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 Latin word “emovere” which means to stir up,

agitate, upset or move.

 Defined as “a strong feeling or agitation

involving internal and external bodily
changes” or “a condition of upset that drives
the individual to move”.
 It is a conscious and subjective mental
reaction toward a particular event and is
usually accompanied by changes in the
physiologic and behavioral aspects of a
 We feel them because of what we see, hear,
remember, and do.
 Expression of emotion are through Sounds,
movement, or words.
 Different from ‘mood’
 Mood is something a person may not express
whereas emotion may be expressed.
 Mood last longer than emotions.
 Emotion arouse in people by some specific
object or situation.
 Mood is a general feeling, not a reaction to
particular situation.
 When compared to mood, emotions are more
 Moods and emotions are linked.
Limbic Structure – group of different parts of
our brain; Chemical messengers

When we feel joy, our brain processes a

chemical called serotonin.
 Cognitive reactions refer to a person’s
memory, thinking and perception of an
 Affect includes the positive or negative state
of the emotion and is what makes an
emotion a conscious and subjective
 Physiological reactions are primarily
caused by changes in the hormonal levels in
the body.
 Behavioural reactions comprise the
active expression of the emotion.
 Suppose you are watching a scary
television show alone late at night. You
see the physical form of the antagonist
and you think he is so scary and spooky
(cognitive reaction). Because of this
thinking, your face shows fear towards
the character (affect). The character runs
after the protagonist, and you feel your
heart beating fast (physiological reaction)
and you cover your eyes with your hands
in fear (behavioural reaction).
Emotional Intelligence
 It is the ability to identify and manage one’s
own emotions and perceive the emotions of
others as well.

 It is generally said to include three skills:

1. Emotional Awareness
2. Harnessing Emotions and Its Application
3. Managing Emotions
Robert Plutchik’s Eight Basic Emotions

1. Anger
2. Fear
3. Sadness
4. Disgust
5. Surprise
6. Anticipation
7. Trust
8. Joy
Wheel of Emotions (Robert Plutchik)
Aristotle’s Rhetoric Theory of Emotions

1. Anger - Peace
2. Friendship - Hatred
3. Fear - Courage
4. Shame - Confidence
5. Kindness (benevolence) – Cruelty
6. Pity - Indurate
7. Indignation - Pleasure
8. Envy / Jealousy - Contentment
9. Love - Abomination
Secondary Emotions

1. Anger + Disgust = Contempt

2. Fear + Indurate = Guilt
3. Joy + Peace = Relaxed
4. Sad + Anger = Offended
5. Joy + Surprise = Excitement
6. Sadness + Shame = Pathetic
James-Lange Theory of Emotion

 Developed by William James and Carl Lange

 Emotion arises from physiological reaction to
• Happiness comes from smiling
• Sadness comes from crying
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

 Developed by Walter Cannon and Philip

 Emotion originates in the thalamus
 “Body” (physiological systems) and “Mind”
(emotional experience) are independently
activated at the same time
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

 Developed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome

 Our physiology + cognitions create emotions.
 Emotions have two factors–physical arousal
and cognitive label.
Three Important Roles by
Kennedy, Moore and Watson
1. Emotions are needed for adaptation and
survival. Happiness and trust motivate a
person to perform at his best, while fear and
disgust make a person vigilant to danger.
2. Emotions influence a person on how he
perceives the world. Thus, emotions have a
regulatory function.
3. Emotions help people communicate their
needs, wants and feeling to others.
 Intrapersonal functions of emotions
Describes the roles that emotions play
within each of us individually.
 Interpersonal functions of emotion
Describes the meanings of emotions to
our relationships with others.
 Social and cultural functions of emotion
Describes the roles and meanings that
emotions have to the maintenance and effective
functioning of our societies and cultures at
6 Steps To Controlling Emotions

1. Always smile
2. Don’t react right away
3. Ask for divine guidance, do meditation
4. Find a healthy outlet, do what you love
5. Look onto a bigger perspective
6. Replace negative thoughts with positive