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By

S. VIJAYAKUMAR
M. K. SANIL
M. NISHA
T. M. SHABIN ALI
WASTE
WASTE MANAGEMENT
 Collection
 An unusable / unwanted  source separation
substance or material.
 storage
 transportation
 Rejected as worthless.  transfer
 processing
Eg) Rubbish, trash, garbage or  treatment
junk  disposal of waste
AIM OF WASTE
MANAGEMENT
@ To extract
maximum practical
benefits.

@ To generate
minimum amount
of waste.

@ Reduce negative
impacts - on
environment &
society.
TYPES OF WASTES
• From plant or animal sources
• Broken down by other living
organisms.
DEGRADABLE • Eg) municipal waste – green waste,
food waste, paper waste and bio-
WASTES degradable plastics.
• Also include human waste, manure,
sewage.

• Cannot be broken down by other


living organisms.
NON • Not capable of degradation or
decomposition.
DEGRADABLE • Eg) plastics, metal and glass.
WASTES • Also include dangerous chemicals,
toxins as are plastic grocery bags.
SOURCES OF WASTES
*Domestic wastes - Eg) paper, plastic, glass,
ceramics, vegetable wastes

*Commercial wastes - Eg) printer paper, meat


remnants

*Ashes - Eg) coal, wood and coke.


- Open burning of wastes also generates ashes

*Animal Wastes - Eg)dung of animals


- rejected feed
*Biomedical Wastes - Eg) expired drugs, plastic
syringes, surgical dressings

*Construction Wastes - Eg) metal rods,


bricks, cement, concrete, roofing materials
- digging activities Eg) telephone,
electricity, drainage

*Industrial Solid Wastes -Eg) garment


factory would dump textiles of various kinds

*Sewer - removed from sewerage - left on


the roadside
*Hazardous wastes - potentially dangerous
- react explosively with air or water
- Change in the genetic structure of individuals

*E - Waste - electronics disposed


-E.g.) Secondary computers, electronics, mobile
phones, television sets & refrigerator

*Nuclear waste - containing radioactive material


- product of a nuclear fission
Effects of waste If not managed
 Affects our health
 Affects our socio-economic conditions
 Affects our coastal and marine environment
 Affects our climate
 Rise in global temperatures ‘
 Rise in sea levels
Methods of Waste Mgmt.
Disposal Methods Recycling methods

a) Land fills a) Biological reprocessing


Convenient
Inexpensive
b) Energy recovery
i)Pyrolysis
Destruction of food sources
ii)Gasification
Desalination

 Incineration
Key to providing a livable environment for
Requires minimum land
the future
Can be operated in any weather
Expensive
Expensive to build and operate
Some wastes cannot be recycled
Continuous maintenance Technological push needed
Practical Issues

 Lack of awareness
 Unplanned growth and development of cities
 Land availabilty
 Un sorted waste. mixture of bio-degradable and non
bio-degradable
 Some wastes cannot be recycled
 Unsightly - smell, waste, vermin
 requires proper planning, design, and operation
Bio-Methanation Process
 Materials that are organic in nature, such as plant
material, food scraps
 convert starch or sugary agricultural feed stock into a
methane rich gas mixture
 three stages, namely, hydrolysis, acid-genesis and
methane formation
 Process is very slow
 Installing is expensive.
Suggestions
 Improve product design to use less materials.
 use biodegradable materials
 maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets
 At Source Treatment, Separation of materials should be
done at source
 Encourage eople to reuse materials rather than
purchase new ones.
Case Study
 Name of Project : CochinWaste 2 Energy Pvt Ltd
 Type of Process : BESI W2E Gasification Technology
 Capacity : 35 tons/day
 Land Area : 1 Acre
 Location : Willington Island, Cochin
 Type ofWaste : Industrial effluent Sludge, e-waste,Biomedical waste,food
waste, Wood waste,
 Power Generation : 1 Mega Watt per hour.
 SolidWaste generated from Plant: Recovered sterilized metals for recycle.
Vitrified glass. Inert Ash
 Revenue Stream : Tipping fee. Sale of Power generated. Residue. Carbon
Credits
 Collection Mechanism :Through specially designed enclosed refuse trucks
meeting international norms
 Waste Stream Analysis : School of Environmental Studies, CUSAT