National Safety Council Defensive Driving Course 4

In a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) national survey, drivers reported committing these unsafe driving behaviors in the week prior to the survey:

‡ 30% entered an intersection just as the light was turning red. ‡ 26% slowed, but did not completely stop at a stop sign ‡ 23% drove 10 miles per hour over the speed limit on an interstate highway ‡ 22% drove 10 miles per hour faster than most other vehicles ‡ 8% drove when affected by alcohol

Defensive Driving Involves:
‡ Making effective safe and legal driving choices ‡ Creating a safe and stress-free personal driving space in and around your vehicle ‡ Driving to your destination without a ticket, a crash, or compromising other drivers· safety

Defensive Driving Involves:
‡ Practicing courtesy, compassion, common sense and cooperation. ‡ Understanding the risks of hazardous driving conditions and behaviors.

time. in spite of the conditions around you and the actions of others.Definition: ‡ Defensive Driving is driving to save lives. and money. .

Benefits of defensive driving: ‡ Saving your life and the lives of others in your vehicle ‡ Reducing traffic crash-related injuries ‡ Saving time ‡ Saving money ‡ Reducing your chance of being involved in a crash ‡ Reducing your chance of getting a traffic ticket .

A Preventable Collision is« ‡ One in which the driver fails to do everything reasonable to avoid it. and that violations are the cause of most collisions! . ‡ Facts reveal that most collisions are preventable.

DDC Collision Prevention Formula: (R U A) ‡ Recognize the hazard ‡ Understand the defense ‡ Act correctly in time .

‡ Use the ´what-ifµ strategy. ‡ What is behind you? ‡ What is around you? ‡ What are you driving into? ‡ Look in the mirrors every 3-5 seconds.Recognize the Hazard: Scan ahead. . and behind you. around.

‡ Know the consequences of the choices you make. ‡ Know the basic defenses: ² develop effective scanning patterns ² slowing down ² using a safe following distance for the driving conditions .Understand the Defense: ‡ Know what to do to avoid a traffic hazard.

. but may act incorrectly. ‡ Others may act in time. in time: ‡ Drivers should be alert and concentrating on the driving task.Act correctly. ‡ Drivers may know the correct evasive maneuver. but may not be paying attention and lose response time.

What do you think are the four most common driver errors that may cause a crash or violation? .

The Fatal Four: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Speeding Right-of-way errors and violations Driving left of center Tailgating Which of these are preventable? .

They all are!! .

´Speedingµ«the legal definition: ‡ Driving at speeds greater than the posted limit (it·s there for a reason. you know!) ‡ Driving over the maximum operating speed of the vehicle. e.g. when towing or driving on a ´donutµ spare ‡ Driving too fast for existing conditions .

Louis-roll) .Right of Way Violations include: ‡ Failure to yield ‡ Disregarding a traffic signal such as running through a red light ‡ Running or rolling through a stop sign (a St.

Who has the right of way? .

Who has the right of way? ‡ No one actually has the right of way. So if you enter into an intersection because you THINK you have the right of way. that thought could result in a crash! . Traffic law only indicates who should yield the right of way.

we should delay acceleration by two seconds and scan the road before proceeding. .Delayed Acceleration Technique ‡ At an intersection. as the first car. you will either be the first car or there will be others ahead of you ‡ When the light turns green.

Ask yourself when passing.Driving Left of Center ‡ Refers to crossing the center line. but this driver error has a potentially fatal outcome: a head-on collision. ´Is this absolutely necessary?µ . Vehicles cross the center line for many reasons.

Three Types of Crashes Resulting from Unsafe Passing ‡ Getting sideswiped ‡ Getting run off the road ‡ Getting hit head on .

signal and return to the lane ‡ Cancel your directional signal ‡ Maintain your speed after passing .Passing Tips ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Use a safe 3 .second following distance Scan ahead and look behind Check your blind spots Use your directional signals Swing out and speed up to the speed limit When you can see pavement in front of tires in your rearview mirror.

² Force of impact is greater in a head-on crash. don·t skid. ² Away from oncoming traffic ‡ Drive. . off the road.Split-second decisions ‡ Drive right. ² Reduce speed and brake gradually ‡ Hit something soft. not left. ² Duh!! ‡ Hit with a glancing blow. onto the shoulder. not hard.

if necessary. Drive to the right. Ride right off the road. Reduce speed.The Four R·s ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Read the road ahead. .

Tailgating! ‡ Perception Distance ‡ Reaction Distance ‡ Braking Distance .

‡ The 3 Second Plus Rule : Add an additional second for each adverse driving condition.The Three-Second Rule 3 ‡ Identify a fixed marker ahead of you. one-thousand-and-threeµ. ‡ Begin counting when the rear bumper of the vehicle ahead passes that marker. one-thousandand-two. ‡ Your vehicle should reach the object when you have finished counting. . ‡ Count ´one-thousand-and-one.

If you are being tailgated: .

If you are being tailgated: ‡ Keep a safe space in front. and to the sides of your vehicle . back.

back. and to the sides of your vehicle ‡ Slow down .If you are being tailgated: ‡ Keep a safe space in front.

and to the sides of your vehicle ‡ Slow down ‡ Increase your following distance to six seconds ² your three and their three . back.If you are being tailgated: ‡ Keep a safe space in front.

