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You are on page 1of 186

Remember to

Physics Hai

I advise you to start preparing

for a test on Chapter 1.

This lesson

• Sketching and interpreting motion graphs

• Distance and displacement

• Speed and velocity

• Acceleration

Describing motion (in 1D)

We must choose a reference point in order to describe

the motion! That is called a frame of reference

0 1 2 3 4

Distance against time graphs

distance

time

Constant speed?

distance

time

Constant speed

distance

time

Constant speed

distance

graph gives the speed

time

Constant speed

How would the

distance graph look

different for a

faster constant

speed?

time

fast

Constant speed

distance

time

fast

Constant speed

How would the

distance graph look

different for a

slower constant

speed?

time

fast

Constant speed

distance

slow

time

Getting faster? (accelerating)

distance

time

Getting faster (accelerating)

distance

time

Examples

distance

time

A car accelerating from rest and

then hitting a wall

distance

time

A car accelerating from stop and

then hitting a wall

distance

time

Displacement

• Displacement the distance moved in a

stated direction (the distance and direction

from the starting point). A VECTOR

Displacement/time graphs

• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = forward and - =

backwards)

Faster constant

speed backwards

Displacement/

m

Time/s

Constant speed

forwards

Displacement/time graphs

• Gradient gives the VELOCITY

Negative

Displacement/

m

Time/s

Positive

Speed against time graphs

speed

time

No movement?

speed

time

No movement

speed

time

Constant speed?

speed

time

Constant speed

speed

time

Constant speed

How would the

speed graph look

different for a

faster constant

speed?

time

Constant speed

speed

fast

time

Constant speed

How would the

speed graph look

different for a

fast

slower constant

speed?

time

Constant speed

speed

fast

slow

time

Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

time

Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

Constant acceleration

time

Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

graph gives the

acceleration

time

Getting faster? (accelerating)

v

The gradient of this

speed graph gives the

acceleration

a=v–u

t

u

time

Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

gives the distance travelled

time

Example:

speed

time

An object falling from a tall

building (no air resistance)

speed

time

An object falling from a tall

building (no air resistance)

speed

time

An object falling from a tall

building (no air resistance)

speed

time

Motion sensors

• Matching motion graphs

and download ‘The moving man’

• You should have Java installed first.

A little game in pairs

• Open the simulation ‘The moving man’

• One person draws a motion graph on an

individual whiteboard

• The other person will try to move the man

in the way described by the graph. (Clear

and hide the graphs before)

Velocity?

Velocity?

• Velocity is the rate of change of

displacement. Also a VECTOR

Velocity/time graphs

• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = forward and - =

backwards)

Ball being thrown into the air,

gradient = constant = -9.81 m.s-2

velocity/m.s-1

Time/s

Velocity/time graphs

Area = displacement

velocity/m.s-1

Time/s

Velocity/time graphs

Gradient = acceleration

If falling, magnitude of

velocity/m.s-1

gradient = 9.8 m.s-2

Time/s

Acceleration?

Acceleration?

• Acceleration is the rate of change of

velocity. Also a VECTOR

An interesting example

Think of a fly orbiting the earth with constant

speed (in a circle).

An interesting example

At this point, what is its velocity?

velocity?

An interesting example

velocity

An interesting example

What is its velocity here?

velocity?

An interesting example

As you can see the velocity has changed

as it is now going in another direction.

velocity

An interesting example

We have constant speed but changing

velocity.

velocity

An interesting example

We have constant speed but changing

velocity.

Of course a changing

velocity means it must

be accelerating!

velocity

Acceleration/time graphs

• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = up and - =

down)

accel/m.s-2

Time/s

Projectiles

• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = up and - =

down)

Acceleration = constant = -9.81

m.s-2

accel/m.s-2

Time/s

Note!

The area under an

acceleration acceleration/time graph gives

the change in velocity

time

Be careful! Constant speed

speed

distance

time

Gradient = speed

Area = distance

travelled

time

Be careful! Constant

acceleration

speed

Gradient =

acceleration

a = (v-u)/t

distance

time

Area = distance

travelled

time

Average speed/velocity?

• Average speed/velocity is change in

distance/displacement divided by time taken

over a period of time.

Instantaneous speed/velocity?

