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Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (1/31)

Contents

0. Roles & Responsibilities

1. Plan Human Resource Management

2 . A c q u i r e P r o j e c t Te a m

3 . D e v e l o p P r o j e c t Te a m

4 . M a n a g e P r o j e c t Te a m

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (2/31)
Roles & Responsibilities
Sponsor
• Initiation: Provide financial resources for the project, determine
requirements and initial scope, giving authority to project manager,
provide information required to develop project charter
• Planning: Define required reports, identify high level risks, and authorize
project management plan,
• Execution and M/C: Authorize changes, solving problems out of project
manager scope, answering questions regarding project scope, and
impose quality policy
• Closing: Final acceptance for the product (If he was the client)
Functional manager
• Individuals who manage resources in specific department
• Assign resources with project manager
• Approve final schedule and final project management plan
• Recommend changes to the project
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (3/31)
Roles & Responsibilities

Portfolio Manager
• Manage unrelated projects
• Ensure that selected projects provide value to the organization
• Getting the best return from resources invested

Program Manager
• Manage group of related projects
• Adjust projects for program benefit
• Guide and support project managers

Team
• Help identifying requirements, constraints, and assumptions
• Help creating WBS, and time/cost estimations
• Execute/comply with project management plan
• Recommend changes

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (4/31)
Roles & Responsibilities

Project Manager
• In charge of the project and doesn’t have to be technical expert
• Influence project team and atmosphere
• Coordinate interaction between project and key persons
• Select appropriate processes for the project
• Lead / direct planning efforts
• Identify / analyze constraints and assumptions
• Assist and support team during execution
• Determine and deliver required levels of quality
• Determine need for changes
• Maintain control over project
• Must say No when necessary
• Apply project management knowledge
• Spend more time being proactive than reacting with problems

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (5/31)
Roles & Responsibilities

Project Manager ( With Human Resources)


• Determine what resources will be needed
• Create job descriptions
• Create project team directory
• Create human resource plan
• Create recognition and reward system
• Make sure that all roles and responsibilities are clearly assigned
• Report team members performance
• Understand training needs for team members

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (6/31)
01. Plan Human Resource Management

H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t
9.1 Plan Human Resource Management

Inputs :
 Project Management Plan
 Activity Resource Requirements
 Enterprise Environmental Factors
 Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques :
 Organization Charts and Position Descriptions
 Networking
 Organizational Theory
 Expert Judgment
 Meetings
Outputs :
 Human Resource Management Plan

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (7/31)
01. Plan Human Resource Management

TT Organization Charts and Position Descriptions:


Document team members roles and responsibilities to ensure that each work
package has owner using one of the following formats:

• Hierarchical
Ex: OBS, RBS, WBS

• Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)


This type illustrates connection between
activities and team members
Ex: RACI (R= Responsible, A= Accountable,
C= Consult, I= Inform)

• Text-Oriented Formats
Also known as Position Descriptions,
and Role-Responsibility- Authority Form

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (8/31)
01. Plan Human Resource Management

TT Networking:
Formal and informal interactions with others
Ex: Luncheon meetings, informal conversation, events, and conferences.

TT Organizational Theory:
Addressing the way people and organizational units behave.
Different organizational structures have different individual response,
individual performance, and personal relationship characteristics.
Ex: Scientific management, bureaucracy model, simple structure,
hierarchical structure, functional organizations, and matrix organizations.

TT Expert Judgment:
List required skills and determine reporting relationship needed

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (9/31)
01. Plan Human Resource Management

O Human Resource Management Plan:


How human resources will be defined, staffed, managed, and released.
Part of PM Plan and may include:

1- Roles and Responsibilities:


• Role: Function assigned to a person in the project. Ex: Civil Engineer
• Authority: The right to make a decision, approval, acceptance … etc.
Ex: Quality acceptance, change approval.
• Responsibility: Assigned duties. Ex: Construction of concrete skeleton.
• Competency: Skills required to complete activities.

