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Is the process of breaking

down rocks by mechanical

and chemical processes
into smaller pieces.
For a soil, suppose that
D10=0.08 mm, D30=0.22 mm,
and D60=0.41 mm. Calculate
the uniformity coefficient and
the coefficient of gradation.
The following are the results of
a sieve analysis:
Calculate the
coefficient, Cu.
For a moist soil sample, the
following are given.
• Total volume: V =1.2 m3
• Total mass: M =2350 kg
• Moisture content: w=8.6%
• Specific gravity of soil solids: Gs =2.71
Determine the volume of water in the soil
The following data are given for a soil:
• Porosity: n =0.4
• Specific gravity of the soil solids:
• Moisture content: w=12%

Determine the mass of water to be added

to 10 m3 of soil for full saturation.
For a given sandy soil, emax=0.75
and emin=0.4. Let Gs 2.68. In the
field, the soil is compacted to a moist
density of 112 lb/f3 at a moisture
content of 12%. Determine
the relative density of compaction.
The moist unit weights
and degrees of saturation of a soil
are given in the table.
Determine the weight of
water, in lbs, that will be
in 2.5 ft3 of the soil when
it is saturated.
Is the moisture content, in
percent, at which the volume of
the soil mass ceases to change.
A saturated soil has the
following characteristics: initial volume
(Vi) 19.65 cm3, final volume (Vf) 13.5
cm3, mass of wet soil (Ml) 36 g, and
mass of dry soil (M2) 25 g. Determine
the shrinkage limit and the shrinkage
Ninety-five percent of a soil
passes through the No. 200 sieve
and has a liquid limit of 60 and
plasticity index of 40. Determine
the Group Index.
Following are the details for
the backfill material used in a
vibroflotation project:
• D10 0.36 mm
• D20 0.52 mm
• D50 1.42 mm
Determine the suitability number SN.
What would be its rating as a backfill
Following are the results of a field unit
weight determination test on a soil with the
sand cone method:
• Calibrated dry density of Ottawa sand 1667 kg/m3
• Calibrated mass of Ottawa sand to fill the cone
0.117 kg
• Mass of jar + cone + sand (before use) 5.99 kg
• Mass of jar + cone + sand (after use) 2.81 kg
• Mass of moist soil from hole 3.331 kg
• Moisture content of moist soil 11.6%
Determine the dry unit weight of compaction in the
A proposed embankment fill requires
8000 m3 of compacted soil. The void ratio of
the compacted fill is specified as 0.7. Four
borrow pits are available as described in
the following table, which lists the respective void
ratios of the soil and the cost per cubic meter for
moving the soil to the proposed construction site.
Assume Gs are equal. Which Borrow Pit is
The maximum and minimum dry
densities of a sand were determined in the
laboratory to be 1682 kg/m3 and 1510
kg/m3, respectively. In the field, if the
relative density of compaction of the same
sand is 70%, what are its relative
compaction (%) and dry density (kg/m3)?
In what zone does a
turbulent flow occur in the
variation of the velocity with the
hydraulic gradient.
The hydraulic conductivity
of a clayey soil is 3x10-7 cm/sec.
The viscosity of water at 25•oC is

