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UNIT-2

Climate Change, Agriculture


and Food Security – INDIAN
SCENARIO
PHYSIOGRAPHY.
‘PHYSIOGRAPHY’ OF AN AREA IS THE OUTCOME OF STRUCTURE.
PROCESS AND THE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT, or we can say that
process and pattern in natural environment.

THE NORTHHAS A VAST EXPANSE OF RUGGED


TOPOGRAPHY CONSISTING OF A SERIES
OF MOUNTAIN RANGES WITH VARIED PEAKS,
BEAUTIFUL VALLEYS AND DEEP GORGES.

INDIA CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING


PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS :

•TH E NORTH ERN AND NORTH EASTERN MOU NT AINS.


•TH E NORTH ERN PL AIN.
•TH E PENINSULAR PLATEAU.
•THE INDIAN DESERT.
•THE COASTAL PLAINS.
•THE ISLANDS.
1.THE NORTH AND
NORTHEASTERN MOUNTAINS
THE HIMALAYAS CONSIST OF SERIES OF PARALLEL MOUNTAIN RANGES.

SOME OF THE IMPORTANT RANGES ARE THE GREATER HIMALAYAN RANGE, WHICH
INCLUDES THE GREAT HIMALAYAS AND THE TRANS- HIMALAYAN RANGE, THE
MIDDLE HIMALAYAS AND THE SHIWALIK.

LENTH OF THE GREAT HIMALAYAN RANGE, ALSO KNOWN AS THE CENTRAL AXIAL
RANGE, IS 2,500 km FROM EAST TO WEST, AND THEIR WIDTH VARIES
BETWEEN 160-400 km from north to south.

HIMALAYAS ARE NOT ONLY THE PHYSICAL, THEY ARE ALSO A CLIMATIC, DRAINAGE
AND CULTURAL DIVIDE.

THE HIMALAYAS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING SUB-DIVISIONS:

•KAS HMIR OR NORTHWE ST ERN HIMA LAYA S .


•HIMACHA L A ND UTT ARAN CHALHIMALA YAS .
•DARJILING AN D S IKKIM HIMA LA YAS .
•ARUNACHA L HIM ALAYA S .
•EA ST ERN HILLS A ND MOUNT AINS .
2. THE NORTHERN PLAINS.
THE NORTH PLAINS ARE FORMED BY THE ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS
BROUGHT BY THE RIVERS- THE INDUS, THE GANGA AND THE
BRAHMAPUTRA.

THESE PLAINS EXTEND APPROXIMATELY 3,200 km FROM THE


EAST TO THE WEST.

THE AVERAGE WIDTH OF THESEPLAINS VARIES

BETWEEN 150-300 km. THE MAXIMUM DEPTH

OF ALLUVIUM DEPOSITS VARIES BETWEEN


1,000-2,000 m.

THE NORTH TO THE SOUTH, THESE CAN BE DIVIDED INTO


THREE MAJOR ZONES: THE BHABAR, THE TARAI
AND THE ALLUVIAL PLAINS.

THE ALLUVIAL PLAINS CAN BE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO


3. THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU.
RISING FROM THE HEIGHT OF 150m ABOVE THE RIVER PLAINS UP TO AN
ELEVATION OF 600-900m IS THE IRRIGULAR TRIANGLE KNOWN AS THE
PENINSULAR PLATEAU.

DELHI RIDGE IN THE NORTHWEST, THE RAJMAHAL HILLS IN THE EAST, GIR
RANGE IN THE WEST AND THE CARDAMOM HILLS IN THE SOUTH CONSTITUTE
THE OUTER EXTEND OF THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU.

THE PENINSULAR INDIA IS MADE UP OF A SERIES OF PATLAND PLATEAUS SUCH AS


THE HAZARIBAGH PLATEAU, THE PALAMU PLATEAU, THE RANCHI PLATEAU, THE
MALWA PLATEAU, THE COIMBATORE PLATEAU AND THE KARNATAKA PLATEAU,
etc.

ON THE BASIS OF THE PROMINENT RELIEF FEATURES, THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU


CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THREE BROAD GROUPS:

9.THE DE CCA N P LATE AU.


