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College of Agriculture, Jabalpur

Dept. : Biotechnology
Course: Molecular Breeding (MBB-507)
Genotype By Environment Interaction And Crop Yield
Presented by: Guided by:
Sanjeev Meena Dr. R. S. Sharma
Enroll. No.- 180117005
Genotype By Environment
Interaction And Crop Yield
•Genotype-environment interaction
(Definition and method for analysing)
 Phenotype: It is the appearance of a plant
with respect to a particular character such
as plant height, flower colour etc., or it may
be group of character. It have both heritable
and non-heritable components.
 Genotype: It is the part (DNA sequence) of
the genetic makeup of a cell and determine a
specific characteristic(phenotype) of that
 It is what is around something. It can be living
or non living thing. It includes physical chemical
and other natural forces. Living things live in
their environment and they constantly interact
with it and change in response to condition in
their environment. In the environment there are
interaction between animals, plants, soil, water
and other living and non-living things.
 Types of environment
1. Macro
2. Micro
Classification of environment
 Allard and Bradshaw (1964): classified the
environment variation into two types:
1. Predictable variation: such as climate, day
length (photo period), agronomic practices
(planting date, plant density etc.)
2. Unpredictable variation: such as
uncontrollable factor like fluctuations in
weather, season, year with respect to
annual precipitation, tempreture, R. H.
Genotype-environment interaction
 The chief difference between qualitative
and quantitative character/traits lies in the
degree to which they are affected by the
environment. Qualitative character are little
or not at all affected by the environment
while quantitative character are
considerably affected. The chief effect of
the environment is to mask the difference
between different genotype and to produce
a continuous variation for the character.
 In crop improvement, the breeder selects
plants on the basis of their phenotype. The
effectiveness of selection therefore would
largely depend on the proportion of phenotype
produced by the genotype. Therefore it is
important for the breeder to know the extent to
which environment influence the phenotype of
quantitative character of interest.
 The phenotype may be described
according to a mathematical model to
facilitate statistical analysis and
interpretation. The phenotype mean i.e.,
Ŷ of a given genotype may be expressed
Ŷ= µ+G+E+GE
 Where, µ is the general population mean,
i.e., the mean of all possible genotype
grown under all possible environments, G is
the effect of genotype, E is the effect of
environment and GE denotes the genotype
x environment interaction. The GE signifies
that the relative performance of different
genotype is affected by the environment. If
environment E = 0 then phenotype =
genotype so phenotype is the joint action of
gneotype and environment.
Methods for analysing GE
 AMMI (additive main affect and
multiplicative model)
 Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
 Principal component analysis (PCA)
 Genotype G main affect plus GE interaction
 Bioplot analysis
GxE interaction
 GxE interaction describes the differential
performance of genotype/lines/varieties
over environments. In other words, different
environments affect the performance of
different genotypes either in different ways
or to different degree.
 When the ranking of varieties does not
change over the environments, the
differential response of genotype is only a
matter of scale; such a GxE interaction is
termed as quantitative or non cross over
GxE interaction
To be continue...
 Since the response curve of the genotype
over environment dose not cross each
 In case of qualitative or crossover GxE
interaction the ranking of varieties
changes with the environment as a given
environment favours some genotype while
it is detrimental to some other as a result
the differential response of genotype differs
in the type (promotion and inhibition) and
not the scale of response.
Fig.: Relative
performance of
two hypothetical
genotype A & B
in two
environment 1
(A) There is no
(B) The GxE
interaction in
quantitative, and
(C) The GxE
interaction is
To be continue...
 Quantitative GxE interaction are less
important to breeder while qualitative or
GxE interaction complicate selection and
identification of superior genotype. This is
because GxE interaction reduces the
association between phenotypic and
genotypic values and makes selection from
one environment selections from one
environment to perform poorly in other
environment . Presence of undetected GxE
interaction may also lead to rejection of
promising genotype resulting in genetic
 In Drosophila: A classic example of gene–
environment interaction was performed on
Drosophila by Gupta and Lewontin in 1981.
In their experiment they demonstrated that
the mean bristle number on Drosophila
could vary with changing temperatures. As
seen in the graph to the right, different
genotypes reacted differently to the
changing environment. Each line
represents a given genotype, and the slope
of the line reflects the changing phenotype
(bristle number) with changing temperature.
To be continue...
 Some individuals had an increase in bristle
number with increasing temperature while
others had a sharp decrease in bristle
number with increasing temperature. This
showed that the norms of reaction were not
parallel for these flies, proving that gene–
environment interactions exist.
 In plants: A sorghum bi-parental population
was repeatedly grown in seven diverse
geographic locations across years. A group
of genotypes requires similar growing
degree-day (GDD) to flower across all
To be continue...
 while another group of genotypes need less
GDD in certain environments, but higher
GDD in different environments to flower.
The complex flowering time patterns is
attributed to the interaction of major
flowering time genes (Ma1,Ma6,FT, ELF3)
and an explicit environmental factor, photo
thermal time (PTT) capturing the interaction
between temperature and photoperiod.
 GxE interaction are relevant in breeding
programme both during selection and
evaluation phases. GxE interaction dictates
the objective of a plant breeder. A breeder
decide whether he wishes to select
genotype adopted to a limited range of
environment or wide range of
environments. However when the breeder
would like to develop varieties that perform
over a wide range of environment he would
like to minimise GxE interaction in his