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Training and

Development

Human Resource Management


Managing Human Resources
SnellBohlander
• Bohlander
• Snell 14th edition

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook


All rights reserved. The University of West Alabama
Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Discuss the systems approach to training and
development.
2. Describe the components of training-needs
assessment.
3. Identify the principles of learning and describe how
they facilitate training.
4. Identify the types of training methods used for
managers and nonmanagers.
5. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
various evaluation criteria.
6. Describe the special training programs that are
currently popular.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–2
Training and Development and
Other HRM Functions

Availability of training can aid Provide an additional


in recruitment
Recruitment source of trainees

Training may permit hiring Effective selection may


Selection reduce training needs
less-qualified applicants

Training aids in the Performance A basis for assessing


achievement of performance Appraisal training needs and results

Training and development may Compensation A basis for determining


lead to higher pay Management employee’s rate of pay

Training may include a role for Union cooperation can


the union
Labor Relations facilitate training efforts

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The Scope of Training
• Training
 Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning
among its members.
 Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward
short-term performance concerns.
• Development
 Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an
individual’s skills for the future responsibilities.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–4


Figure 7–1 Training Dollars Spent by Employee Type

Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 28.
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The Systems Approach to Training and
Development
• Four Phases
 Needs assessment
 Program design
 Implementation
 Evaluation

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Figure 7–2 Systems Model of Training

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Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment
• Organization Analysis
 An examination of the environment, strategies, and
resources of the organization to determine where
training emphasis should be placed.
• Task Analysis
 The process of determining what the content of a
training program should be on the basis of a study of
the tasks and duties involved in the job.
• Person Analysis
 A determination of the specific individuals who need
training.

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Needs Assessment for Training
• Competency assessment
 Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-
oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs.

• ORGANIZATIONAL …of environment, strategies, and resources


ANALYSIS to determine where to emphasize training

TASK ANALYSIS …of the activities to be performed in order to


determine the KSAs needed.

…of performance, knowledge, and skills in


• PERSON ANALYSIS order to determine who needs training.

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Figure 7–3 Needs Assessment for Training

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Highlights in HRM 1

Notes on Rapid Needs Assessment


NOTE 1: Look at the problem scope.
NOTE 2: Do organizational scanning.
NOTE 3: Play “give and take.”
NOTE 4: Check “lost and found.”
NOTE 5: Use plain talk.
NOTE 6: Use the Web.
NOTE 7: Use rapid prototyping.
NOTE 8: Seek out exemplars.

Source: Condensed from Ron Zemke, “How to Do a Needs Assessment When You Think You Don’t Have Time,”
Training 35, no. 3 (March 1998): 38–44. Reprinted with permission from the March 1998 issue of Training Magazine.
Copyright 1998. Bill Communications, Inc., Minneapolis, MN. All rights reserved. Not for resale.
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Phase 2: Designing the Training Program

Issues in training design

Instructional objectives

Trainee readiness and motivation

Principles of learning

Characteristics of successful trainers

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Phase 2: Designing the Training Program
• Instructional Objectives
 Represent the desired outcomes of a training
program
 Performance-centered objectives
 Provide a basis for choosing methods
and materials and for selecting
the means for assessing
whether the instruction
will be successful.

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Trainee Readiness and Motivation
• Strategies for Creating a Motivated Training
Environment:
 Use positive reinforcement.
 Eliminate threats and punishment.
 Be flexible.
 Have participants set personal goals.
 Design interesting instruction.
 Break down physical and psychological obstacles to
learning.

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Figure 7–4 Principles of Learning

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Principles of Learning

Focus on learning and transfer

Goal setting - What’s the value?

Meaningfulness of presentation

Behavioral modeling

Recognition of individual learning


differences

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Principles of Learning (cont’d)

Focus on method and process

Active practice and repetition

Whole versus-part learning

Massed-vs-distributed learning

Feedback and reinforcement

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Figure 7–5 A Typical Learning Curve

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Feedback and Reinforcement
• Behavior Modification
 The technique that operates on the principle that
behavior that is rewarded, or positively reinforced, is
repeated more frequently, whereas behavior that is
penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–19


Characteristics of Successful Instructors
• Knowledge of the subject
• Adaptability
• Sincerity
• Sense of humor
• Interest
• Clear instructions
• Individual assistance
• Enthusiasm

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Phase 3: Implementing the Training
Program