0.0911x10-4 g-sec/cm2. Calculate

the absolute permeability of the
In a constant-head permeability
test in the laboratory, the following are
given: L=12 in. and A=15 in2. If the value of
k=0.006 in/sec and a flow rate of 450 in3/hr
must be maintained through the soil, what
is the head difference, h, across the
specimen? Also, determine the discharge
velocity under the test conditions.
For a falling-head permeability
test, the following are given: length of
specimen =380 mm; area of specimen=6.5
cm2; k =0.175 cm/min. What should
be the area of the standpipe for the head
to drop from 650 cm to 300 cm in
8 min?.
A sand layer of the cross-
sectional area shown in Fig. 7.27 has been
determined to exist for a 800-m length of
the levee. The hydraulic conductivity of the
sand layer is 2.8 m/day. Determine the
quantity of water which flows into the ditch
in m3/min.
For a sandy soil, the
following are given:
• Maximum void ratio 0.7
• Minimum void ratio 0.46
• D10 0.2 mm
Determine the hydraulic
conductivity of the sand at a
relative density of 60%.
A layered soil is shown in
Figure 7.30. Given that
• H1 1.5 m • k1 105 cm/sec
• H2 2.5 m • k2 3.0 103 cm/sec
• H3 3.0 m • k3 3.5 105 cm/sec
Estimate the ratio of equivalent
hydraulic conductivity, kH(eq)/kV(eq).
A soil profile is shown. Calculate the total
stress, pore water pressure, and effective stress
at points A, B, and C.
Consider the upward flow of water
through a layer of sand in a tank as shown. For
the sand, the following are given: void ratio (e)
0.52 and specific gravity of solids 2.67.
a. Calculate the
effective stress
at point B.
b. What is the upward
seepage force per unit
volume of soil?
A soil element is shown in Figure
10.4. The magnitudes of stresses are
σx=2000 lb/ft2, ԏ=800 lb/ft2, σy=2500
lb/ft2, and ϴ=20.
Determine normal
and shear stresses
on plane AB.
The time required for 50%
consolidation of a 25-mm-thick clay layer
(drained at both top and bottom) in the
laboratory is 2 min. 20 sec. How long (in
days) will it take for a 3-m-thick clay layer
of the same clay in the field under the
same pressure increment to reach 50%
consolidation? In the field, there is a rock
layer at the bottom of the clay.
A 3-m-thick layer (double
drainage) of saturated clay under a
surcharge loading underwent 90%
primary consolidation in 75 days. Find
the coefficient of consolidation of
clay for the pressure range.
The coordinates of two points on
a virgin compression curve are as follows:
• e1=1.7  • 150 kN/m2
• e2=1.48  • 400 kN/m2
a. Determine the coefficient of volume
compressibility for the pressure range
b. Given that cv=0.002 cm2/sec, determine
k in cm/sec corresponding to the
average void ratio.
The time for 50% consolidation of
a 25-mm thick clay layer (drained at top
and bottom) in the laboratory is 225 sec.
How long (in days) will it take for a 2-m
thick layer of the same clay in the field
(under the same pressure increment) to
reach 50% consolidation? There is a rock
layer at the bottom of the clay in
the field.
A normally consolidated clay layer is 3
m thick (one-way drainage). From the application
of a given pressure, the total anticipated primary
consolidation settlement will be 80 mm.
a. What is the average degree of consolidation
for the clay layer when the settlement is 25 mm?
b. If the average value of cv for the pressure
range is 0.002 cm2/sec, how long will it take for
50% settlement to occur?
c. How long will it take for 50% consolidation to
occur if the clay layer is drained at both top and
A 1 m diameter pipe 1400 m
long has a discharge of
600 liters/sec.
a) Compute the head loss
using f = 0.018.
b) Compute the head loss
using n = 0.015.
c) Compute the head loss
using C = 100.
Water flows on a 300
mm diameter pipe which
causes a measured head loss
of 4.5 m in 90 m length of pipe.
a) Compute the shear
stress 50 mm from the
centerline of the pipe.
b) Compute the shear
Air flows through a pipe
whose mass is 1.2 kg/m3. The
differential gauge attached to
the Pitot-static tube shows a
0.35 mm deflection of mercury.
Assuming Ct =1.00, find the
velocity of air.
A small ingot and
platform rest on a steady water
jet 60 mm diameter. If the total
weight supported is 826 N and
the platform rises
6.35 m above the outlet, what is
the jet velocity?
A triangular channel is to
be designed to carry 700 L/s on a
slope of 0.0001. Determine what
vertex angle and depth of water
over the vertex will be necessary to
give a section with a minimum
perimeter, assuming the channel is
made of timber, n = 0.012. Use
