit is complete so that the current can
flow, it is termed closed or made.

## Figure-10: A closed circuit

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When the path of current flow is interrupted, the circuit
is termed open or broken .

## The opening and closing of electrical switches connected

in series with electrical loads control the operation of
loads in the circuit.

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The three types of circuits are
Series
Parallel and
series parallel

SERIES CIRCUITS
The series circuit allows only one path of current flow
through the circuit.
All devices are connected end to end within a series
circuit.

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Example:

## Figure-12: Series circuit with four resistance heaters.

Two elements are in series if
1. They have only one terminal in common (i.e., one
lead of one is connected to only one lead of the other).
2. The common point between the two elements is not
connected to another current-carrying element.
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Characteristics of series circuit
The current is the same through series elements.
The total resistance of a series circuit is the sum of the
resistance levels.
The total power delivered to a resistive circuit is equal
to the total power dissipated by the resistive elements.

## If all control components are connected in the circuit in

series, the opening of any switch or component will open
the circuit and stop the electric load, as shown in the
circuit in Figure below.

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Figure-13: Series circuit with three switches controlling an electric motor.

PARALLEL CIRCUITS
The parallel circuit has more than one path for the
electron flow.

## Parallel circuits are common in the industry because

most loads used operate from line voltage.
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Example

Figure-14: Parallel circuit with four components; each component is supplied with
120 volts.

SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITS
A series-parallel circuit is a combination circuit made
up of series and parallel circuits and is used only
sparingly in the industry.
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Example

## Figure-15: Series-parallel circuit with four loads and controlling switches

(switches in
series with loads in parallel) 38
Switching of lighting circuits:
There are numerous switching arrangements that make
up a lighting circuit. This section will look at the most
common ones.

Switching arrangements
Two-way switching
Intermediate switching
One-way switching

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One-way switching
The most basic circuit possible is the one-way switch
controlling one light, as shown in Figure below.
In this system, one terminal of the one-way switch
receives the switch feed; the switch wire leaves from
the other terminal and goes directly to the luminaire
(a).
Once operated, the switch contact is held in place
mechanically and therefore the electricity is
continually flowing through to the light (b).

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Figure : One-way switching

## Figure : One-way switching for wiring with single-core cables

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Two-way switching
Sometimes we need to switch a light on, or off, from
more than one location, e.g. at opposite ends of a long
corridor. When this is required, a different switching
arrangement must be used, the most common being the
two-way switch circuit.
In this type of circuit, the switch feed is feeding one
two-way switch, and the switch wire goes from the other
two-way switch to the luminaries.

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we supply the switch feed terminal, point (A).

## However, depending on the switch contact position, the

electricity can come out on either terminal B or
terminal C.

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Switching of lighting circuits
By connecting together the two two-way switches we
now have the ability at each switch to either energise
the switch wire going to the light or to de-energise it.
Case-1: the luminaire is off

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Case-2: the luminaire will now come on.

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Two-way switch controlling two lamps

Intermediate switching
If more than two switch locations are required, e.g. in a
long corridor with other corridors coming off it, then
intermediate switches must be used.
The intermediate switches are wired in the ‘strappers’
between the two-way switches. The action of the
intermediate switch is to cross-connect the ‘strapping’
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wires.
Any number of intermediate switches may be used
between two-way switches and they are all wired into
the ‘strappers’. In other words, an intermediate switch
has two positions.
the switch contact positions.

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Figure below shows an arrangement where the switch
wire is de-energised and therefore the luminaire is off.

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the switch feed along another section of the ‘strappers’
and energise the switch wire terminal, and therefore the
luminaire will come on,

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III. Relays , contactors, Switches and safety devices
Relays
A relay is a simple electromechanical switch made up of
an
electromagnetic core and its associated coil
a set of contacts
Springs
armature and the mounting.
An electric signal (Voltage) gets sent to the coil creating a
magnetic field, closing the armature, which closes
Normally Open (N.O.) and opens Normally Closed
(N.C.) Contacts.
Relays control current flow in a circuit based on signals
obtained from an information source. 51
Relays are electrically operated control switches, and are
classified according to their use as
POWER RELAYS
 CONTROL RELAYS.

## Power relays are called CONTACTORS; control relays are

usually known simply as RELAYS.