Choosing the instructional method

Nature of training

Type of trainees

Organizational extent of training

Importance of training outcomes

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Training Methods for Nonmanagerial
Employees
• On-the-Job Training (OJT)
• Apprenticeship Training
• Cooperative Training,
Internships, and
Governmental Training
• Classroom Instruction
• Programmed Instruction
• Audiovisual Methods
• Computer-based Training
and E-Learning
• Simulation Method
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–22
Training Methods for Nonmanagerial
Employees (cont’d)
• On-the-job training (OJT)
 Method by which employees are given hands-on
experience with instructions from their supervisor or
other trainer.
• Drawbacks
 The lack of a well-structured training environment
 Poor training skills of managers
 The absence of well-defined job performance criteria

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–23


On-the-Job Training
• Overcoming OJT training problems
1. Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each
OJT area.
2. Plan a specific training schedule for each trainee,
including set periods for evaluation and feedback.
3. Help managers establish a nonthreatening
atmosphere conducive to learning.
4. Conduct periodic evaluations, after training is
completed, to prevent regression.

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Highlights in HRM 3

The PROPER Way to Do On-the-Job Training

Source: Scott Snell, Cornell University.


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Training Methods for Nonmanagerial
Employees (cont’d)
• Apprenticeship training
 A system of training in which a worker entering the
skilled trades is given thorough instruction and
experience, both on and off the job, in the practical
and theoretical aspects of the work.
• Cooperative Training
 A training program that combines practical on-the-job
experience with formal educational classes.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–26


Training Methods for Nonmanagerial
Employees (cont’d)
• Internship Programs
 Are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and
other organizations that offer students the opportunity
to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find
out how they will perform in work organizations.
• Classroom Instruction
 Enables the maximum number of trainees to be
handled by the minimum number of instructors.
 “Blended” learning—lectures and demonstrations are
combined with films, DVDs, and videotapes or
computer instruction.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–27
Highlights in HRM 5
Making the Most of Internships
How to Increase the Value of Interns
To increase the internal value of your internship programs, take the
following steps:
1. Assign the intern to projects that are accomplishable and provide
training as required.
2. Involve the intern in the project-planning process.
3. Appoint a mentor or supervisor to guide the intern.
4. Invite project suggestions from other staff members.
5. Ask interns to keep a journal of their work activities.
6. Rotate interns throughout the organization.
7. Explain the rationale behind work assignments.
8. Hold interns accountable for projects and deadlines.
9. Treat interns as part of the organizational staff and invite them to staff
meetings.
10. Establish a process for considering interns for permanent hire.
Source: Condensed from John Byrd and Rob Poole, “Highly Motivated Employees at No Cost? It’s Not an Impossible Dream,” Nonprofit World 19,
no. 6 (November/December 2001): 312–32. Reprinted by permission of Nonprofit World, http://www.snpo.org, telephone: 734-451-3582
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–28
Figure 7–6 Delivery Method of Training

Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 32.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–29
Training Methods for Nonmanagerial
Employees (cont’d)
• Programmed Instruction
 Referred to as self-directed learning—involves the
use of books, manuals, or computers to break down
subject matter content into highly organized, logical
sequences that demand continuous response on the
part of the trainee.
• Audiovisual Methods
 Technologies, such as CDs and DVDs, are used to
teach skills and procedures by illustrating the steps in
a procedure or interpersonal relations.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–30


Training Methods for Nonmanagerial
Employees (cont’d)
• E-Learning
 Learning that takes place via electronic media such
web and computer-based training (CBT)
 Allows the firm to bring the training to employees
 Allows employees to customize their own learning in
their own time and space
 Provides continuously updated
training materials.

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E-Learning Advantages
Learning is self-paced.
The training comes to the employee.
The training is interactive.
Employees do not have to wait for a scheduled
training session.
The training can focus on specific needs as
revealed by built-in tests.
Trainees can be referred to online help or
written material.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–32


E-Learning Advantages (cont’d)
It is easier to change a web site than to retype,
photocopy, and distribute new classroom-
training materials.
Record keeping is facilitated.
The training can be cost-effective if used for
both large and small numbers of employees.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–33


Highlights in HRM 6

Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 34.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–34
Training Methods for Nonmanagerial
Employees (cont’d)
• Simulation
 The simulation method emphasizes realism in
equipment and its operation at minimum cost and
maximum safety.
 Used when it is either impractical or unwise to train
employees on the actual equipment used on the job.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–35


