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Presentation about microwave optics

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You are on page 1of 34

Mark Curtis Fred, Geoff, Lise and Phil

Sam Meek Junior Lab 2002

Santosh Shah

History of Microwave Optics

• WW2 in England Sir John Randall and Dr.

H. A. Boot developed magnetron

– Produced microwaves

– Used in radar detection

• Percy Spencer tested the magnetron at

Raytheon

– Noticed that it melted his candy bar

– Also tested with popcorn

– Designed metal box to contain

microwaves

– Radar Range

– First home model - $1295

How to Make Microwaves

• Magnetron

• Oldest, still used in microwave ovens

• Accelerates charges in a magnetic field

Klystron

•Smaller and lighter than Magnetron

•Creates oscillations by bunching

electrons

Gunn Diode

•Solid State Microwave Emitter

•Drives a cavity using negative resistance

Equipment Used

receiver

transmitter

Intensity vs. Distance

Shows that the intensity is related to the inverse square of the

distance between the transmitter and the receiver

Distance v. Intensity

20

2

18 R = 0.9887

16

Distance (9 inch tiles)

14

12

10

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

1/sqrt(Intensity)

Reflection

qI qR

• Angle of incidence

equals angle of

reflection

Angle of Incidence v. Angle of Reflection

350

Angle of Reflection (degrees)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

280 290 300 310 320 330 340

Measuring Wavelengths of Standing Waves

• Two methods were used

– A) Transmitter and probe

– B) Transmitter and receiver

• Our data

– Method A:

• Initial probe pos: 46.12cm

• Traversed 10 antinodes

• Final probe pos: 32.02cm

• = 2*(46.12-32.02)/10

• = 2.82cm

– Method B:

• Initial T pos: 20cm

• Initial R pos: 68.15cm

• Traversed 10 minima

• Final R pos: 53.7cm

• = 2.89cm

Refraction Through a Prism

• Used wax lens to collimate beam

• No prism – max = 179o

• Empty prism – max = 177o

• Empty prism absorbs only small

amount

• Prism w/ pellets – max = 173o

• Measured angles of prism w/

protractor

q1 = 22 +/- 1o

q2 = 28 +/- 2o

– Used these to determine n for

pellets

• n = 1.25 +/- 0.1

Polarization

Polarization

0.5

0.4

Intensity (mA) at 30x

0.3

0.2 Series1

0.1

0

0 100 200 300 400

-0.1

Angle of receiver (deg.)

• Intensity depends on angle of receiver

• Vertical and horizontal slats block parallel

components of electric field

Single Slit Interference

Used 7 cm and 13 cm slit widths

d sin q n

This equation assumes that we are near the

Fraunhofer (far-field) limit

Single Slit Diffraction – 7cm

q1 24.4 o Single Slit Diffraction - 7 cm

18

q 2 55.66 o 16

14

12

Not in the

Intensity

10

Fraunhofer limit,

8

so actual minima

6

are a few degrees

4

off from expected

2

minima

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Angle (degrees)

Single Slit Diffraction – 13cm

q1 12.8o Single Slit Diffraction - 13 cm

6

q 2 26.4 o

5

4

Intensity

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Angle (degrees)

Double Slit Diffraction

• Diffraction pattern due to the interference of waves from

a double slit

• Intensity decreases with distance y

• Minima occur at d sinθ = mλ

• Maxima occur at d sinθ = (m + .5) λ

Double Slit Diffraction

Mirror

Extension

5

Intensity (V)

4

3

2

1

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Angle of Reciever (deg.)

Lloyd’s Mirror

• Interferometer – One

portion of wave travels in

one path, the other in a

different path

the wave, the other part is

transmitted straight

through.

Lloyd’s Mirror

Condition for Maximum:

n

d h d1

1

2 2

Trial 1 Trial 2

• D1= 50 cm • D1= 45 cm

• H1=7.5 cm • H1=6.5 cm

• H2= 13.6 cm • H2= 12.3 cm

= 2.52 cm = 2.36 cm

Fabry-Perot Interferometer

• Incident light on a pair of partial reflectors

• Electromagnetic waves in phase if:

2d cos m

•In Pasco experiment, alpha(incident angle) was 0.

Fabry-Perot Interferometer

• d1 = distance between reflectors for max reading

– d1 = 31cm

• d2 = distance between reflectors after 10 minima traversed

– d2 = 45.5cm

• lambda = 2*(d2 – d1)/10 = 2.9cm

– d1 = 39cm

– d2 = 25cm

– lambda = 2.8cm

Michelson Interferometer

back together.

Michelson Interferometer

Constructive Interference occurs when:

2 Lm L f n

Michelson Interferometer

• Split a single wave into two parts

reflectors

• Brought back together to create

interference pattern

• A,B – reflectors S

• C – partial reflector

• Path 1: through C – reflects off A

back to C – Receiver

M

• Path 2: Reflects off C to B –

through C – Receiver

• Same basic idea as Fabry-Perot

– X1 = A pos for max reading = 46.5cm

– X2 = A pos after moving away from

PR 10 minima = 32.5cm

– Same equation for lambda is used

– Lambda = 2.8cm

Brewster’s Angle

• Angle at which wave incident upon dielectric

medium is completely transmitted

• Two Cases

– Transverse Electric

– Transverse Magnetic

Equipment

Setup

TE Case

S polarization

• Electric Field

transverse to boundary

• Using Maxwell’s

Equations (1 = 2 =1)

Er sin(q q )

Ei sin(q q )

oblique incidence

Ei sin(q q )

NO BREWSTER’S ANGLE

TM Case

• Electric Field Parallel to P polarization

Boundary

• Using Maxwell’s

Equations (1 = 2 =1)

Er tan(q q )

Et tan(q q )

oblique incidence

Et sin(q q ) cos(q q )

Brewster’s Angle

• Plotting reflection and transmission(for reasonable n1 and

n2)

Brewster’s Angle (our results)

Setting the T and R for vertical polarization, we found the maximum

reflection for several angles of incident.

We then did the same for the horizontal polarization and plotted

I vs. theta

We were unable to detect Brewster’s Angle in our experiment.

Brewster's Angle

6

4

Intensity

Horizontal

3

Vertical

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Angle (degrees)

Bragg Diffraction

• Study of Interference patterns

of microwave transmissions in

a crystal

• Two Experiments

– Pasco ( d = 0.4 cm, λ = 2.85 cm)

– Unilab (d = 4 cm, λ = 2.85 cm).

2d sin q n

Bragg Diffraction (Pasco)

Bragg Diffraction [100] Symmetry

3.5

3

2.5

Intensity (V)

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40

Grazing Angle (deg.)

Bragg Diffraction(Unilab)

• Maxima q1 20.0

Maxima 1 q 21 .2

2

70

Meter Reading (mV)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Angle(Degrees)

Frustrated Total Internal Reflection

oil

Transmitter

• Air in between

• Study of transmittance

with prism separation

• Presence of second prism

Detector

“disturbs” total internal

reflection.

Frustrated Total Internal Reflection

Frustrated Total Internal Reflection

30

25

20

Intensity

15

10

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Optical Activity Analogue

• E-field induces current in

springs

• Current is rotated by the

curve of the springs

• E-field reemitted at a

different polarization

• Red block (right-handed

springs) rotates

polarization –25o

• Black block (left-handed

springs) rotates

polarization 25o

References

• www.joecartoon.com

• www.mathworld.wolfram.com

• www.hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase

• www.pha.jhu.edu/~broholm/I30/node5.html

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