• Instantaneous speed/velocity is the change

in distance/displacement divided by time at

one particular time.

This lesson

• Equations of motion for uniform

acceleration

The equations of motion

• The equations of motion can be used when

an object has constant acceleration.

• There are four equations relating five

quantities

u initial velocity, v final velocity,

s displacement, a acceleration, t time

SUVAT equations

The four equations

1 v = u + at This is a re-arrangement of

v-u

a=

t

s = (v + u)t

2 velocity x time

3 1 2 With zero acceleration, this

s = ut + at becomes displacement = velocity

2

x time

4 2 2

Useful when you don’t know the

v = u + 2as time

Beware!

• All quantities are vectors (except time!).

These equations are normally done in one

dimension, so a negative result means

displacement/velocity/acceleration in the

opposite direction.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform

acceleration

EXAMPLE: How far will Pinky and the Brain go in 30.0

seconds if their acceleration is 20.0 m s -2?

KNOWN FORMULAS

a = 20 m/s2 Given s = ut + 12at2

t = 30 s Given v = u + at

u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED s=? SOLUTION

t is known - drop the s = ut + 12at2

timeless eq’n. s = 0(30) + 12 20(30)2

Since v is not wanted,

drop the velocity eq'n: s = 9000 m

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform

acceleration

EXAMPLE: How fast will Pinky and the Brain be going

at this instant?

KNOWN FORMULAS

a = 20 m/s2 Given s = ut + 12at2

t = 30 s Given v = u + at

u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED v=? SOLUTION

t is known - drop the v = u + at

timeless eq’n. v = 0 + 20(30)

Since v is wanted, drop

v = 600 m s-1

the displacement eq'n:

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform

acceleration

EXAMPLE: How fast will Pinky and the Brain be going

when they have traveled a total of 18000 m?

KNOWN FORMULAS

a = 20 m/s2 Given s = ut + 12at2

s = 18000 m Given v = u + at

u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED v=? SOLUTION

Since t is not known - v2 = u2 + 2as

drop the two eq’ns which v2 = 02 + 2(20)(18000)

have time in them.

v = 850 m s-1

Example

Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the

engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and

his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the

car to come to rest?

Example

Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the

engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and

his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the

car to come to rest?

What does the question tell us. Write it out.

Example

Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the

engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and

his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the

car to come to rest?

u = 10 m.s-1

v = 0 m.s-1

a = -2 m.s-2

t=?s

Example

Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the

engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and

his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the

car to come to rest?

u = 10 m.s-1

v = 0 m.s-1

a = -2 m.s-2

t=?s

Choose the equation that has these quantities in

v = u + at

Example

Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the

engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and

his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the

car to come to rest?

u = 10 m.s-1 v = 0 m.s-1 a = -2 m.s-2 t = ? s

v = u + at

0 = 10 + -2t

2t = 10

t = 5 seconds

Example

Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr

Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does

not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting

Sara?

Example

Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr

Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does

not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting

Sara?

What does the question tell us. Write it out.

Example 2

Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr

Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does

not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting

Sara?

u = 10 m.s-1

v = 0 m.s-1

a = -2 m.s-2

t=5s

s=?m

Example 2

Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr

Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does

not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting

Sara?

u = 10 m.s-1 v = 0 m.s-1 a = -2 m.s-2 t = 5 s s = ? m

Choose the equation that has these quantities in

v2 = u2 + 2as

Example

Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr

Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does

not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting

Sara?

u = 10 m.s-1 v = 0 m.s-1 a = -2 m.s-2 t = 5 s s = ? m

v2 = u2 + 2as

02 = 102 + 2x-2s

0 = 100 -4s

4s = 100

s = 25m, the car does not hit Jan.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the acceleration of free-fall

experimentally

Everyone knows that when you drop an

object, it picks up speed when it falls.

Galileo did his famous freefall

experiments on the tower of Pisa long ago,

and determined that all objects fall at the

same acceleration in the absence of air

resistance.

Thus, as the next slide will show, an apple

and a feather will fall side by side!

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the

acceleration of free-fall

experimentally

Consider the multiflash

image of an apple and a

feather falling in a partial

vacuum:

If we choose a convenient

spot on the apple, and mark

its position, we get a series

of marks like so:

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the

acceleration of free-fall

experimentally

0 cm

Now we SCALE our data.

