You are on page 1of 20

• HAFIZ FAIZAN ASIF 2015-PE-14

• HAFIZ TANVEER ASHRAF 2015-PE-20


• MUHAMMAD NOUMAN 2015-PE-36
• MUHAMAD TAYYAB NAEEM 2015-PE-37
• MUHAMMAD AFAQ 2015-PE-38
• SAAD-UR-REHMAN 2015-PE-43
1. Dfgh
2. Sg
3. Beginning of Life
4. Dhf
5. Dark Energy and Expanding Universe
Scientific Mystery
• Life on Earth began more than 3 billion years ago, evolving
from the most basic of microbes into a dazzling array of
complexity over time.
• But how did the first organisms on the only known home to life in
the universe develop from the primordial soup?
• Many theories have been developed to solve this mistry
• Let’s discuss them one by one !
Electric sparks can
generate amino acids and sugars
from an atmosphere loaded with
water, methane, ammonia and
hydrogen.

“Lightning may have provided the


spark needed for life to begin’’

As, it was shown in the famous Miller-Urey experiment reported in 1953,


suggesting that lightning might have helped create the key building blocks of life
on Earth in its early days. Over millions of years, larger and more complex
molecules could form.
Or could simple clay have fueled life’s beginning? Read on to find out.
According to an idea
elaborated by organic chemist
Alexander Graham Cairns-
Smith at the University of
Glasgow in Scotland.

“The first molecules of life


might have met on clay”

These surfaces might not only have concentrated these organic


compounds together, but also helped organize them into patterns much like our
genes do now.
“The deep-sea vent theory
suggests that life may have begun
at submarine hydrothermal
vents spewing key hydrogen-rich
molecules”

Their rocky nooks could


then have concentrated these
molecules together and provided
mineral catalysts for critical
reactions.

Even now, these vents, rich in chemical and thermal energy, sustain vibrant
ecosystems.
The next idea is a chilling thought. Read on!
Ice might have covered the
oceans 3 billion years ago, as the
sun was about a third less luminous
than it is now, scientists say.

“This layer of ice, possibly hundreds


of feet thick, might have protected
fragile organic compounds in the
water below from ultraviolet light
and destruction from cosmic impacts”

The cold might have also helped these molecules to survive longer, allowing key reactions
to happen. [Related: The Ingredients of Life]
Understanding life’s origin may involve unravelling the mystery of DNA's formation, as we
explain next.
“Perhaps life did not begin on
Earth at all, but was brought here
from elsewhere in space, a notion
known as panspermia”

For instance, rocks regularly get


blasted off Mars by cosmic
impacts, and a number of
Martian meteorites have been
found on Earth that some
researchers have controversially
suggested brought microbes over
here, potentially making us all
Martians originally.
Oh, and if you thought all that was mysterious, consider this: Scientists admit they don't
even have a good definition of life!
We Created the
Man with a Clot of
Blood
(Al-Qur’ran)
• In trying to solve the differential equations that
describe space-time, Einstein needed to add a
constant term to avoid having the universe collapse
upon itself. This term balances the attractive force of
gravity contributed by all of the matter in the universe.
• His equations didn't quite work for a static universe, so
he threw in a hypothetical repulsive force that would
fix the problem by balancing things out, an extra part
that he called the "cosmological constant."
Einstein later felt that the inclusion of this term was the
biggest blunder of his career.
• Physically, this term
represents the "vacuum
energy", the possibility
that empty space
possesses density and
pressure, thus preventing
the universe from
collapsing.
Universe Is not contracting and static except it is
expanding
• In 1929, Hubble announced a dramatic discovery
which completely turned astronomy on its ear.
• Hubble purposed that Universe is expanding and not
just expanding it is expanding at accelerated rate.
• Every galaxies are running away from us with the
speed directly proportional to its distance from us.
Further the galaxy more is the speed.
• There is mysterious energy present all over the space which is
also called dark energy.
Theories
• Cosmological constant
• It Is intrinsic property of Space.
• Observational skepticism
• It is merely a measurement artifact.
• Modified gravity
• We just don’t understand gravity.
Expanding into
what?
• 7 Theories on the Origin of Life by Charles Q. Choi, Live
Science Contributor
• Dark Energy by Ferris Timothy