2- Project Organization Chart:


• Graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (10/31)
01. Plan Human Resource Management

3- Staffing Management Plan:


• Where they will come from (acquisition)
• When recruiting should be start (calendar and histograms)
• Staff release plan (help mitigate risks and improve morale)
• Training Needs (if expecting team members will not have required skills)
• Compliance with HR rules and governmental regulations
• Safety policies and procedures
• Recognition & reward systems :
• Say (Thank You)
• Member of the month prize / performance prize
• Recommend him/her for raises
• Parties, events, and celebrations
• Training courses (paid)

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (11/31)
02. Acquire Project Team

H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t
9.2 Acquire Project Team
Inputs :
 Human Resource Management Plan
 Enterprise Environmental Factors
 Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques :
 Pre-Assignment
 Negotiation
 Acquisition
 Virtual terms
 Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
Outputs :
 Project Staff Assignments
 Resource Calendars
 Project Management Plan Updates

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (12/31)
02. Acquire Project Team
TT Pre-Assignment:
Sometimes resources are assigned in advance (defined within charter)
because of their experience or the sponsor require these resources to be
assigned in the project.

TT Negotiation:
• Negotiate with functional manager, other PM teams within organization to
assign scarce and specialized resources, or with external organizations and
contractors
• When negotiating from within your organization:
1. Know the needs of your project and its priority in the organization
2. Understand that the resource manager has his own work to do
3. Don’t ask for the best resource if the project does not need them
4. Be able to prove why project requires stated resources quantity an quality
5. Build relationship with resource manager and discover what he will need
from you
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (13/31)
02. Acquire Project Team

TT Acquisition:
When organization is unable to provide the staff needed, you can get the
work done through outsourcing or by subcontracting the work to another
organization .
TT Virtual Teams:
Team members with little or no time spent meeting face to face.
Advantages:
1. Use special expertise even if the expert is not in the same area
2. Incorporate employees who work from home
3. Include people with mobility limitations or disabilities
4. Work in projects that would have been ignored due to travel expenses
Disadvantage:
1. Possibility for misunderstanding
2. Difficulties of sharing knowledge and experience between members
3. Cost of applying communication technology
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (14/31)
02. Acquire Project Team

TT Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis:


Using analysis tool, criteria are used to rate or score team member like:
availability, cost, experience, ability, knowledge, skills, and attitude
• Halo effect is the tendency to rate employee on all factors due to one
factor. This action has negative impacts and should be avoided
Ex: Assigning a project manager because he is a great programmer

O Project Staff Assignments:


When appropriate people have been assigned,
1. Document this assignment in Project Team Directory
2. Send memos to team members
3. Insert name in organization chart

O Resource Calendar:
It documents the time period that each team member can work including
persons availability, vacation time, holidays, work hours, … etc.
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (15/31)
03. Develop Project Team

H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t
9.3 Develop Project Team
Inputs :
 Human Resource Management Plan
 Project Staff Assignments
 Resource Calendars
Tools and Techniques :
 Interpersonal skills
 Training
 Team-Building Activities
 Ground Rules
 Co location
 Recognition and Rewards
 Personnel Assessment Tools
Outputs :
 Team Performance Assessments
 Enterprise Environmental Factors Updates

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (16/31)
03. Develop Project Team

TT Interpersonal Skills: (Soft Skills)


Assessing and controlling team members sentiments ‫ مشاعر‬and following up
their issues increase cooperation and reduce tension.
Ex: Communication skills, emotional intelligence, conflict resolution,
negotiation, influence, creativity, and team building.
Encourage team, communicate honestly, establish and maintain trust.
TT Training:
Enhance competencies to reduce overall project cost
Scheduled training takes place as stated in human resource plan
Unplanned training takes place as a result of observation
TT Ground Rules:
What behavior is acceptable and what is not acceptable for example:
• How should team member resolve conflicts with others
• Who is authorized to give direction to contractors
• Acceptable behavior during meetings
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (17/31)
03. Develop Project Team

TT Team-Building Activities
Team building is to help team members work together effectively exercising
the following :
• Handle team members problems & discuss them as team members
issues
• Introduce appropriate rewards and recognition
• Manage conflicts effectively
• Provide good leadership
• Promote trust and open communication among team members
• WBS creation is a team-building tool