Given that the apple is 8 cm -9 cm

in horizontal diameter we

can superimpose this scale -22 cm

on our photograph.

Then we can estimate the

position in cm of each -37 cm

image.

-55 cm

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the

acceleration of free-fall

experimentally

0 cm

Suppose we know that the

time between images is -9 cm

0.056 s.

We make a table starting -22 cm

t(s) y(cm) t y v

with the raw data columns

.000 0

of t and y.

.056To find t

FYI: -9you .056 -37-9

need to subtractcm TWO-161

We then make t's. Therefore t is

.112

FYI: Tofind

To -22

findyvtthe

youfirst

you .056

needentry

need to for

-13

todivide

subtracty TWO

-232

by

calculations columns in t, BLANK.

t.

y's.

t's.

.168By

Byconvention,

By convention,

convention,

-37 CURRENT

CURRENT

CURRENT

.056 y

-15tyMINUS

MINUS

-268

y and v. DIVIDED

FYI: SameBY

PREVIOUS

.224

t.CURRENT

thing

y.

-55

t. y.

for the first

.056 -18 -321

-55 cm

FYI: Since v = y / t, the first v entry is

also BLANK.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the t(s) y(cm) t y v

acceleration of .000 0

free-fall .056 -9 .056 -9 -161

experimentally .112 -22 .056 -13 -232

Now we plot v .168 -37 .056 -15 -268

v

vs. t on a .224 -55 .056 -18 -321

graph. TIME / sec

VELOCITY / cm sec-1

0 t

-50

-100

-150

-200

-250

-300

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the FYI

acceleration of The graph v vs. t is linear. Thus a is

free-fall constant.

experimentally The y-intercept (the initial velocity of

the apple) is not zero. But this just

v

means we don’t have all of the

images TIME

of the apple.

(sec)

.000 .056 .112 .168 .224

VELOCITY (cm/sec)

0 t/s

-50

-100

-150

-200

-250

-300

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the FYI

acceleration of Finally, the acceleration is the slope

free-fall of the v vs. t graph:

experimentally

a = v = -220 cm/s = -982 cm/s2

v t 0.224 s

TIME (sec)

.000 .056 .112 .168 .224

VELOCITY (cm/sec)

0 t/s

t = 0.224 s

v = -220 cm/s

-50

-100

-150

-200

-250

-300

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determining the acceleration of free-fall experimentally

Since this acceleration due to gravity is so important

we give it the name g.

ALL objects accelerate at -g , where

g = 980 cm s-2

in the absence of air resistance.

We can list the values for g in three ways:

g = 980 cm s-2 We usually round magnitude of

the metric value to the freefall

g = 9.80 m s-2

10: acceleration

g = 32 ft s-2 g = 10. m s-2

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of motion

for uniform acceleration

EXAMPLE: A ball is dropped off of the

Empire State Building (381 m tall). How fast

is it going when it hits ground?

KNOWN FORMULAS

1 2

2

a = -10 m/s Implicit s = ut + 2at

s = -381 m Given v = u + at

u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED v=? SOLUTION

Since t is not v2 = u2 + 2as

known - drop the v2 = 02+ 2(-10)(-381)

two eq’ns which

v = -87 m s-1

have time in them.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of motion

for uniform acceleration

EXAMPLE: A ball is dropped off of the

Empire State Building (381 m tall). How long

does it take to reach the ground?

KNOWN FORMULAS

a = -10 m/s2 Implicit s = ut + 12at2

s = -381 m Given v = u + at

u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED t=? SOLUTION

Since t is desired s = ut + 12at2

and we have s drop -381 = 0t + 12 (-10)t2

the last two eq’ns.

t = 8.7 s

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of

motion for uniform acceleration

EXAMPLE: A cheer leader is thrown up

with an initial speed of 7 m s-1. How high

does she go?

