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• Fashion illustration is considered as the most
fundamental component of fashion design .It is
used to prevent the design ideas , it can be
presented through many forms and texture with
plenty of creative themes and impressions.
• It begins with the sketching of Croquis , the extra
notation of garment and also the technological
representation of the garment.
• Designers frequently sketch out their thoughts and
ideas in notebook before they create.
• A grown up human body is divided into eight equal parts
which are equal in height to that of the head.
So each part is known as head.
According to this theory, the normal body structure is
considered 5′4″ height. This body is divided into 8 parts in which
each part is 8″ in length. A development of this theory is the ten
head theory, which is used for all fashion drawing. This figure is
referred to as fashion model figure. In this system, the body
structure is divided into ten equal parts or heads. The bottom
part of the body is longer compared to the eight head figure.
The ideal height for this theory is taken to be 5′8″. The division
of body structure in the eight head principle is shown in Figure-
• Hair to chin: The garments are generally worn on the body through the head
and hence hat or cap head measurements should be taken. The right place on
the neck is the chin itself. Yoke measurements are taken 1″ below the chin. The
head is considered the first portion of the human body and the chin is
considered a first imaginary line.
• Chin to nipple: The upper body garments are prepared according to the size of
the chest only. This is the second part and the second imaginary line passes
through the nipples and the armscye. This line denotes the bust level.
• Nipple to navel: The next imaginary line passes through the navel; shoulder to
waist is measured up to the navel points. This level is the waist level. But for
proper garment fitting, the waist measurement for ladies is taken 1″ above the
waist level and for men 1/2” below the line.
• Navel to pubic organs: This part is most important for lower body garments. The
lower body garments are cut based on the hip size. The hip level is usually 3–4″
above this imaginary line. This is the most heavy or fat part of the body. This is
also as important as the chest measurements.
Pubic organ to mid thigh: This part is important mainly for arm
measurements. The fingertips normally end near about this line. The
length of the arms is measured as 3 heads.
Mid thigh to small: The part below the knee is known as small. The
knee level is about 2–3″ above this imaginary line. Length of gowns
is taken around this head.
Small to ankle: This head is important for full length garments like
trousers. These garments usually end here. The calf level is above
this head. House coats, nightgowns, etc. end at the calf level.
Ankle to feet: The eight heads are imagined on assuming a person
standing on the toes. This is the last head and it comprises only the
feet. This is necessary for tight fitting leggings and floor-length
garments like evening gowns.
• By the knowledge of eight head theory, the
observation of the body structure becomes easy.
• It will facilitate drafting and fitting. If there happens
to be any fault, then it shall be detected and
• Knowledge of body structure shall be helpful in
taking correct measurement and this will result in
correct cutting and the garment shall be stitched
• Work shall be easily and speedily executed.
• The ten head figure is considered the fashion
figure. This is mostly used for fashion drawing and
designing. The division of body structure in the ten
head principle is shown in Figure-
• chin: Like the eight head figure, the head is the first part. The
first imaginary line is at the level of the chin.
• Chin to bust: This is the second and the most significant part of
the figure. The second imaginary line is across the bust and
the armscye. The shoulder level is in between this part, which
is wider than the eight head figure.
• Waist level: In the ten head figure, the waist level is about 2–
21/2″, below the third imaginary line.
• The hip level: The hip level is also 2–3″ below the fourth
imaginary line. This is also the end of the torso level. The torso
of the ten head figure is longer than the eight head figure. This
is also a very important level for fashion figures.
• The end of pubic organs: This is the position of the fifth
imaginary line. The hand usually ends just below this line.
• Knee level: The knee level is in between the sixth and
seventh imaginary line. The sixth line signifies the end of the
thigh whereas the seventh line is at the level of the small.
• Calf level: The eighth line signifies the calf level. The lengths
of leg are longer in the ten head figure compared to the
eight head figure.
• Ankle level: The ankles are at the ninth imaginary line.
• Feet: The last parts of this figure are the feet. Like the eight
head figure, this figure too is assumed to be standing on its
• The following points have to be taken into account while
taking body measurements.
• Prior to taking the body measurements, it is advisable to
understand the customer’s requirements, concerning the
shape, fit, and style of the garment.
• It is important to study the human anatomy carefully and
if any variation in body proportion is noticed, it has to be
recorded and should be taken into account while taking
measurements and pattern making.
• While taking the measurements, the person should stand
straight in front of a mirror.
• Body measurements should be taken with tape,
without keeping it too tight or loose with the body.
• The measurements should be taken in the
appropriate order and with a definite sequence.
• All girth measurements should be taken tightly,
since ease allowance is incorporated in the draft.
• After taking all the measurements, they should be
rechecked twice.
• Taking body measurement
• The definition of garment sizing and fit has evolved over
time. Current garment sizing is based on the standard
measurements of one single fit model of the ideal customer
that is representative of the target market for a given style
of garment. For perfect sizing of garment body
measurement is very important. Body measurement plays a
vital role in better fitting of garments to the human body.
Hence, it is crucial for a designer or dressmaker to have
better knowledge of body anatomy as well as the correct
procedure for taking body measurements. For efficient
fabric utilisation in the cutting room, the designer should
know the size and shape of the body for which the designing
has to be done, and it begins with the eight head theory.
• The father of tailoring, Mr. Wampon, drew seven
imaginary lines across the body structure for the
purpose of easy measurement in tailoring. The
complete body structure was lengthwise divided
into eight equal parts, which is known as the eight
head theory. This theory has become the
foundation of all fashion drawing and for
understanding the body shape and structure for