Figure-16: Relay
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Figure-17:internal part of a relay
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Figure-18: internal part of break-make contact
The relay shown in figure above has contacts known as
"break-make" contacts because they break one circuit
and make another when the relay is energized.
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Figure-19: types of contact combinations

## A single relay can have several different types of contact

combinations.

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To select a relay:
a) Identify coil voltage.
b) Identify maximum amperage and maximum voltage
going through contacts.
c) Identify how many sets of N.O. and N.C. contacts the
relay needs to switch at the same time.

Contactors
Contactors are used to electrically turn on or off high
current, non-motor loads or in motor loads where
overload protection is separately provided.

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The contactor operates by applying a control voltage to
the contactor coil. When the coil is energized, the
moveable contacts are closed against the stationary
contacts, thus completing a circuit (when the load is wired
to Normally Open contacts), or breaking a circuit (when
the load is wired to Normally Closed contacts).
A contactor does not provide overload protection.

Figure-20: a Contactor

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Motor-Starters
Motor-Starters are action devices that start and stop
motors and provide over-load protection. While the
core of a motor starter is a contactor, its ability to
provide over-load protection is the trait which makes
these items different than a simple contactor.

Figure-21: Motor-Starters
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MAGNETIC STARTERS
A magnetic starter is the same type of device as a
contactor in terms of the ampere rating of the device.
But the magnetic starter has a means of overload
protection in it, whereas the contactor has none.

## Figure-22: (a) Magnetic starter; (b) Symbol.

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SWITCHES
An electric switch is a device that opens and closes to
control some load in an electric circuit.

## Electric switches can be opened and closed by

temperature, pressure, humidity, flow, or by some
manual means.
The symbol will also indicate what is initiating the action
of the switch.

## A manually operated switch is a switch that is opened and

closed by manual force.

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The poles of a manual switch are the number of contacts
that are included in the switch.
The throw indicates how the switch may be operated.

## For example, a single-pole–single-throw switch has one

set of contacts and two positions: an open and a closed
position.

## Figure-23: Single-pole–single-throw manual switch 61

A double-pole–double-throw switch has two sets of
contacts and three positions.

## Figure-24: Double-pole–double-throw manual switch

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There are other types of manual switches used in the
industry.
The disconnect switch is used to open and close the
main power source to a piece of equipment or load.
Figure below shows a three-pole disconnect switch and
its symbol.

## Figure-25: Three-pole fusible disconnect 63

The push-button switch, as shown in Figure below, is a
switch used to open and close a set of contacts by
pressing a button.
The symbols for the normally closed and the normally
open push-button switches are also shown in Figure .

## Figure-26: (a) Push-button switch; (b) Symbol

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Mechanically operated switch:
Thermostats :they are mechanically operated switches
used in most control systems.
they are said to be mechanically operated because the
temperature-sensing element moves a set of contacts by a
Thermostats are designed for:
 heating
 cooling or both.

## The cooling thermostat is designed to close on a

temperature rise and open on a temperature fall.
The heating thermostat is designed to open on a
temperature rise and close on a temperature fall. 65
Figure-27.a : Symbols for heating and cooling thermostats.

Figure-27.b: Thermostat
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Pressure switches: they are used for different functions
in modern control circuits. The purpose of the pressure
switch determines whether it opens or closes on a rise
or fall in pressure.

## Figure-28.b: Pressure switches

Figure-28.a: Symbols for pressure switches

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SAFETY DEVICES
Safety devices are important in today’s modern systems.
Components are becoming more expensive each year.
Thus, it is vital that these components be protected from
adverse conditions such as low voltage, high ampere
draw, and overheating.

design.

## The fuse is the simplest type of overload device.

It is effective against a large overload, but it is less
effective against small overloads.
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The fuse is nothing more than a piece of metal designed to
carry a certain load. Any higher load will cause the fuse to
break the circuit.

## Figure-29.b: Some common fuses.

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Types of Connection
WYE CONNECTION
The wye or star connection is made by connecting one
end of each of the three-phase windings together as
shown in Figure below.

## Figure-30 : Line and phase voltages are different in a wye 70

connection.
In a wye connected system, the line voltage is higher
than the phase voltage by a factor of the square root of 3
(1.732).
Two formulas used to compute the voltage in a wye
connected system are:
ELine = EPhase 1.732
and
Ephase = ELine /1.732

## In a wye-connected system, phase current and line current

are the same.
ILine = IPhase
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DELTA CONNECTIONS
In Figure below, three separate inductive loads have
been connected to form a delta connection.
This connection receives its name from the fact that a
schematic diagram of this connection resembles the
Greek letter delta (Δ).