Training Methods for Management
Development
• On-the-Job Experiences
• Seminars and Conferences
• Case Studies
• Management Games
• Role Playing
• Behavior Modeling

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On-the-Job Experiences
• Coaching
• Understudy Assignment
• Job Rotation
• Lateral Transfer
• Special Projects
• Action Learning
• Staff Meetings
• Planned Career
Progressions

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Figure 7–7 The Leadership Grid

Source: Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse, Leadership Dilemmas—Grid Solutions (Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1991), 29. (First published
as The Managerial Grid Figure by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton.) Courtesy of Grid International, Austin, TX. All rights reserved.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–38
Case Studies
• The use of case studies is most appropriate
when:
1. Analytic, problem-solving, and critical thinking
skills are most important.
2. The KSAs are complex and participants need time
to master them.
3. Active participation is desired.
4. The process of learning (questioning, interpreting,
and so on) is as important as the content.
5. Team problem solving and interaction are possible.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–39


Figure 7–8 Case Studies

WHEN USING CASE STUDIES . . .


• Be clear about learning objectives, and list possible ways to achieve the
objectives.
• Decide which objectives would be best served by the case method.
• Identify available cases that might work, or consider writing your own.
• Set up the activity—including the case material, the room, and the schedule.
• Follow the principles of effective group dynamics.
• Provide a chance for all learners to take part and try to keep the groups small.
• Stop for process checks and be ready to intervene if group dynamics get out
of hand.
• Allow for different learning styles.
• Clarify the trainer’s role.
• Bridge the gap between theory and practice.

Source: Adapted from Albert A. Einsiedel, Jr., “Case Studies: Indispensable


Tools for Trainers,” Training and Development (August 1995): 50–53.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–40
Role Playing
• Successful role play requires that instructors:
 Ensure that group members are comfortable with
each other.
 Select and prepare the role players by introducing a
specific situation.
 To help participants prepare, ask them to describe
potential characters.
 Realize that volunteers make better role players.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–41


Role Playing (cont’d)
• Successful role play requires that instructors:
 Prepare the observers by giving them specific tasks
(such as evaluation or feedback).
 Guide the role-play enactment through its bumps
(because it is not scripted).
 Keep it short.
 Discuss the enactment and prepare bulleted points of
what was learned.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–42


Behavior Modeling
• Behavior Modeling
 An approach that demonstrates desired behavior and
gives trainees the chance to practice and role-play
those behaviors and receive feedback.
 Involves four basic components:
 Learning points
 Model
 Practice and role play
 Feedback and reinforcement

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–43


Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program

Measuring program effectiveness

Criterion 1: Trainee reactions

Criterion 2: Extent of learning

Criterion 3: Learning transfer to job

Criterion 4: Results assessment

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Figure 7–9 Criteria for Evaluating Training

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Criterion 1: Reactions
• Participant Reactions.
 The simplest and most common approach to training
evaluation is assessing trainees.
 Potential questions might include the following:
What were your learning goals for this program?
Did you achieve them?
Did you like this program?
Would you recommend it to others who have similar
learning goals?
What suggestions do you have for improving the
program?
Should the organization continue to offer it?

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–46


Criterion 2: Learning
• Checking to see whether they actually learned
anything.
 Testing knowledge and skills before beginning a
training program gives a baseline standard on
trainees that can be measured again after training to
determine improvement.
 However, in addition to testing trainees, test
employees who did not attend the training to estimate
the differential effect of the training.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–47


Criterion 3: Behavior
• Transfer of Training
 Effective application of principles learned to what
is required on the job.
• Maximizing the Transfer of Training
1. Feature identical elements
2. Focus on general principles
3. Establish a climate for transfer.
4. Give employees transfer strategies

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Criterion 4: Results or Return on
Investment (ROI)
• Utility of Training Programs.
 Calculating the benefits derived from training:
How much did quality improve because of the training
program?
How much has it contributed to profits?
What reduction in turnover and wasted materials did the
company get after training?
How much has productivity increased and by how much
have costs been reduced?