10.THE CE NTRAL HIGHLA NDS.
11.THE N ORTHE AS T ERN P LA TEA U.
4. THE INDIAN DESERT.
TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE ARAVALI HILLS LIES THE GREAT INDIA
DESERT.

IT IS THE LAND OF UNDULATING TOPOGRAPHY


DOTTED WITH LONGITUDINAL DUNES AND
BARCHANS.

THIS REGION RECEIVES LOW RAINFALL BELOW 150 mm


PER YEAR; HENCE, IT HAS ARID CLIMATE
WITH LOW VEGETATION COVER.

IT IS BECAUSE OF THESE CHARACTERISTIC


FEATURES THAT THIS IS ALSO KNOWN AS MARUSTHALI.

IT IS BELIEVED THAT DURING THE MESOZOICERA, THIS


REGION WAS UNDER THE SEA.

THE LAKES AND THE PLAYAS HAVE


5. THE COASTAL PLAINS.
ON THE BASIS OF THE LOCATION AND ACTIVE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL
PROCESSES, IT CAN BE BROADLY DIVIDED INTO TWO:

WES TE RN COA S TA L EASTERN COASTAL PLAINS


PLA INS
THE WESTERN COASTAL PLAINS ARE THE EASTERN COASTAL PLAIN IS
AN EXAMPLE OF SUBMERGED BROADER AND IS AN EXAMPLE OF
COASTAL PLAINS. AN EMERGENT COAST.

IT IS DELIEVED THAT THE CITY OF THERE ARE WELL-DEVELOPED


DWARAKA WHICH WAS ONCE A PART DELTAS HERE, FORMED BY THE
OF THE INDIAN MAINLAND SITUATED RIVERS FLOWING EASTWARD IN TO
ALONG THE WEST COAST IS THE BAY OF BENGAL.
SUBMERGED UNDER WATER.

KANDLA, MAZAGAON, JLN PORT NAVHA THESE INCLUDE THE DELTAS OF


SHEVA, MARMAGAO, MANGALORE, THE MAHANADI, THE GODAVARI,
COCHIN, etc. ARE SOME OF THE THE KRISHNA AND THE KAVERI.
IMPORTANT NATURAL PORTS LOCATED
ALONG THE WEST COAST.
6. THE ISLANDS.
THERE ARE TWO MAJOR ISLANDS GROUPS IN INDIA:

3.BAY OF BENGAL.
4.ARABIAN SEA.

THE BAY OF BENGAL ISLAND GROUPS CONSIST OF ABOUT 572 ISLANDS/


ISLETS.

THESE ARE SITUATED ROUGHLY BETWEEN 6 N - 14 N AND 92 E - 94 E.

THE ENTIRE GROUP OF ISLAND IS DIVIDED INTO TWO BROAD CATEGORIES –


THE ANDAMAN IN THE NORTH AND THE NICOBAR IN THE SOUTH.

THEY ARE SEPERATED BY A WATER BODY WHICH IS CALLED THE TEN DEGREE
CHANNEL.

BARREN ISLAND, THE ONLY ACTIVE VOLCANO IN INDIA IS ALSO SITUATED IN


THE NICOBAR ISLANDS.
THE ISLANDS OF THE ARABIAN SEA INCLUDE LAKSHADWEEP AND MINICOY.

THESE ARE SCATTERED BETWEEN 8 N - 12 N AND 71 E – 74 E LONGITUDE.

THESE ISLANDS ARE LOCATED AT A DISTANCE OF 280 km – 480 km OFF THE


KERALA COAST.

THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY 36 ISLANDS OF WHICH 11 ARE INHABITED.

MINICOY IS THE LARGEST ISLAND WITH AN AREA OF 453 sq. km.


Distribution of India’s Geographical Area

• The geography of India is extremely diverse, with


landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to
deserts, plains, hills and plateaus.
• India comprises most of the Indian subcontinent situated
on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-
Australian Plate.
• Having a coastline of over 7,000 km (4,300 miles), most
of India lies on a peninsula in southern Asia that
protrudes into the Indian Ocean.
• India is bounded in the southwest by the Arabian Sea
and in the southeast by the Bay of Bengal.
Contd…
• The fertile Indo-Gangetic plain occupies most of northern, central
and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of
southern India.
• To the west of the country is the Thar Desert, which consists of a
mix of rocky and sandy desert. India's east and northeastern
border consists of the high Himalayan range.
• The highest point in India is disputed due to a territorial dispute
with Pakistan; according to India's claim, the highest point
(located in the disputed Kashmir territory) is K2, at 8,611 m
(28,251 feet).
• The highest point in undisputed Indian territory is
Kangchenjunga, at 8,598 m (28,208 feet). Climate ranges from
equatorial in the far south, to tundra in the Himalayan altitudes.
Contd…
• India is bordered by Pakistan, the People's Republic of
China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan and
Afghanistan. Sri Lanka and the Maldives are island
nations to the south of India.
• Politically, India is divided into 29 states, six federally
administered union territories and a national capital
territory.
• The political divisions generally follow linguistic and
ethnic boundaries rather than geographic transitions.
Contd…
India is divided into seven geographic regions.
They are
The northern mountains including the Himalayas
and the northeast mountain ranges.
• Indo-Gangetic plains
• Thar Desert
• Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau
• East Coast
• West Coast
• Bordering seas and islands
Features of Indian Agriculture
Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture
• Higher CO2 levels can affect crop yields. Some laboratory experiments suggest
that elevated CO2 levels can increase plant growth.
• However, other factors, such as changing temperatures, ozone, and water and
nutrient constraints, may counteract these potential increases in yield.
• For example, if temperature exceeds a crop's optimal level, if sufficient water
and nutrients are not available, yield increases may be reduced or reversed.
Elevated CO2 has been associated with reduced protein and nitrogen content in
alfalfa and soybean plants, resulting in a loss of quality.
• Reduced grain and forage quality can reduce the ability of pasture and rangeland
to support grazing livestock.
• More extreme temperature and precipitation can prevent crops from growing.
Extreme events, especially floods and droughts, can harm crops and reduce
yields.
• Dealing with drought could become a challenge in areas where rising summer
temperatures cause soils to become drier. Although increased irrigation might be
possible in some places, in other places water supplies may also be reduced,
leaving less water available for irrigation when more is needed
Contd…
• Many weeds, pests, and fungi thrive under warmer temperatures,
wetter climates, and increased CO2 levels. Currently, U.S. farmers
spend more than $11 billion per year to fight weeds, which
compete with crops for light, water, and nutrients
• he ranges and distribution of weeds and pests are likely to increase
with climate change. This could cause new problems for farmers'
crops previously unexposed to these species.
• Though rising CO2 can stimulate plant growth, it also reduces the
nutritional value of most food crops. Rising levels of
atmospheric carbon dioxide reduce the concentrations of protein
and essential minerals in most plant species, including wheat,
soybeans, and rice.
• This direct effect of rising CO2 on the nutritional value of crops
represents a potential threat to human health. Human health is also
threatened by increased pesticide use due to increased pest
pressures and reductions in the efficacy of pesticides
Food Security Concern
Food security as defined by the 1996 World Food Summit
is a situation in which all people at all times have physical
and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food
to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an
active and healthy life.
National Food Security Mission

• National Food Security Mission


(NFSM) is a Central Scheme of GHI
launched in 2007 for 5 years.

• Goal was to increase production and


productivity of wheat, rice and pulses
on a sustainable basis so as to ensure
food security of the country.

• The aim is to bridge the yield gap in


respect of these crops through
dissemination of improved
technologies and farm management
practices.
Scope
• According to NFSM report, the total financial implications for the NFSM were to
be Rs 4,882.48 crore during the XI Plan (2007-08 2011-12).

• The implementation of the NFSM would result in increasing the production of rice
by 10 million ton, wheat by 8 million ton and pulses by 2 million ton by 2011-12.

• Restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level.

• Creation of employment opportunities and enhancing farm level economy i.e.


farm profits to restore confidence amongst the farmers.

• Beneficiaries can choose to draw loans from the Banks, in which case subsidy
amount prescribed for a particular component for which the loan availed will be
released to the Banks. Otherwise it is directly allocated to state government which
distributes among them.

