You are on page 1of 37

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
A consequence of LIFE..
Solid wastes will always be
generated as long as HUMAN
ACTIVITIES exist

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


2
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.0 Introduction

Unwanted
Useless
Discarded
Normally solid

Arising from human


and animal activities

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


3
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.1 Problem magnitude of municipal solid
waste
A solid waste-Consequence of Life

Primitive society :
Human and animals have used the
resources of the earth to support life
and dispose of wastes
The disposal of human and other
wastes did not pose a significant
problem…..why?

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


4
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
Solid Waste-Consequence of Life
1.1.1 Health Phenomena
Improper ______ have led to the breeding
of rats with their attendant fleas carrying
bubonic plaques.
The ____ of any plan for the management
of solid wastes thus led to the epidemic of
plague.
The Black Death:
One of the deadliest ________ in human history, caused by a
bacterium named Yersinia pestis
Began in Central Asia and spread to Europe by the late 1340s
25-50 million deaths in Europe.
Is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe’s ___________.
The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is
estimated at 75 million people.

5
1.1 Solid Waste-Consequence of Life
1.1.2 Ecological Phenomena

__________ – liquid from dumps and poorly


engineered landfills has contaminated surface water
and groundwater.
Air pollution

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


6
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.2 Why Waste Is a Problem?
Improper management of solid wastes have direct
adverse effects on health and the environment.

____________
____________
Hazard to human and other living
During production,
organisms - direct toxicity/ through storage,
contamination of aquifers, transportation,
watercourses and land transfer, disposal or
after deposition
Visible, audible or odorous intrusion
Little financial incentives to handle
in secure manner - can cause litter,
fire due to improper disposal
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT
7
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.3 Management Issues and Problems
______ of reliable data.
__________ planning and management.
Locating new landfill sites (80 % full; fully utilized by
2003).
Inadequate collection coverage –lack of vehicles/
crew; funding.
Vehicles – not properly maintained.
_______ Storage Facilities.
No leachate collection or gas management.
No daily earth ________.
Public awareness.
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT
8
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.4 Definition of Solid Waste
Solid waste

All wastes arising from human


and animal ________ that are
normally _______ and that are
discarded as _______ and
_________.
Any garbage, or refuse, sludge
from a wastewater treatment
plant, water supply treatment
plant, or air pollution control
facility and other discarded
material.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


9
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.5 Policy and legislation
The earliest legislation was passed in the 19th
Century.
Solid Waste Disposal Act (1970) – but less
emphasis on hazardous waste.
______________________________________.
(RCRA).- had a profound effect on SWM

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


10
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
Objectives (RCRA):
1. Hazardous waste management (proper cradle-to-
grave approach).
2. Solid waste management (incorporate costs (health
and safety) into cost of disposal).
3. The procurement of materials made from recovered
wastes (govt.’s priority on products made from
recyclable materials- to encourage industries to
utilize the materials).

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


11
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.5.1 Malaysia Policy and Legislation: Federal Law
____________ - some provisions on aspects of the
SWM system.
_______________________________- controls the
disposal of harmful or obnoxious matter or any matter
(be a potential danger to public health, safety or welfare,
and other beneficial uses).
The Land Conservation Act (Act 3) of 1960 -
prohibiting the clearing of any hill and destroying of any
trees without a permit. Land for solid waste disposal -
need permit.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


12
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
Table 1.1: Federal Laws of Malaysia with Provisions on Solid
Waste Management
Year Legislation Agency responsible

1920 Water Enactment State authority


1960 Land Conservation Act
1965 The National Land Code State authority
1974 Street, Drainage, and Building Local authorities
Act (Act 133)
1974 Environmental Quality Act (Act 127)
1976 Local Government Act (Act 171)
1976 Town and Country Planning Act

(Act 172) Local authorities

13
1.5.2 Malaysia Policy and Legislation: Solid &
Hazardous Waste Legislation
1. The Environmental Quality Act (EQA) of 1974
(Act 127) :
The EQA - federal law (gives the mandate and
regulatory power to the DOE), clear regulations so as
to control the dumping of wastes.
Sec.24 (1)(2)(3) –
 __________ to establish refuse dump, garbage tip,
soil and rock disposal site, sludge disposal site or
repository for solid or liquid waste which is
obnoxious or offensive to human beings or pollute
underground water or soil etc.
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT
14
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
 Penalty max. RM 100,000 and/or 5 years jail
(raised in 1996 (amendment) from RM
10,000 and 2 yrs).
Sec. 29 – Prohibit discharge of waste in
Malaysian waters. Penalty of max.
__________ and/or 5 yrs. (from RM10,000
and/2 yrs jail before 1996)

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


15
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
2. EQA, Environmental Quality (_______________)
2005:
Notification of waste generation
Treat and reduce waste
Proper inventory, handling, labeling, disposal
Categories of scheduled waste
Proper training of waste disposal contractors;
consignment notes, emergency response plans
3. EQA, Environmental Quality (Prescribed
Carrier)(Scheduled Wastes).