If you are being tailgated: ‡ Keep a safe space in front. and to the sides of your vehicle ‡ Slow down ‡ Increase your following distance to six seconds ² your three and their three ‡ Allow the vehicle to pass . back.

Video: ´Chain of Choicesµ .

.Driving is more dangerous because.. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Heavier traffic (more vehicles) Careless and inattentive drivers Increased speed limits (faster driving) Aggressive driving Impaired drovers More road construction Lack of driver education .

Aggressive Driving Behaviors ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Speeding Frequent or unsafe lane changes Failing to signal Tailgating Failure to yield right-of-way disregarding traffic controls Impaired driving .

Aggressive Driving Behaviors ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Gestures Verbal altercations Inattentive driving Obstructing traffic Aggressive horn use Aggressive headlight use .

Take and Maintain Control ‡ Aggressive Driving ² Driving in a selfish. without regard for the rights or safety of the other users of the road ‡ Road rage ² Using a vehicle as a weapon with intent to do harm ² Physical assault of a driver or vehicle ² A criminal offense . or pushy manner. bold.

threatening drivers to the police . Avoid eye contact Do not challenge Ignore verbal comments Report overly aggressive.When confronted by an aggressive driver: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Stay calm and relaxed Let him pass and get ahead of you.

Six Driving Conditions to Watch ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Light Conditions Weather Conditions Road Conditions Traffic Conditions Vehicle Conditions Driver Conditions .

Adverse light conditions: ‡ Too much light: ² ² ² ² sunrise sunset· glare street lights headlights ‡ Too little light: ² ² ² ² dusk dawn nighttime no street lights ‡ Defense: ² visor ² sunglasses ² safe following distance ‡ Defense: ² use headlights ² increase following distance .

Avoidance Techniques ‡ Slow Down! ‡ Increase following distance ‡ Do not slam on the brakes ‡ Steer smoothly ‡ Avoid making quick steering motions .Skid.

.What if you begin to skid? ‡ Vehicles without anti-lock brakes: ² Use the ´off-offµ technique ‡ ease your foot off the accelerator ‡ keep your foot off the brake ‡ turn the steering wheel in the direction you want the front of the vehicle to go.

‡ Vehicles with anti-lock brakes: ²Keep your foot on the brake firmly ²You will not lose control UNLESS you remove your foot from the brake pedal .

Weather related hazards include: ‡ Reduced Visibility ‡ Reduced Vehicle Traction ‡ Reduced steering Control .

headlights on Keeping all windows clean Using low-beam headlights SLOW DOWN!!! .Defenses Include: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Using windshield wipers Using windshield wiper fluid Wipers on.

Adverse Road Conditions: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Shape of the road Surface of the road Shoulder of the road Highway work zone sites ² vehicles entering and leaving area ² workers and activities spill into traffic lanes ² other construction-related hazards may remain after work is done .

Defenses include: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ SLOW DOWN! Drive at the recommended speed Maintain vehicle control Obey work zone flaggers and all traffic devices ‡ Expect the unexpected ‡ Scan ahead of and behind your vehicle .

blind spots ‡ Congestion ‡ Pedestrian traffic ‡ Emergency vehicles ‡ School buses . speeds.Adverse Traffic Conditions ‡ Variety of vehicles with different sizes.

or the driver signals for traffic to proceed. and driver has activated flashing lights and signal arm. both oncoming and following traffic must stop. the driver raises the signal arm. . ‡ Traffic must remain stopped until the bus moves.School Bus Safety ‡ When a school bus is stopped.

con·t. ‡ On a highway with separate roadways.School Bus Safety . a vehicle need not stop: ² when meeting or overtaking a school bus on a different roadway ² for a school bus which is proceeding in the opposite direction on a highway with 4 or more lanes ² for a school bus stopped in a loading zone (at a school) where students are not permitted to cross the roadway .

Adverse Vehicle Conditions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Worn tires Improper tire inflation Non-functional directional signals Headlights not working or improperly aimed Poor condition or failure of brakes Worn wipers Lack of washer fluid Low on fuel .

Defenses include: ‡ Regular vehicle maintenance ‡ Pre-trip inspections ‡ Once in the vehicle: ² lock doors ² adjust seat and mirrors ² use occupant restraints ‡ Know your vehicle .

Adverse Driver Conditions (nondrug related): ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Fatigue/drowsiness Stress Emotions Illness ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Inexperience Limited mobility Reduced hearing Limited vision .

Defenses: ‡ Fatigue ² rest breaks ² talk w/ passengers ² avoid alcohol ‡ Vision ² turn your head to check blind spots ² wear glasses if needed ² clean windows ² avoid looking into lights ‡ Illness ² don·t drive too long ‡ Limited mobility ² know how medication ² make seat adjustments affects you ² power accessories ² be aware of changes in ² use safety belts your reaction time .

scan left. If the light is still green. right. and left again. signal and get into the appropriate lane ‡ In the last third. accelerate to a safe and legal speed ‡ In the second third. proceed through the intersection .Rule of Thirds ‡ In the first third. maintain speed. cover the brake with your foot. If turning. ahead. and all is clear.

When turning left: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Signal the turn Move into the appropriate turn lane Keep wheels pointed straight Yield to oncoming traffic and pedestrians Turn into the correct lane Check blind spots after turning .

When turning right: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Signal the turn Keep your vehicle close to the curb Pay attention to your lane position Yield to pedestrians Turn into the correct lane Check your blind spots before and after turning .

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