• Promotion and extension of improved technologies i.e., seed, Integrated Nutrient


Management including micronutrients, soil amendments, IPM and resource
conservation technologies along with capacity building of farmers.
• Subsidies are also given for farm instruments and technologies such as
Renovators, Sprinkler Sets, Multi Crop planters etc.

• Farmers and their dependents are eligible for this scheme.

• Productions of breeder seeds are done under ICAR while certified seeds and
pulses are implemented by State and District agencies.

• For wheat and rice, these all are done by State Government agencies at district
level or state level.
Current Status:
• The targets of 11th five year exceeded and it was extended to 12th five year plan in 2012. In
the 12th Plan, NFSM aims at raising the food grain production by 25 million tones.

• Besides rice, wheat and pulses, NFSM proposes to cover coarse cereals and fodder crops
during the 12th plan period (2012-17).

• 11th plan covered 15 states under NFSM-Rice, 9 states under NFSM-Wheat and 16 States
under NFSM Wheat.

• Hence, all states were not covered during 11th plan for NFSM.

• 12th plan aims to cover all the states of India with focus on low productive areas to bridge
the yield gaps for additional production while stability in high production areas would be
achieved through promotion of conservation agriculture practices.

• Central government allocated over Rs 1,800 crore to states under the National Food Security
Mission (NFSM) in 2012 to raise food grains output by 25 million tones in the 12th Five Year
Plan period as the mission was extended with beyond expected output during XI the five
year plan.

• Uttar Pradesh got the maximum amount at Rs 276.9 crore, followed by Madhya Pradesh Rs
226.87 crore and Maharashtra Rs 196 crore.
National Food Security Act 2013
Purpose –
• National Food Security Act 2013 (NFSA) is a unique step taken by Indian government
to fight against hunger and protect right of the people for food.

• With its peculiarities like the life cycle approach, women empowerment,
consideration of vulnerable sections in society and proposed reforms in public
distribution system (PDS), NFSA is a promising effort for food security in India.

• The concept of food security is multifaceted in nature. Food security has been
defined in various ways by the various organizations from time to time.

• The basic concept of food security is to ensure that all people, at all times, should get
access to the basic food for their active and healthy life and is characterized by
availability, access, utilization and stability of food.
• In spite of the astonishing technological, economical, socio-cultural and
agricultural development, the physical and economic access to the basic food to
around seven billion population of the world (United States Census Bureau) is a
prominent question in twenty-first century.

• Many underdeveloped and developing countries including India are facing this
challenge of food security.

• After independence, with enormous efforts to improvise the agriculture sector


and after witnessing “Green revolution,” India has achieved self-sufficiency in
the production of major agricultural crops, increase in yield and area under
irrigation, etc.

• Today, India holds one-sixth stock of wheat and rice of that of the world;
however, performance of India revealed by the criteria like Global Hunger Index
(GHI), malnutrition, under nutrition among children is not satisfactory.

• According to the GHI report 2013, India has a GHI score of 21.3, fallen by only
11.3 with reference to 1990, and there is 17.5 % undernourished population in
the country. This statistic is quite disturbing.
Salient features of NFSA

• Life cycle approach: care of the person taken by the government considering the
nutritional requirements throughout the life cycle is shown in Figure 1.

• The paradigm shift from welfare based approach of the government to the right
based approach of the citizens, as this act tends to preserve the basic and
fundamental right of every citizen of India to have food.

• Provision of food for the vulnerable sections in the society (e.g. homeless,
destitute and people suffering from disasters or natural calamities).

• Women empowerment: decisions like considering eldest women in a family as the


head of the family, giving preference to women or their self-help groups for
issuing license of new FPS, etc. will help in empowering women of the country.

• An effort to bring transparency in the operations of the entire PDS.

• Aiming at universal PDS.