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


16
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.6 Status of solid waste management in
Malaysia
An ever-expanding population and high rates of
economic development in Malaysia resulted in the
generation of vast amount of waste.
It is estimated about 17,000 tonnes/day of waste
___________ in Peninsular Malaysia.
Average per capita __________ of waste 0.85
kg/cap/day.
About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


17
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.6 Status of solid waste management in
Malaysia
About 76% of waste generated are collected.
1-2% is recycled and the remainder is taken to
disposal sites.
About 5% waste collected in KL are reused and
recycled.
Over 40% of 175 disposal sites are operating as
dumpsite.
Intermediate treatment is limited to small-scale
thermal treatment plant in resorted islands.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


18
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
Waste generation in Malaysia until 2002
Tahun 2000 Tahun 2001 Tahun 2002
Bil. Negeri Angg. Penduduk Angg. Sisa Angg. Penduduk Angg. Sisa Angg. Penduduk Angg. Sisa
dalam kaw. PBT Yang Dihasilkan dalam kaw. PBT Yang Dihasilkan dalam kaw. PBT Yang Dihasilkan
(tan/hari) (tan/hari) (tan/hari)
1. JOHOR 2,252,882 1,915 2,309,204 2,002 2,366,934 2,093
2. KEDAH 1,557,259 1,324 1,596,190 1,384 1,636,095 1,447
3. KELANTAN 1,216,769 1,034 1,247,188 1,081 1,278,368 1,131
4. MELAKA 605,361 515 620,495 538 636,007 562
5. NEG. SEMBILAN 890,597 757 912,862 791 935,683 827
6. PAHANG 1,126,000 957 1,154,150 1,001 1,183,004 1,046
7. PERAK 1,796,575 1,527 1,841,489 1,597 1,887,527 1,669
8. PERLIS 230,000 196 235,750 204 241,644 214
9. PULAU PINANG 1,279,470 1,088 1,311,457 1,137 1,344,243 1,189
10. SELANGOR 3,325,261 2,826 3,408,393 2,955 3,493,602 3,090
11. TERENGGANU 1,038,436 883 1,064,397 923 1,091,007 965
12. KUALA LUMPUR 1,400,000 2,520 1,435,000 2,635 1,470,875 2,755
19
JUMLAH 16,718,610 15,541 17,136,575 16,248 17,564,989 16,987
1.7 Role of federal, state and local government
Three level of Government:
__________ Government
- Ministry of Housing & Local Government
- Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister Dpt.
- Department of Environment
- Ministry of Health
_________________
_________________

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


-
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
20
Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.8 Solid waste management and public
cleansing corporation
Under the Local Authority and Concession
companies.
There are no spesific systematic guidelines on
Solid Waste Management.
This has resulted in different level of service among
the LA's that the people are unsatisfied on the
service rendered.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


21
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.8 Solid waste management and public
cleansing corporation
Objectives:
To be a _________ institute in implementing the
planning policy, strategic planning and scheduled
programmes.
To _________ comprehensive, effective,
systematic Solid Waste Management.
To ________ and concentrated efforts involving
government agencies, private sector and public.
To ________ the enforcement of Solid Waste
Management is excellent and successful.
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT
22
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.8 Solid waste management and public
cleansing corporation
Main function:
Recommend and carry out government policies,
programmes and ____________.
_____________ and ensure the standards,
specification and working culture.
To increase quality and efficiency in handling Solid
Waste Management and Public Cleansing.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


23
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.8 Solid waste management and public
cleansing corporation
Main function:
Carry out and enforce Laws on Solid Waste
Management and Public Cleansing.
Increase efforts towards increasing public
awareness and cooperation on Solid Waste
Management and Public Cleansing.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


24
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology
1.9 Research on solid waste management by
MHLG and other agencies
Strategic Plan for SWM.
Safety Closure & Rehabilitation of Landfill Sites in
Malaysia.
Solid Waste Composition & Characteristic.
________________
Resource description framework (RDF).
Recycling of Tyre and Plastic.
1.9 Research on solid waste management by
MHLG and other agencies
Principles to guide development of Strategic Plan:
Direct participation of Federal Government.
Privatization of SWM services.
Sustainable waste management.
Inter cooperation amongst government and
stakeholders.
Public awareness program.
Development of technical and managerial capability
THE WAY FORWARD
Waste Hierarchy
(Current Status) 5 % recovery
Reduce
Reuse
Recycling
Intermediate 95% Landfill
Processing
Disposal
THE WAY FORWARD
Waste Hierarchy
(Targeted 2020) > 20 % Recycling
Reduce
15 %
Reuse Intermediate
Recycling Processing

Intermediate
< 65 % Landfill
Processing
Disposal
THE WAY FORWARD
Legislation & Institutional
 Review existing legislation
 Enable federalization and privatization
 Enhance waste minimization
 Identifying all stakeholders
 Institutional strengthening
THE WAY FORWARD
Privatization
 To improve SWM services
 To relinquish financial burden
 Wider involvement by the private sector
 Final stage of agreement (transition period)
THE WAY FORWARD
Technical Aspect
 Integrated solid waste management facilities
 New Facilities with appropriate technology
- Transfer Station
- Thermal Treatment Plant
- Composting Plant
- Sanitary Landfill
INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ZERO EMISSION)

Solid waste management


facilities
Persekitaran Kita

Pengurusan sisa pepejal


yang baik memerlukan
pendekatan yang
bersepadu.
Kitarsemula Sisa &
Tenaga
Slag
Bahan Binaan

Bahan Tidak atau


Terbakar Kitarsemula Buang Ke
Tapak
Pelupusan
SANITARY LANDFILL FACILITIES
Hikarigaoka Stoker Type Incineration Plant,
Nerima Ward, Tokyo

Hikarigaoka
High-Rise
Apartments

Hikarigaoka
University
Hospital
THE WAY FORWARD
Public Participation
 Lack of public awareness in solid waste
management.
 Require full attention
 A key to success in waste minimization and solid
waste management.
National Recycling Program
Long term Objective : to inculcate the habit of
recycling among the population,
Reduce operation cost of solid waste management.
Minimize the volume of waste disposed by landfill.
Reduce utilizations of raw materials.
To improve awareness and cooperation among
stakeholders,
The end

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU LECTURE BY: NAZAITULSHILA RASIT


37
TKA 4201 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eng. Science Dept, Faculty Science & Technology