In Matrix organization you don’t have the ability to give team a rise or
promotion. Trust as well as recognition and reward system will make you
able to get people to cooperate.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (18/31)
03. Develop Project Team

Team Development Stages:

It is one of the models used to describe team development

1. Forming: People are brought together as a team


2. Storming: There are disagreements as people learn to work
together
3. Norming: Team members begin to build good relationships, begin
trust each other
4. Performing: Team members work effectively together as well-
organized unit
5. Adjourning: Team members complete the work and moves on from
the project

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (19/31)
03. Develop Project Team

TT Co-Location:
Placing the active team members in the same location (war room) to
enhance their ability to perform as a team.
War room is a central location for project coordination usually with WBS,
networks, schedule, … etc. posted on the wall

TT Personnel Assessment Tools:


These tools help project manager assess team members preferences,
aspirations, how they organize information, how they make decisions, and
how they prefer to interact with people.
Examples of these tools are surveys, interviews, and focus groups.
These tools provide improved understanding, communication, and trust
among the team.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (20/31)
03. Develop Project Team

O Team Performance Assessments:


The evaluation of a team’s effectiveness may include indicators such as:
1. Improvement in skills
2. Improvement in competencies
3. Increased team cohesiveness
4. Reduce staff turnover rate

Note: Team performance assessment is done by project manager or by


project management team for all team , not for individuals.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (21/31)
04. Manage Project Team

H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t
9.4 Manage Project Team

Inputs :
 Human Resource Management Plan ■ Project Staff Assignments
 Team Performance Assessments ■ Issue Log
 Work Performance Reports ■ Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques :
 Observation and Conversation ■ Project Performance Appraisals
 Conflict Management ■ Interpersonal Skills
Outputs :
 Change Requests
 Project Management Plan Updates
 Project Documents Updates
 Enterprise Environmental Factors Updates
 Organizational Process Assets Updates

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (22/31)
04. Manage Project Team

I Issue Log:
Output of “Manage Stake Holder Engagement“ process and used to manage
and follow up issues .

Issue Date Raised Person Resolution Date


Issue Status Resolution
No Added By Assigned Due Date Resolved

TT Observation and Conversation:


Used to stay in touch with the work and attitude of team members.

TT Project Performance Appraisals:


Evaluation of employees’ performance by their supervision.
360-Degree Review is one of the ways to complete appraisal by including
the input of coworkers, subordinates, and supervisors.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (23/31)
04. Manage Project Team

TT Conflict Management:

A - Conflict Sources:

1- Schedule 2- Project Priorities 3- Technical Opinions


4- Resources 5- Administrative Procedures 6- Cost
7- Personality ‫تذكر أول أربعة وتذكر ان الشخصية هى األخيرة‬

B - Conflict Properties:

1. Conflict is natural and inevitable


2. Conflict is consequence of organizational interaction
3. Conflict resolution needs openness
4. Conflict resolution should focus on issues not personalities
5. Conflict resolution should focus on present not past

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (24/31)
04. Manage Project Team

TT Conflict Management:

C - Conflict Avoiding Techniques:

1- Ground Rules 2- Role Definition 3- Communication Planning


4- Inform team of project objectives, constraints, charter
5- Make work assignments interesting and challenging

D - Resolution Responsibility:

1. Conflict is best resolved by those involved in the conflict


2. If conflict escalate, project manager should help facilitate satisfactory
resolution.
3. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures should be used including
disciplinary actions. ‫إجراءات تأديبية‬

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (25/31)
04. Manage Project Team

TT Conflict Management:

E - Conflict Resolution Techniques:

1. Collaborate/Confront (Problem Solving): Incorporate multiple viewpoint


to lead to consensus then problem goes away leading to win-win situation.
2. Compromise/Reconcile : Bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties,
then no party gets everything, leading to lose-lose situation. Compromising
in not the best choice but rather second to confronting.
3. Withdraw/Avoid: Parties retreat ‫ يتراجع‬or postpone a decision.
4. Smooth/Accommodate: Emphasize agreements rather than difference in
opinions, conceding ‫ خضوع‬one’s position to the needs of others to maintain
harmony and relationships.
5. Force/Direct: Pushing one viewpoint at the expense of others.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (26/31)
04. Manage Project Team