• States are free to further subsidies the foodgrains or extend the limits of coverage
of the population.
Forests and Food Security
A total of 805 million people are undernourished worldwide, and malnutrition affects nearly
every country on the planet. As population estimates for 2050 reach over 9 billion, concerns
about food security and nutrition have been dominating academic and policy debates. In
2012, at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development: (Rio+20), the UN Secretary
General proposed an ambitious goal to eliminate global hunger by 2025 – the so-called
“Zero Hunger Challenge”.
Key Factors
1. Forests and Trees Matter for Food Security and Nutrition

2. Integrated Governance is Necessary for Multi-functional Landscapes

3. Securing Tenure and Local Control is Essential for Forests and Food Security

4. There is a Need to Reimagine Forests and Food Security


Forest and Agriculture
• One commonly cited option to reconcile agricultural development and forest
protection, which has garnered much support, is through agricultural
intensification; the basic idea is that if we can increase agricultural yields per
area in order to meet growing global food demand this will reduce the need for
more land and hence avoid further encroachment into forested areas.
• Agricultural intensification provides huge benefits and can help increase the
income of many poor farmers, but it also poses serious risks to forests, primarily
by increasing the returns from agriculture and thus increasing incentives for
expansion. While this hypothesis likely holds at the global level, at the local
level a number of factors will condition what impact agricultural intensification
will have on forested areas.
• What is clear is that this relationship can only be properly understood on a case
by case basis. In most cases, agricultural intensification strategies need to be
combined with stronger regulation and enforcement mechanisms and/or efforts
to increase forest rents in order to effectively reduce deforestation.
• Addressing this challenge will also require innovative, integrated solutions,
while optimizing the land allocation for conservation and agriculture. This
highlights the critical need for a landscape approach.
A landscape approach
In order to balance the competing land use goals of agriculture and forestry, it is
important to understand the dynamics which drive land-use change across the
landscape. A landscape approach also permits alignment with local or district
planning processes, enables cross-departmental or ministerial dialogue and
facilitates the negotiation of priorities and trade-offs.
Forest Foods
Fruit of the Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), a palm that provides an oil used in
the manufacture of soap, candles and lubricants, as well as edible palm
hearts.
Millions of households in the developing world depend on food and fodder from
forests to supplement their own and their livestock's diets. Although forest foods
do not usually provide a complete diet, they do make a critical contribution to
the food supply. Forest foods increase the nutritional quality of rural diets;
supplement other sources of food -particularly agricultural crops that are only
seasonally available; and are used as emergency food supplies during drought,
famine and war.
. Leafy vegetables and wild animals add diversity, flavour, vitamins and minerals
to characteristically grain-dominated diets. Forest foods are often collected and
stored for later use. During hunger periods, the practices of digging for roots and
tubers and gathering fruit and nuts are almost universal.
Trees are also important in emergencies such as drought and famine. Energy-rich
foods such as the roots of the baobab tree are most sought after in times of
famine, while other foods, such as the baobab's fruits, are often eaten during
periodic shortages of staple foods. Several wild foods are used only in times of
scarcity and famine, among them fibres, seeds, tubers, leaves and stems.
Roots -a highly calorific forest product but one that often requires lengthy
preparation time and cooking.
Many of these famine foods have a high protein and energy content.
In India, Malaysia and Thailand, about 150 plant species, representing nearly one-
fifth of the wild species consumed as food in these countries, have been
identified as sources of emergency food crops, among them bark, kernels and
tubers.
The role forests play in providing and maintaining suitable conditions for wildlife
should not be under-estimated. Forested areas, mangroves, streams and fallow
agricultural areas within the forest provide a habitat for many wild animals and
fish. For, example, forests maintain suitable conditions for fresh water fish by
helping to reduce the sediment in streams, while mangroves provide an important
habitat for fish (see box).
Birds, their eggs, insects, rodents and other larger mammals are sometimes the
only source of animal protein for rural people. The naturally abundant small
animals-rats, squirrels, mice, porcupine and grasscutters - are the most
important species for subsistence consumption
The cashew nut -another nutritive forest product; one that is easy to collect
and roast.
In some regions, wild game consumption is extremely important. For example, in
West Africa the consumption of bushmeat depends largely on availability. In
Nigeria, people living near forest reserves consume as much as 84 percent of their
animal protein in the form of game whereas, in areas of Nigeria with no access to
forests, bushmeat makes up only 7 percent of total meat consumption. Similarly,
in some areas of the Peruvian Amazon, people obtain more than 85 percent of