Manning’s Formula.
A trapezoidal flume of
most efficient section
proportion has a base width of
1.5 m. Its full discharge is 3
m3/s. If the same material were
used for the most efficient
rectangular section, by how
much would the discharge
decrease in m3/s.
The side’s slope of a
trapezoidal open channel are
1H to 1.732V. The bottom width
is 2.5 m and the depth of flow
is 3m. n=0.015 and S = 0.0004.
Find the velocity of flow in m/s
using the Manning’s Formula.
A The bottom width of a
trapezoidal canal is 2.5 m and
its sides are both inclined at 60°
with the horizontal. Water flows
at a depth of 3 m. Find the
discharge in m3/s is S = 0.0008
and n=0.03. Use Kutter
After a flood had passed an
observation on a river, an engineer
visited the site and by locating flood marks,
performing appropriate surveying, and doing
necessary computations, determined that the
cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter, and
water surface slope at the time of the peak
flooding were 5,000 m2, 350 m, and 0.0002,
respectively. The engineer also noted that the
channel bottom was earth with grass and
weeds (n = 0.025). Estimate the peak flood
A rectangular flume, 4 m wide,
carries water at the rate of 5
m3/s. Determine the critical
depth. Use g =9.81 m/s2.
The velocity along a
circular streamline of radius
1.5 m is 0.75 m/s. Find the
normal and tangential
components of the acceleration
if the flow is steady.
A rectangular channel 6 m
wide has a constant specific
energy of 2.2 m.
a) Calculate the critical depth.
b) Calculate the critical
c) Calculate the critical slope if
n = 0.012
A rectangular channel 5.4 m wide by
1.2 m deep is lined with a smooth stone,
well laid and has a hydraulic slope 0.001.
Using n =0.013.
a) What is the capacity of the channel?
b) What savings in earth excavation could
have been offered by using more favorable
proportions but adhering to the same delivery
and slope?
c) What savings in lining per meter length
by using more favorable proportions but
adhering to the same delivery and
Water jump from a
depth of 30 cm to 70 cm in
rectangular flume. Determine
the discharge in m3/s if the
flume is 2.75 m wide.
Use g =9.81 m/s2.
Water flows in a 2-m
wide rectangular flume at the
rate of 2.75 m3/s with a mean
velocity of 3.5 m/s. To what
depth, in cm, can the water
A hydraulic jump occurs in a
rectangular channel having a
discharge of 3.72 m3/s of water per
meter width. The approach depth is
0.718 m.
a) Calculate the depth in the
channel after the jump.
b) Compute the Froude No. in the
channel after the jump.
c) Compute the energy dissipated
in watts.
The distribution of
velocity in a rectangular
channel of width b=800mm and
depth h=200mm is given by
Compute for the following:
a) Quantity of flow
b) Average velocity
Water is flowing at 2.2 m/sec in a cast
iron pipe with diameter of 600 mm and
a wall thickness of 20 mm. A pipeline is 350 m
long. The pipe has a thickness of 20 mm and bulk
modulus of water is 2.2 x 109 N/m2 and a modulus of
elasticity of steel is
1.4 x1011 N/m2.
a) What is the speed of sound in the pipe?
b) If the valve is closed simultaneously, what
will be the water hammer pressure experienced in
the pipe?
c) Over what length of time should be allowed
for closing the valve to avoid water hammer
A jet of water 250 mm in diameter
impinges normally on a flat steel
plate. If the discharge is 0.491 m3/s.
a) Find the force exerted by the jet on
the stationary plate.
b) If the flat plate is moving at 2 m/s
in the same direction as that of the jet, find
the force exerted by the jet on the plate.
c) If the flat plate moving a 4 m/s in
the same direction as that of the jet, find
the work done on the plate per second.
The reservoir of the
Municipality of Minglanilla is
designed to be supplied by a 200
mm Ø pipe at a rate of 15 m/s. If the
capita per day consumption of
water amounts to 340 liters ,
compute the population of
Minglanilla that could be served by
the reservoir.
A water shed covering
80 hectares had a storm in
which fell at the rate of 12.5
mm/hr for the first 2 hour, 7.5
mm/hr for the next 5 hours and
10 mm/hr for the following hour.
Determine the volume of rain
that fell in cu-m.
If Precipitation is 32 cm
basin recharge is 10 cm, and
groundwater accretion is 6 cm,
what is the direct run-off?
On average,
a) How many times will a 10-
year flood occur in a 40 year
b) What is the probability that it
will not occur at all in a 40 year
c) What is the probability that it
will occur at least once in a 40 year