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History Traditions


Famous People
The Incas
The Incas of Cusco (Cuzco) originally represented one of these small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the
Quechuas. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors.
Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to
accelerate, particularly under the rule of the great emperor Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438-71). Historian
John Hemming describes Pachacuti as "one of those protean figures, like Alexander or Napoleon, who
combine a mania for conquest with the ability to impose his will on every facet of government." Under his
rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui (1471-93), the Incas came to control upwards of a third of South
America, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a
comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, called Tawantinsuyu, while consolidating his
absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco.
Between 1200 and 1535 AD, the Inca
population lived in the part of South
America extending from the Equator
to the Pacific coast of Chile. The
beginning of the Inca rule started with
the conquest of the Moche Culture in
Peru. The Inca were warriors with a
strong and powerful army. Because
of the fierceness of their army and
their hierarchical organization, they
became the largest Native American
society. The height of their reign in
the 15th century came to a brutal end
in 1535 when the Spanish
conquistadors took over their
Inca Son plays music from the Andes of Peru, and all
Latin America. The group performs traditional songs,
which the musicians arrange to create a unique style,
as well as original compositions. Several of the songs
from their last three recordings including : "Ascope
Tierra del Amanecer", "Cholita Tania", "El Abuelito",
and "Inti Libertad" - by Cesar Villalobos -- are hits in
Peru. The instruments that are used, with the
exception of the stringed instruments, are made by the
musicians themselves.
The defeat of the last bastion of royal power on the continent, however, proved a slow and arduous
task. Although a number of other coastal cities quickly embraced the liberating army, San Martín w
able to take Lima in July 1821 only when the viceroy decided to withdraw his considerable force to
the Sierra, where he believed he could better make a stand. Shortly thereafter, on July 28, 1821, San
Martín proclaimed Peru independent and then was named protector by an assembly of notables.
However, a number of problems, not the least of which was a growing Peruvian resentment over th
heavy-handed rule of the foreigner they dubbed "King José," stalled the campaign to defeat the
royalists. As a result, San Martín decided to seek aid from Simón Bolívar Palacios, who had liberate
much of northern South America from Spanish power.
The two liberators met in a historic meeting in Guayaquil in mid-1822 to arrange the terms of a join
effort to complete the liberation of Peru. Bolívar refused to agree to a shared partnership in the
Peruvian campaign, however, so a frustrated San Martín chose to resign his command and leave Pe
for Chile and eventual exile in France. With significant help from San Martín's forces, Bolívar then
proceeded to invade Peru, where he won the Battle of Junín in August 1824. But it remained for his
trusted lieutenant, thirty-one-year-old General Antonio José de Sucre Alcalá, to complete the task o
Peruvian independence by defeating royalist forces at the hacienda of Ayacucho near Huamanga (a
city later renamed Ayacucho) on December 9, 1824. This battle in the remote southern highlands
effectively ended the long era of Spanish colonial rule in South America
, Peru was a conservative, royalist stronghold where the potentially restless
creole elites maintained a relatively privileged, if dependent, position in th
colonial system. At the same time, the "anti-white" manifestations of the
Despite the Túpac Amaru revolts, independence was slow to develop in the
Viceroyalty of Peru . For one thing Túpac Amaru revolt demonstrated that
indigenous masses could not easily be mobilized without posing a threat to
creole caste itself. Thus, when independence finally did come in 1824, it w
largely a foreign imposition rather than a truly popular, indigenous, and
nationalist movement. As historian David P. Werlich has aptly put it, "Peru
role in the drama of Latin American independence was largely that of a
interested spectator until the final act."
Government: On April 5, 1992, democratically elected President Fujimori staged military-backed self-coup,
closing legislative and judicial branches and suspending 1979 constitution. Under 1979 constitution,
executive power vested in president of the Republic, elected for a four-year term in elections held every five
years. If no one presidential candidate received an absolute majority, the first- and second-place candidates
ran in a runoff election. President could not serve two consecutive terms. Governed with a Council of
Ministers that included a prime minister. Bicameral Congress had a 60-member Senate, elected on a district
basis; and a 180-member Chamber of Deputies directly elected by proportional representation. Both houses
elected for terms of five years coinciding with those of president and vice president. Needed two-thirds vote
to override presidential veto. Supreme Court of Justice highest judicial authority; twelve members nominated
by president for life terms. At regional level, 1979 constitution mandated establishment of regional
governments. Regionalization initiated in 1988 but stalled in 1992. Direct elections for municipalities held
every three years and for regions, every five years. Under international pressure, Fujimori began transition to
his reformed version of democracy with the establishment of the Democratic Constituent Congress (Congreso
Constituyente Democrático--CCD) to serve as autonomous, single-chamber legislative body. Its eighty
members were elected on November 22, 1992 in free and fair elections. Nationwide municipal elections held
on January 29, 1993.
Politics: Peru's multiparty system traditionally has had numerous political parties. Virtually unknown,
Fujimori ran for president in 1990 as "outsider" candidate of Peru's newest party, Cambio '90 (Change '90).
With help from business and informal sectors and Evangelical grassroots organizers, Fujimori elected
overwhelmingly by electorate that had lost faith in established political system. Succeeded populist Alan
García Pérez, controversial head of left-of-center American Popular Revolutionary Party (Alianza Popular
Revolucionaria Americana-- APRA), Peru's oldest party. Impatient with legislative and judicial hindrance of
free-market reforms, Fujimori staged selfcoup on April 5, 1992, with full backing of armed forces, dissolving
Congress, suspending 1979 constitution, and moving against political opposition led by García, who, accused
of stockpiling weapons, fled into exile.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$20.6 billion in 1991, or US$920
per capita. Real GDP per capita in 1990 US$2,622. GDP in 1991 in new
sols (see Exchange Rate, this section) lower than recorded in 1980.
Economic growth has declined markedly since 1950-65 period;
estimated at 2.4 percent in 1991, minus 2.7 percent in 1992. Forecast for
1993: 2.5 percent real GDP growth. In 1990-91 symptoms of 1980s'
crisis continued, with sharply declining per capita output, worsening
poverty, accelerating political violence, high levels of unemployment (15
percent) and underemployment (65 percent) and mounting external debt
(US$19.4 billion in 1991). Foreign debt rose to US$21.6 billion in 1992.
Labor force increased to 7.6 million by 1990. After Alberto K. Fujimori
took office as president (1990-), inflation declined significantly to only
139 percent per year by the end of 1991, as compared with 7,650 percent
in 1990, and 56.6 percent in 1992. Infation forecast for 1993: 47 percent.
Population: 22,767,543 in July 1992 with 2.0 percent growth rate;
density, 17.8 persons per square kilometer. Projected population growth
to 28 million by 2000 with annual growth rate of at least 2.1 percent.
Population 70 percent urban in 1991.
Official language: Spanish.
Ethnic Groups: Unofficial estimates: Native American, 45 percent;
mestizo (mixed native American and European ancestry), 37 percent;
white, 15 percent; black, Asian, and other, 3 percent. Other estimates
put native Americans as high as 52.5 percent (Quechua, 47.1 percent;
Aymara, 5.4 percent).
A Smorgasbord of Weather
Peru is located in the tropics near the equator, Peru's weath
is not what you'd expect. On Earthyou can find a total of 32
kinds of climate and Peru has 28 of them. On a trip through
Peru you might find hot deserts, dry forests, humid savann
plain rainforests, cold plateaus, cool steppes and icy
mountains. It's tough to pack!
1/2 cup dry-roasted peanuts
1 tablespoon vegetable oil
1 1/2 cups thinly sliced onion
6 cups water
1/2 cup yellow cornmeal
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon ground cumin
1/8 teaspoon ground allspice
4 cups julienne-cut peeled sweet potato (about
1 pound)
1 1/2 pounds skinless, boneless chicken
breasts, cut into bite-size pieces
1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro
6 Ounce Albacore Tuna Steak
2T Cajun Spice
6 Ounces Lettuce, rough chop
2T Cilantro, chopped
2 Ounces Cheddar Cheese, grated
2 Ounces Salsa2 Ounces Mayonaise
3 Ounces Tortilla Chips, crushed
1/4 Each Avocado, fanned
1 Each Red Chill, for garnish
1 Ounce Salsa, for garnish
1 Sprig Cilantro, for garnish
Pisco Sour
Pisco is a type of clear brandy produced in the Ica region of Peru. A
quality pisco should be smooth and have a perfume-like aroma.
•1 egg white
•1 tbs sugar
•1 glass of pisco
•juice from 6 limes
•chipped ice
•angostura bitters (optional)
Beat the egg white and sugar in a blender. Add pisco, lime juice, ice, and
angostura bitters if desired. Mix well and pour into shot glasses.
Isabel Allende (Peru

Isabel Allende is one of Latin

America's most celebrated literary
figuresThe niece of the slain Chilean
President Salvador Allende, she writes
with an acute sensitivity to social and
political conditions as well as the heart
of a true romantic.

Allende is considered to be part of

Latin American fiminist literary
awakening.She be writing about her
experiences that she had in her life
and other things.
Biography:: "The House of the Spirits", "Of
Love and Shadows", "Eva Luna", "The
Infinite Plan", "Paula and Aphrodite: A
Memoir of the Senses" ...

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