their animal protein from wild animals, including fish.
A homegarden in southeast Asia, where the production of protein and calories
per hectare typically exceeds those of most field crops
Homegardens are producing an increasingy important supply of food in many
countries, as population pressures reduce the amount of land available to each
household for food crops. Homegardens support the cultivation of multi- purpose
trees and shrubs, often in association with annual and perennial agricultural
crops and livestock, within the household compound. Such gardens are found in
most regions of the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly in lowland areas with
high population densities.
Many homegardens resemble those of Java or southeastern Nigeria, with an
intensive combination of trees, crops and livestock. In other cases, however, a
single mango tree provides a source of food at a time of the year when few other
foodstuffs are available or when the need to plant the next season's crop means
that there is little spare time or labour available for gathering and preparing
food.
The average size of a homegarden is usually much less than one hectare, yet in
many parts of the world the fruit, nuts, edible leaves and other foodstuffs grown
in homegardens provide a substantial part of the household food requirement. In
some areas of Java, homegardens provide more than 40 percent of the total
calorific intake of farming communities.
The mango-typical fruit found in homegardens in Asia, Africa and South
America.
Gardens within a household compound can produce food all year round with a
relatively low labour input. When intensively managed,
the yield from a compound, in monetary terms, can be five to ten times as much
per hectare as that from traditional field cropping systems, and returns on labour
are typically four to eight times higher.
Many homegardens support very large numbers of different species. In
southeastern Nigeria permanently cultivated compounds around the household
contain trees including the oil palm, coconut, banana and plantain, intercropped
with cassava, gums and other arable crops.
Studies have shown that households with homegardens have higher than average
nutrition levels. In Puerto Rico, for instance, food from gardens tended by women
significantly contributes to the total food supply and is an important source of
both betacarotene (converted to Vitamin A in the body) and Vitamin C, especially
for children.
Trees are also part of traditional shifting cultivation systems practised within
forest areas by more than 300 million people world-wide. Shifting cultivation can
involve clearing forest areas to develop agroforestry systems similar to those
found in homegardens. Trees are maintained or grown to provide a range of
fruits, seeds, nuts and leaves for food as well as to maintain suitable soil
conditions for food production.
LEAVES AND STEMS
Wild leaves, either fresh or dried, are one of the most widely consumed forest
foods. As the base for soups, stews and relishes they add flavour to otherwise
bland staples such as rice or maize, making them more palatable and thus
encouraging consumption. One study in Lushoto, Tanzania, found that people who
consumed wild leaf relishes favoured the taste of wild leaves over introduced
cultivated vegetables.
Leaves from wild and cultivated trees are often boiled fresh in stews. They can
also be dried and powdered, or fermented, to preserve them; they can later be
made into a paste which is used in stews and soups as a meat substitute.
The carotene, vitamin C, calcium and iron content of leaves varies greatly. One
study in Swaziland found that the nutrient content of wild leaves compared
favourably with that of the leaves of cultivated plants. In Swaziland, the leaves
of 48 different species are used; and at least half the adults eat meals which
include wild leaves more than twice a week.
The stem of the sago palm contains starch, a valuable carbohydrate, commonly
used in cooking in Indonesia. It contains 352 calories/ 100 g and provides 85
percent of the energy intake of people in the rural area of Upper Sepik, in Papua
New Guinea.
SEEDS AND NUTS
The nuts of the coconut, oil palm and babassu palm are at the forefront of
nutritionally important nuts and seeds, adding substantial calories, oil and
protein to the diet.
(Nutritionally, fats and oils are important for several reasons, not least because
they facilitate the absorption of vitamins A, D and E.)
Coconuts are of central dietary importa in many cultures, and account for 7
percent the world's fat consumption. In the areas of northeastern Brazil where
the babassu palm grows, its kernels provide oil for an average percent of
households. In Sierra Leone, oil from the kernel and fruits of the oil palm is
consumed by 96 percent of rural households.
Among other important oil nut trees are, the shea butternut, cashew nut, African
breadfruit, the mongongo nut and the Park species. The seeds of Parkia form an
import part of the diet in most parts of the Sahel. Fermenting Parkia improves
the digestibility the protein and increases the vitamin content of the seeds,
providing a nutritious protein fat-rich food known as dawadawa. It is an
important ingredient in side dishes, soups a stews made to accompany porridges
in northern and western Africa.
ROOTS AND TUBERS
Roots and tubers provide carbohydrates an( some minerals, and are often
important ingredients in traditional medicines. They used as drought and famine
foods, not only because they survive low rainfall periods, b because they can be
an important source of water. However, they require time to find a dig up, and
often involve extensive process such as soaking and prolonged cooking.