TT Interpersonal Skills: ‫مهارات التعامل مع اآلخرين‬

A. Powers of project manager:

1. Formal (Legitimate): Based on your position )‫رسمي (شرعي‬


2. Reward: Giving rewards and prizes.
3. Penalty (Coercive): For example removing from some team )‫العقاب(اإلكراه‬
4. Expert: Power comes from being project management expert.
5. Referent: The ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the
follower's loyalty, respect, or admiration. It’s the power of charisma.
Notes:
• Best powers are Expert and Reward. The worst is Penalty.
• Powers derived from PM position are Formal, Reward, and Penalty
• Power earned on your own is Expert
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (27/31)
04. Manage Project Team

TT Interpersonal Skills: ‫مهارات التعامل مع اآلخرين‬


B. Management and Leadership Styles:

• At the beginning of project use directing styles.


• At the project execution use coaching, facilitating, and supporting.

1. Directing: Telling others what to do.


2. Facilitating: Coordinating the inputs of others.
3. Coaching: Helping other achieve their goal.
4. Supporting: Providing assistance along the way.
5. Autocratic: Manager has power to do what he want. ‫استبدادي‬
6. Consultative: Manager obtains others’ opinions & act as servant for team
7. Consultative- Autocratic: Manager takes input from team members but
retains decision-making authority for him self.
8. Consensus: Making decisions base on group agreement.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (28/31)
04. Manage Project Team

TT Interpersonal Skills: ‫مهارات التعامل مع اآلخرين‬


B. Management and Leadership Styles:

9. Delegation: Establish goals then give team authority to complete the work.
10. Bureaucratic : Following procedures exactly. Appropriate for critical work.
11. Charismatic: Energize and encourage team in performing.
12. Democratic (Participative): Team own the decision made by group.
13. Laissez-Faire: Leave alone/Allow to act. Manager is not directly involved
in team work but consult as necessary. ‫دعه يعمل‬
14. Analytical: Manager asks questions to get facts.
15. Driver: Constantly giving directions. His attitude drives team to win.
16. Influencing: This style emphasizes team work, teambuilding, and team
working. These managers work with their teams to influence project
implementation. Influence skills include: persuasive – listening – mutual
trust – consideration of various perspectives.
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (29/31)
04. Manage Project Team

Important Notes

Problem Solving Method:


1- Define the real problem 2- Analyze problem
3- Identify solutions 4- Pick a solution
5- Implement solution 6- Confirm solution solved problem

Special Terms :
A. Expectancy Theory: Employees who expect to be rewarded for their
accomplishments remains productive as rewards meet their expectations.
B. Perquisites (Perks): Some employees receive special rewards such as
assigned parking space or executive dining. ‫االمتيازات االستثنائية‬
C. Fringe Benefits : Standard benefits formally given to all employees such
as educational benefits, insurance, and profit sharing. ‫المزايا االضافية‬

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (30/31)
04. Manage Project Team

Motivation Theories

A- McGregor’s theory of X & Y:


Theory X: Managers who believe that people need to be watched every minute.
Theory Y: Managers who believe people are willing to work without supervision

B- Maslow’s theory hierarchy of need:


To ascend next level you should fulfill levels below.
Starting from the pyramid base :

1. Physiological: Air, water, ... etc.


2. Safety: Security, Stability, ... etc.
3. Social: Like, love, friends, ... etc.
4. Esteem: Attention, respect, ... etc.
5. Self Actualization: Learning, growth, … etc.
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 09 : Project Human Resource Management (31/31)
04. Manage Project Team

C- David McClelland's Theory of Needs:


Also Called Acquired Needs Theory
1. People need achievement  They like recognition  Give them challenging
projects.
2. People need Affiliation  They seek approval rather than recognition  Let
him cooperate with others.
3. People need Power  Effective Leader  If socially oriented(not personally
oriented), allow him to manage others.
D- Herzberg’s Theory:
1. Hygiene Factors: Work condition, salary, security, personal life, relationship at
work.
2. Motivating Agents: Responsibility, self-actualization, recognition, professional
growth.
Poor hygiene factors may destroy motivation but improving them will not improve
motivation
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany