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Metabolism: Generation of Energy

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Metabolism
 Sum of all chemical reactions in the body’s cells
• Generation of energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and
fats
- Anaerobically
- Aerobically
 Has several metabolic pathways
• Glycolysis
• TCA cycle
• Electron transport chain

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Overview of Energy Metabolism

Figure 8.1
The Metabolic Fate of Food

Figure 8.3
Metabolic Pathways
 A sequence of reactions that convert compounds from one
form to another in the production of energy
 Different nutrients follow different pathways
 All pathways eventually converge into a pathway called the
TCA cycle

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Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions

Figure 8.4
Enzymes and Hormones
 Enzymes allow chemical reactions of metabolism to occur
at rates sufficient to maintain normal body function
 Coenzymes assist enzymes
 Hormones regulate anabolic and catabolic reactions

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Quick Review
 Metabolism is the sum of all metabolic processes that occur
in the cells
 Metabolic processes follows specific pathways
• Anabolic which use energy to build new substances
• Catabolic which produce energy by breaking down
molecules
 Enzymes and coenzymes catalyze reactions
 Hormones regulate reactions

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How Does the Body Fuel Metabolism?

Transforms
compounds to
Builds new adenosine
compounds triphosphate
(ATP)
Disassembles
macronutrients

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Cellular Respiration Stage I: Glycolysis
 The first stage of cellular respiration. It takes place in the
cytosol of the cytoplasm.
 The word glycolysis means “glucose splitting,” which is
exactly what happens in this stage. Enzymes split a
molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (also
known as pyruvic acid) this results in a net gain of two
ATP molecules.
 In glycolysis, glucose (C6) is split into two 3-carbon (C3)
pyruvate molecules. This releases energy, which is
transferred to ATP.

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 Glycolysis
• Process by which carbohydrates provide energy to the
cell
• Backbone of metabolism
• During glycolysis, glucose is split into two 3-carbon
pyruvate molecules, using 2 ATP but generating 4 ATP,
for a net gain of 2 ATP.
• During glycolysis, 2 NADH are also produced.

 Pyruvate
• Reduce to lactate during anaerobic metabolism
• Converted to acetyl CoA during aerobic metabolism
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Cellular Respiration Stage II: The TCS Cycle
 Second stage of aerobic respiration in which two pyruvate
(pyruvic acid) molecules from the first stage react to form
ATP, NADH, and FADH2; also known as the Krebs cycle.
 The Krebs cycle starts with pyruvic acid from glycolysis.
 Before the Krebs cycle begins, pyruvic acid, which has
three carbon atoms, is split apart and combined with an
enzyme known as coenzyme A (CoA). The product of this
reaction is a two-carbon molecule called acetyl-CoA. The
third carbon from pyruvic acid combines with oxygen to
form carbon dioxide, which is released as a waste product.
High-energy electrons are also released and captured in
NADH.

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The TCA Cycle

© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.11


Results of the Krebs Cycle
 4 ATP (including 2 from glycolysis)
 10 NADH (including 2 from glycolysis)
 2 FADH2

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Cellular Respiration Stage: III Electron
Transport
 Electron transport is the final stage of aerobic respiration.
In this stage, energy from NADH and FADH2, which result
from the Krebs cycle, is transferred to ATP.
 The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the
site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. The
NADH and succinate generated in the citric acid cycle are
oxidized, providing energy to power ATP synthase.
Photosynthetic electron transport chain of the thylakoid
membrane.
 Oxidative phosphorylation is the process in which ATP is
formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH
or FADH 2 to O 2 by a series of electron carriers. This
process, which takes place in mitochondria, is the major
source of ATP in aerobic organisms
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Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative
Phosphorylation

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Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative
Phosphorylation
 At the end of the Krebs Cycle, energy from the chemical
bonds of glucose is stored in diverse energy carrier
molecules: four ATPs, but also two FADH2 and ten NADH
molecules. The primary task of the last stage of cellular
respiration, the electron transport chain, is to transfer
energy from the electron carriers to even more ATP
molecules, the “batteries” which power work within the
cell.

© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Part of Figure 8.5


Quick Review
 The third and final stage of aerobic cellular respiration, the
electron transport chain, accounts for most of the ATP.
 Stage 3 transfers the energy from NADH and FADH2 to
make ATP.
 During electron transport, energy is used to pump hydrogen
ions across the mitochondrial inner membrane, from the
matrix into the intermembrane space.
 A chemiosmotic gradient causes hydrogen ions to flow
back across the mitochondrial membrane into the matrix,
through ATP synthase, producing ATP.
 When ATP from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle are added,
a total of 38 ATP result from aerobic respiration of one
molecule of glucose.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Part of Figure 8.5
The Yield of ATP in Glycolysis and
Aerobic Respiration
 Glycolysis is the process in which one glucose molecule is
broken down to form two molecules of pyruvic acid (also
called pyruvate).
 Aerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular
energy involving oxygen.

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Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
 Fermentation.
• An anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular process in which
an organic food is converted into simpler compounds,
and chemical energy (ATP) is produced.
• Human muscle cells also use fermentation. This occurs
when muscle cells cannot get oxygen fast enough to meet
their energy needs through aerobic respiration. There are
two types of fermentation: lactic acid fermentation and
alcoholic fermentation.
 Anaerobic Respiration. Type of cellular respiration that
does not require oxygen.

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Lactic Acid Fermentation
 In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvic acid
from glycolysis changes to lactic acid. In the process,
NAD+ forms from NADH. NAD+, in turn,
lets glycolysis continue. This results in additional
molecules of ATP. This type of fermentation is carried out
by the bacteria in yogurt. It is also used by your own
muscle cells when you work them hard and fast.

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Alcoholic Fermentation
 In alcoholic fermentation, pyruvic acid changes to alcohol
and carbon dioxide. NAD+ also forms from NADH,
allowing glycolysis to continue making ATP. This type of
fermentation is carried out by yeasts and some bacteria. It is
used to make bread, wine, and biofuels.

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Quick Review
Term Definition
Type of anaerobic respiration that includes
alcoholic glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvic
fermentation acid to ethanol and carbon dioxide and the
formation of NAD+.
anaerobic Type of cellular respiration that does not require
respiration oxygen.
Type of anaerobic respiration that includes
glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvic
fermentation
acid to one or more other compounds and the
formation of NAD+.
Type of anaerobic respiration that includes
lactic acid
glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvic
fermentation
acid to lactic acid and the formation of NAD+.
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Catabolism of Carbohydrates and
Intercellular Reserve Polymers
 Carbohydrate metabolism is the backbone of energy
production
 Glucose
• Important energy source for the brain and red blood cells
• Generates energy anaerobically and aerobically
• Transforms to energy via four metabolic pathways
- Glycolysis
- Intermediate reaction pyruvate to acetyl CoA
- Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
- Electron transport chain
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Catabolism of Carbohydrates and
Intercellular Reserve Polymers
 3 major classes of carbohydrates can be defined:
monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
 Examples of monosaccharides
include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose),
andgalactose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of
disaccharides (such assucrose and lactose) and
polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch).
 Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose
that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals,
fungi, and bacteria. The polysaccharide structure represents
the main storage form of glucose in the body.

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Lipid Catabolism
 Also called lipolysis
 Breaks lipids down into pieces:
• Glycerol gets converted to pyruvate  enters glycolysis
 makes acetyl CoA
• Fatty acids are converted to acetyl CoA that can be
channeled directly into TCA cycle
 Different enzymes convert fatty acids to acetyl-CoA in a
process called beta-oxidation

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Beta oxidation
 Beta oxidation is a metabolic process involving multiple
steps by which fatty acid molecules are broken down to
produce energy. More specifically, beta oxidation consists
in breaking down long fatty acids that have been converted
to acyl-CoA chains into progressively smaller fatty acyl-
CoA chains. This reaction releases acetyl-CoA, FADH2
and NADH, the three of which then enter another metabolic
process called citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle, in which
ATP is produced to be used as energy.

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Fats to Energy
 Dietary fat (triglycerides) yields six times more energy
 Triglycerides
• Glycerol backbone
• Three fatty acids
• Stored in adipose tissue
 Glycerol and fatty acids can be used for fuel
 Glycerol produces little energy

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Triglycerides
 Hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glycerol during lipolysis
• Reaction catalyzed by an enzyme in the adipose tissue
- Glucagon during times of fasting or starvation
- Epinephrine or cortisol when under stress
 Once in the blood stream, they travel to the tissues and
enter the metabolic pathway

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Fatty Acids and Glycerol
 Glycerol
• Glucogenic – can be transformed to glucose
 Fatty acids
• Ketogenic – can be transformed to ketone bodies
• Ketones are the backup fuel for brain and nerve function
when glucose is limited

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Glycerol
 In the liver
• Converted to glucose through gluconeogenesis
• Enters glycolysis to produce ATP and pyruvate
• Path entered depends on body’s need for glucose
 Brains and nerves prefer to use glucose for fuel
 Red blood cells can only use glucose for fuel
 When the diet is low in carbohydrates glucose must come
from other sources

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Quick Review
 Both the glycerol and fatty acid portions of triglycerides
provide energy
 Fatty acids are the more concentrated sources of energy and
are ketogenic, nonglucose forming
 Glycerol is glucogenic forming glucose through
gluconeogenesis

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Protein and Amino Acid Catabolism
 How Does Protein Provide Energy?
 Amino acids
• Primary use/most important function is building protein
• If the amino acid is not used to build protein the amine
group must be removed through deamination
• Excess can be used for energy production, converted to
glucose, or stored as fat
• Used, in a limited extent, for energy in diets low in
kilocalories and/or carbohydrate

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Ketogenic verses Glucogenic Amino Acids
 Ketogenic amino acids
• Leucine
• Lysine
 Both ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids
• Isoleucine
• Tryptophan
• Phenylalanine
• Tyrosine
 Glucogenic amino acids
• The fourteen other amino acids
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Glucogenic and Ketogenic Amino Acid Metabolism

Acetyl CoA cannot be used to make glucose


Figure 8.10
Amino Acids to Glucose
 Glucogenic amino acids
• Major source of blood glucose when the diet is lacking in
carbohydrate
• Can come from food
• Can come from the breakdown of muscle

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Quick Review
 Amino acids can
• Be used to produce energy
• Be used to produce glucose
• Convert to fatty acids and can be stored as triglycerides
 Must be deaminated to be used for energy
 Once deaminated can be transformed into:
• Pyruvate
• Acetyle CoA
• TCA cycle compounds
 Glucogenic amino acids can be converted to glucose
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Oxidation of Inorganic Molecules
 Chemolitotrops or chemoautotrophs synthesize ATP by
oxidizing reduced inorganic compounds – usually
hydrogen, reduced nitrogen and sulfur compounds, or
ferrous iron – with an electron transport chain and O2 as the
electron transport.
 Chemoautotrophs are cells that create their own energy
and biological materials from inorganic chemicals. ...
Photoautotrophs use energy from sunlight to make their
biological materials. These include green plants and
photosynthesizing algae.

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Photosynthesis
 Like us, plants need energy to power their cellular
processes, so some of the sugars are used by the plant itself.
 The glucose will be broken down through cellular
respiration, generating ATP to keep cells running.

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Connecting Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are connected
through an important relationship. This relationship enables
life to survive as we know it. The products of one process
are the reactants of the other. Notice that the equation
for cellular respiration is the direct opposite
of photosynthesis:
 Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
 Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6+ 6O2

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 Cellular respiration and
photosynthesis are direct
opposite reactions.
Energy from the sun enters a
plant and is converted into
glucose during photosynthesis.
Some of the energy is used to
make ATP in the mitochondria
during cellular respiration,
and some is lost to the
environment
as heat.
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Photosynthesis
 Steps:
• Glycolysis.
• Pyruvate oxidation.
• Citric acid cycle.
• Electron Transport
Chain

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Summary on Cellular Respiration
 Cellular respiration uses energy in glucose to make ATP.
Aerobic (“oxygen-using”) respiration occurs in three
stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport.
 In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of
pyruvate. This results in a net gain of two ATP molecules.
 Life first evolved in the absence of oxygen, and glycolysis
does not require oxygen. Therefore, glycolysis was
probably the earliest way of making ATP from glucose.
 The Krebs cycle and electron transport occur in the
mitochondria. The Krebs cycle takes place in the matrix,
and electron transport takes place on the inner membrane.

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 During the Krebs cycle, pyruvate undergoes a series of
reactions to produce two more molecules of ATP and also
several molecules of NADH and FADH2
 During electron transport, energy from NADH and
FADH2 is used to make many more molecules of ATP.
 In all three stages of aerobic respiration, up to 38 molecules
of ATP may be produced from a single molecule of
glucose.

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