MUSHROOMS
Mushrooms, eaten as meat substitutes and i flavouring, are good sources of
protein and minerals. In an analysis of the nutritional values of 30 edible
mushrooms from Upper Shaba, Zaire, the mean protein content was found to be
22.7 g/100 g dry weight, with a high calcium and iron content.
Forests and Fisheries
A forest is a large ares dominated by tress.
A Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and
repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals,
needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
There are three broad categories of forest definitions in use: administrative, land
use, and land cover. Administrative definitions are based primarily upon the legal
designations of land, and commonly bear little relationship to the vegetation
growing on the land: land that is legally designated as a forest is defined as a
forest even if no trees are growing on it. Land use definitions are based upon the
primary purpose that the land serves. For example, a forest may be defined as
any land that is used primarily for production of timber. Under such a land use
definition, cleared roads or infrastructure within an area used for forestry, or
areas within the region that have been cleared by harvesting, disease or fire are
still considered forests even if they contain no trees. Land cover definitions
define forests based upon the type and density of vegetation growing on the land.
Such definitions typically define a forest as an area growing trees above some
threshold
You can catch a fish in many ways. You can catch it with hands; you can impale it
on a spear, catch it on a hook, trap it, and throw an explosive on it (not
recommended and even illegal). We had time to invent many possible ways of
fishing because we have been fishing and eating fish for 40,000 years.
Here are some methods and types of fishing, some more, some less popular:
Noodling is fishing with hands practiced in South of the United States. Fishermen
catch catfish by sticking hand into a catfish hole where this fish lives.
Flounder tramping is a method of fishing practiced in Scottish village of
Palnackie on every August. People compete in catching the flounder (which is a
species of flatfish) by stamping on them.
Spearfishing is fishing with ordinary spears or with their variants like harpoons,
tridents, arrows, Hawaiian slings, and spearguns.
Netting is method of fishing which uses fishing nets. There are many types of
nets for different uses and different fish. Cast net (or throw net) is a smaller
round net with weights on it edges. Gillnet is placed in water vertically (using
combination of weights and floats) and catches fish which try to pass through it.
Trawl net is large, conical a dragged by ship.
Angling is fishing with a hook (angle), line and rod. Hook has bait on it and is
sometimes weighted with a sinker.
Fly fishing uses artificial flies as lures with specially constructed fly rods and fly
lines. Artificial flies are usually hand made in variety of shapes.
Bottom fishing is angling with heavy weight at the bottom of water. It can be
done from boats and from the land and its aim is catching the fish that lives at
the bottom.
Ice fishing is angling through the hole in the ice during the time of a year when a
body of water is frozen.
Fishing from float tube is fishing from a small inflatable boat (very small). It is
used from fly fishing and when fishermen use it they don’t scare the fish with
splashing.
Kite fishing is using kites to carry line and fishhook to the places that are not
easily reachable. It was invented in China and it is still used on New Guinea and
other Pacific Islands.
Trapping is fishing done with traps. Basket weir fish traps are woven from
branches and made so a fish can enter it but not exit. Lobster traps are similar to
basket traps but are smaller and have more compartments. Fishing weir is a large
trap made of logs and fences, placed in water to fore fish to enter parts of trap
from which it can not exit.
Cormorant fishing was a practice in China and Japan since 14th century. It uses
trained cormorants with ring on their neck which prevents the bird to swallow
the fish when it catches it. Instead it brings the bird to the fisherman.
Electrofishing is method used in freshwater by fisheries scientists. Electricity is
used to stun fish, check fish population and then return it into water unharmed.