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–49


Criterion 4: Results or Return on
Investment (ROI)
• Return on Investment
 Viewing training in terms of the extent to which it
provides knowledge and skills that create a
competitive advantage and a culture that is ready for
continuous change.
 ROI = Results/Training Costs
 If the ROI ratio is >1, the benefits of the training exceed
the cost of the program
 If the ROI ratio is <1, the costs of the training exceed the
benefits.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–50


Highlights in HRM 7

Source: Richard J. Wagner and Robert J. Weigand, “Can the Value of Training Be Measured? A Simplified Approach to
Evaluating Training,” The Health Care Manager 23, no.1 (January–March 2004): 71–78.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–51
Criterion 4: Results (cont’d)
• Benchmarking
 The process of measuring one’s own services and
practices against the recognized leaders in order to
identify areas for improvement.
1. Training activity: How much training is
occurring?
2. Training results: Do training and development
achieve their goals?
3. Training efficiency: Are resources utilized in the
pursuit of this mission?

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Criterion 4: Results (cont’d)
• Deming’s Benchmarking Model
1. Plan: conduct a self-audit to identify areas for
benchmarking.
2. Do: collect data about activities.
3. Check: Analyze data.
4. Act: Establish goals, implement changes, monitor
progress, and redefine benchmarks.

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Highlights in HRM 8

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Special Training and Development Topics

Organization-wide training programs

Orientation training

Basic skills training

Team and cross-training

Diversity training

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Special Topics in Training and Development
(cont’d)
• Orientation
 A formal process of familiarizing new employees
with the organization, their jobs, and their work units.
 Benefits:
1. Lower turnover
2. Increased productivity
3. Improved employee morale
4. Lower recruiting and training costs
5. Facilitation of learning
6. Reduction of the new employee’s anxiety

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–56


Highlights in HRM 9

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Special Topics in Training and Development
(cont’d)
• Basic Skills Training
 Basic skills have become essential occupational
qualifications, having profound implications for
product quality, customer service, internal efficiency,
and workplace and environmental safety.
• Typical basic skills:
 Reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening,
problem solving, managing oneself, knowing how to
learn, working as part of a team, leading others.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–58


Special Topics in Training and Development
(cont’d)
• To implement a successful program in basic
and remedial skills:
1. Explain to employees why and how the training will
help them in their jobs.
2. Relate the training to the employees’ goals.
3. Respect and consider participant experiences, and
use these as a resource.
4. Use a task-centered or problem-centered approach
so that participants “learn by doing.”
5. Give feedback on progress toward meeting learning
objectives.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–59
Special Topics in Training and Development
(cont’d)
• Team Training Issues
1. Team building is a difficult and comprehensive
process.
2. Team development is not always a linear sequence
of “forming, storming, norming, and performing.”
3. Additional training is required to assimilate new
members.
4. Behavioral and process skills need to be acquired
through participative exercises.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–60


Figure 7–10 Team Training Skills

Source: George Bohlander and Kathy McCarthy, “How to Get the Most
from Team Training,” National Productivity Review (Autumn 1996): 25–35.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–61
Special Topics in Training and Development
(cont’d)
• Cross-Training
 The process of training employees to do multiple jobs
within an organization
 Gives firms flexible capacity.
 Cuts turnover
 Increase productivity
 Pares down labor costs
 Lays the foundation for careers rather than dead-end
jobs.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–62


Highlights in HRM 10
Characteristics of Effective Diversity Training Programs
Steering committee represents all levels of the organization and a mix of
races, ages, and gender.
• Workshops include the following:
• Top executives demonstrate their commitment by early participation.
• Each participant is given a workbook with support materials.
• Participants are made aware of key topics and company policies.
• Participants are asked to describe specific steps they would take to
support diversity.
• Participants create a list of diversity ground rules or behavioral norms.
• Managers discuss and revise rules for their areas.
• Participants link diversity training to other HR initiatives such as
recruitment and selection, career management, and compensation.
• Managers are accountable for achieving goals of diversity training.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–63


Special Topics in Training and Development
(cont’d)
• To avoid the pitfalls of substandard diversity
training, managers will want to do the following:
 Forge a strategic link.
 Check out consultant qualifications.
 Don’t settle for “off the shelf” programs.
 Choose training methods carefully.
 Document individual and organizational benefits.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–64


Key Terms
• apprenticeship training • instructional objectives
• behavior modeling • internship programs
• behavior modification • on-the-job training (OJT)
• benchmarking • organization analysis
• competency assessment • orientation
• cooperative training • person analysis
• cross-training • task analysis
• e-learning • transfer of training

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–65