## Figure-31 : Three-phase delta connection

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Figure -32: Voltage and current relationships in a delta
connection.

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Figure-33: The parallelogram method of adding three-phase
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vectors
In the delta connection, line voltage and phase voltage
are the same.
ELine = EPhase

Notice that the line current and phase current are different,
however. The line current of a delta connection is
higher than the phase current by a factor of the square
root of 3 (1.732).

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Formulas for determining the current in a delta
connection are:
ILine = IPhase x 1.732
and
IPhase = ILine /1.732
THREE-PHASE POWER
If line values of voltage and current are known, the
power (watts) of a pure resistive load can be computed
using the formula:
VA = √ 3 x ELine x ILine
If the phase values of voltage and current are known, the
apparent power can be computed using the formula:
VA = 3 x EPhase x IPhase
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V. Speed control of a three phase induction motor
Induction motor and general principle
Electric motors can generally be divided into several
types as shown in figure below:

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Three-phase totally enclosed fan-cooled
induction motor

## induction motor without end

cover to show cooling fan

## induction motor with stator and rotor are

disassembled

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There are basically two types of induction motor that
depend upon the input supply
single phase induction motor
three phase induction motor.
single phase induction motor is not a self starting and
three phase induction motor is self starting.

## So what is self starting? When the machine starts

running automatically without any external force to the
machine, then it is called as self starting.

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As a general rule, conversion of electrical power in to
mechanical power takes place in the rotating part of an
electric motor.
In dc motor the electric power is conducted directly to the
armature (i.e rotating part) through brushes and
commutator.
Hence, in this sence a dc motor can be called a
conduction motor.
However in ac motor, the rotor does not receive electric
power by conduction but by induction in exactly the same
way as the secondary of a 2-winding transformer receives
its power from the primary.
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That is why such motors are known as induction
motors.
Infact, an induction motor can be treated as a rotating
transformer i.e one in which primary winding is
stationary, but secondary is free to rotate .

## Of all, the ac motors, the polyphase induction motor is

the one which is extensively used for various kinds of
industrial drives.

## It has the following main advantages and also some

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1, It has very simple and extremely rugged, almost
unbreakable construction.
2, Its cost is low and it is very reliable.
3, It has sufficiently high efficiency. In normal running
condition, no brushes are needed, hence frictional
losses are reduced. It has a reasonably good Power
factor.
4, It requires minimum of maintenance.
5, It starts up from rest and needs no extra starting
motor and has not to be synchronized. its starting
arrangement is simple especially for squirrel cage type
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motor.
1,its speed cannot be varied without sacrificing some of
its efficiency
2, just like a dc shunt motor, its speed decrease with
3, its starting torque is somewhat inferior to that of a dc
shunt motor

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The term motor starting is used to describe a device
which is used to:
Safely apply power to an electric motor to cause it to
start up and run
Protect a motor from the effects of overloading or
single phasing
Safely disconnect a motor from the supply to stop it
Prevent the motor re-starting after a supply failure (
only where danger may exist )
This is referred to as No Volt Protection.

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Main starting modes
 Direct on-line starting
Star-delta starting
Direct on-line starting(DOL)
The simplest form of motor starter for the induction motor
is the Direct On Line starter.

## The DOL starter comprises a contactor and an overload

protection relay.
The contactor switches the supply to the motor. It is
controlled by a start button and a stop button. The stop
button is an integral part of the overload relay.

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An auxiliary contact on the contactor is used to maintain
the supply to the contactor coil after the start button is
released.

## If the supply to the contactor coil fails, the contactor is

de-energised and the motor stops. The start button must
be pressed to energise the contactor again.
The overload relay monitors the current being taken by
the motor.
The circuit diagram of a DOL starter is generally done in
two separate stages. These are called
the Power Circuit
the Control Circuit
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Power Circuit
The power circuit shows all the components or parts of
components required to handle the load current of the
motor. As the motor power rating increases so too must
the current rating of the contactor, overload relay and
supply cables.

Control Circuit
The control circuit shows all the components or parts of
components required to control the motor.

