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Y Y 



  Y          .

   !" "  #  $$ !  #!%"   !#$&  % !%%!#   !## &'%.

##   .

   American Management Association !# !($  !# !%    '&      ## %   # #   $  #  Ô      $ ## #$  '!  !  #$ #$! ! ) ! !' .

$$ #   #  ! ( '!  !#$$ $$'  #  Management is purposeful:    #( !  ##     $## Management is an Integrative Force:   %  # #!   ##$     .!(    Management is universal: !#     (# '  !.

Management is a social Process: # '  $$ !  $$#  $$ !$ $# $'!# % $ Management is Multidisciplinary:  # "%#  #$"  Y         #%  !'  !!# # # Management is a continuous process:  $  # #* !! !#     Management is intangible: Process    !# '    !  !  '     .

arious functions of Management .

 Y Y !#  !! !    % %   %"#% "  !$!## $  '& #$&#$ $#!# $#!#$$'!# .

and who is do it.  $ ¢  # ¢ -Planning is a concept of executive action that embodies the skills of anticipating. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise happenµ. ¢ #+ ¢ -Planning is deciding in advance what to do. influencing and controlling the nature and direction of changeµ. how to do it. when to do it. . Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go.

! $ ¢ A thinking process: ¢ Y!# %  " %  %  ' ! '#&!# ##$#  $$! ¢ Accomplishment of group objectives: ¢ Y .

##   '$$% #  $$# %"     .

¢ mhoice between alternatives: ¢ Y"#&!##$   ! $$!   % #'&   '!"$ ' % #   $   '#$# $  '&  ¢ Pervasiveness of planning: ¢ Y'# .

## Y !$  $.

 '!  ### %   .

¢ Flexibility ¢ '! "$  $# !#   ! %    # $$$ '#&!##$ ! ## ¢ Integrated process ¢   $"    % # !    !  '#'   $  # .

$ $ ¢ àelection of optimum goals ¢ Tackling increasing complexities ¢ Meeting environmental changes ¢ àafeguard against business failures ¢ Unity of action ¢ Effective co-ordination and control .

Y $ .

Y  !' $  # '&  % %.

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!$  $ "$$ ¢ Establishment of an objectives or a set of objectives Y!#"%  %$  # #'&  '& %    !  %##%' ## $ !!$$! $#' $ $''"#  $  !! ¢ mollection and analysis of relevant information $  ' ' ## $   $'#  !# ''! "#  ##'  #  ! % ''# !    ')$)% #  !    ###!#%  ' .

¢ à T analysis  #$#  %" $$!#   #   %!# $'!     '&  ¢ 2etermining Alternative course of action $   !  !  $    '&    '     $!'&  .

¢ Evaluation of alternative course of action ¢  !      '& % $'$# '      %  .

'&   ! '  % !'        ¢ àelecting a course  $        !  $  !  % !#' $! ' !# ! .

¢ montinuous appraisal and plans # '  #'"   # #$$#  ' #  #  $ $' "'%  $# ! .