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Where:
S0 = ‘OFF’ Push butto
S1 = ‘ON’ Push butto
K1 = Main contactor
F1 = Main circuit fuse
F2 = Overload relay
F3 = Control circuit fu

## Figure-34.a: power circuit Figure-34.b: control circuit 88

There is a high induced current in the rotor which results
in a current peak in the mains supply:
Current on starting = 5 to 8 rated Current.
The average starting torque is (Measure of force producing a rotation–
Turning Effort)
T on starting = 0.5 to 1.5 rated T.
(by the term torque is meant the turning or twisting moment of a force about an axis.it is
measured by the product of force and radius at which this force acts.)

89
In spite of its advantages (simple equipment, high
starting torque, fast start, low cost), direct on-line
starting is only suitable when:
the power of the motor is low compared to that of the
mains, which limits interference from inrush current,
the machine to drive does not need to speed up
gradually or has a damping device to limit the shock of
starting,
 the starting torque can be high without affecting
machine operation or the load that is driven.

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Types of motor control mechanism

## The control system for a single motor may be very simple

or it may be reasonably complicated.
A process line may consist of a number of motor driven
machines. They all have to start and stop as the process
demands. There are basically two types of control.

## Hand Control or Manual Control

Automatic Control

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Reversing the direction of rotation of three phase
induction motor

## In a three phase induction motors, the rotor tends to

rotate in the same direction as the revolving magnetic
field produced by the stator windings.

## The direction of the revolving field depends upon the

phase sequence of supply voltage .

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If the phase sequence of supply to the motor winding is
changed by interchanging any two phase leads, the
direction of the revolving fields is reversed.

## Thus the direction of rotation of a three phase induction

motor can be reversed if the two supply phase leads to
the motor terminals are interchanged.

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Where:
Stop : 'OFF' Push button
For : 'ON Clockwise' Push button
Rev : 'ON Anti-clockwise' Push b
K1 : Clockwise contactor
K2 : Anti-clockwise contactor
F1 : Main circuit fuses
F2 : Overload relay

## Figure-35: Main circuit

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a, forward-off-reverse b, direct reversing of the system
Figure-36: control circuit
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Sequence starting of two motors manually
Two motors are to be started in sequence, when first
motor is started, then only the second motor can be
started. i.e The second motor can be started only when
first motor is running .

## The second motor can be Stopped but when first motor is

stopped, both the motor should stop.

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Sequence starting of two motors automatically
Two three phase induction motors are to be started in
sequence (one after the other) direct on line
automatically by pressing single push button.
when START push button is pressed motor number one
should start and after a preset time, motor number two
should automatically start.

## when OFF push button is pressed, motor should stop .

There is no Separate START or OFF push button for
second motor and as such, it can not be started unless
motor number one is first started.
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Star-delta starting
This Star - delta starter can only be used with a motor
which is rated for contention in delta operation at the
required line voltage, and has both ends of each of the
three windings available individually.

## If a motors windings are connected in the star

configuration, any two phases will be in series across the
supply and hence the line current will be smaller(by
57.7%) than if the windings were connected in the delta
arrangement.

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ADVANTAGES OF STAR DELTA STARTER:

## a) Star-Delta starters are widely used due to their

relatively low price.
b) There are no limits to the number of times they can
be operated.
c) The components require very little space.
d) The starting current is reduced to approximately one-
third.

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DISADVANTAGES OF STAR DELTA STARTER:

## a ) The starter can only be applied to motors where the

six leads or terminals can be accessed.
b ) The supply voltage must be the same as the rated
motor voltage for Delta connection.
c ) Because the starting current is reduced to
approximately one-third of the rated current, the starting
torque is also reduced to one-third.

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d ) If the motor does not reach at least 90% of its rated
speed at the time of switching from Star to Delta the
current peak will be as high as in a D.O.L. start, thus
causing harmful effects to the contacts of the
contactors and the connection system brings no
advantage to the electrical system

101
Hence large type motors with heavy starting currents are
first connected in star, and then when the starting fall in
delta. Then this of course means that all six of the ends of
the windings must be brought to termination outside the
case.

## Three phase induction motor is starting using different

methods of star delta starting. These are:
Non automatic star-delta starter
Semi-automatic star delta starter
Fully automatic star delta starter
102
The automatic version of this starter incorporates a
timing relay, which automatically changes the
connection from star to delta.

## Time delay in any automatic star delta, between star and

delta connection should be sufficient to allow the motor
to come up to its normal speed.
This period may be taken as 10 seconds, but could be
less for a lightly loaded motor and greater for a slow
starting or heavily loaded motor.

103
Figure-37: Main circuit (power circuit) for star-delta starter
104
105