KNOWN FORMULAS

a = -10 m/s2 Implicit s = ut + 12at2

u = 7 m s-1 Given v = u + at

v = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED s=? SOLUTION

Since t is not known - v2 = u2 + 2as

drop the two eq’ns which

02 = 72 + 2(-10)s

have time in them.

s = 2.45 m

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of

motion for uniform acceleration

EXAMPLE: A ball is thrown upward at 50 m s-1 from the

top of the 300-m Millau Viaduct, the highest bridge in

the world. How fast does it hit ground?

KNOWN FORMULAS

a = -10 m/s2 Implicit s = ut + 12at2

u = 50 m s-1 Given v = u + at

s = -300 m Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED v=? SOLUTION

Since t is not known - v2 = u2 + 2as

drop the two eq’ns which v2 = 502 + 2(-10)(-300)

have time in them.

v = -90 m s-1

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Solving problems using equations of

motion for uniform acceleration

EXAMPLE: A ball is thrown upward at 50 m s-1 from the

top of the 300-m Millau Viaduct, the highest bridge in

the world. How long is it in flight?

KNOWN FORMULAS

1 2

a = -10 m/s 2 Implicit s = ut + 2at

u = 50 m s-1 Given v = u + at

v = -90 m s-1 Calculated v2 = u2 + 2as

WANTED t=? SOLUTION

Use the simplest t v = u + at

equation. -90 = 50 + (-10)t

t = 14 s

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of

24 m.s-1.

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of

24 m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?

u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = 12 m.s-1

t=?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?

u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = 12 m.s-1

t=?

v = u + at

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?

u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = 12 m.s-1

v = u + at

12 = 24 + -9.8t

-12 = -9.8t

t = 12/9.8 = 1.2 seconds

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?

u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = -12 m.s-1

t=?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?

u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = -12 m.s-1

v = u + at

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?

u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = -12 m.s-1

v = u + at

-12 = 24 + -9.8t

-36 = -9.8t

t = 36/9.8 = 3.7 seconds

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the displacement of the ball at those

times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the displacement of the ball at those

times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)

t = 1.2, v = 12, a = -9.8, u = 24 s = ?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the displacement of the ball at those

times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)

t = 1.2, v = 12, a = -9.8, u = 24 s = ?

s = ut + ½at2 = 24x1.2 + ½x-9.8x1.22

s = 28.8 – 7.056 = 21.7 m

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the displacement of the ball at those

times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)

t = 3.7, v = 12, a = -9.8, u = 24 s = ?

s = ut + ½at2 = 24x3.7 + ½x-9.8x3.72

s = 88.8 – 67.081 = 21.7 m (the same?!)

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after

launch?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after

launch?

u = 24, t = 1.50, a = -9.8, v = ?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after

launch?

u = 24, t = 1.50, a = -9.8, v = ?

v = u + at

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after

launch?

u = 24, t = 1.50, a = -9.8, v = ?

v = u + at

v = 24 + -9.8x1.50 = 9.3 m.s-1

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the maximum height reached by the

ball?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the maximum height reached by the

ball?

u = 24, a = -9.8, v = 0, s = ?

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the maximum height reached by the

ball?

u = 24, a = -9.8, v = 0, s = ?

v2 = u2 + 2as

0 = 576 + 2x-9.8xs

0 = 576 -19.6s

Example 3

• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24

m.s-1.

• What is the maximum height reached by the

ball?

u = 24, a = -9.8, v = 0, s = ?

0 = 576 -19.6s

19.6s = 576

s = 576/19.6 = 29.4 m

Let’s do some questions

2.1 Basic

suvat

questions

p.41-44

HOMEWORK

Finish the SUVAT

questions for next

lesson

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determine relative velocity in one and two dimensions

Suppose you are a passenger in a car on a perfectly

level and straight road, moving at a constant velocity.

Your velocity relative to the pavement might be 60 mph.

Your velocity relative to the driver of your car is zero.

Whereas your velocity relative to an oncoming car might

be 120 mph.

Your velocity can be measured relative to any

reference frame.

A

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Determine relative velocity in one and two dimensions

Consider two cars, A and B, shown below.

Suppose you are in car A which is moving at vA = +20

m s-1 and next to you is car B, moving at vB = +40 m s-1.

As far as you are concerned your velocity vAB relative

to car B is -20 m s-1 because you seem to be moving

backwards relative to B’s coordinate system.

We write

vAB = vA - vB velocity of A relative to B

A

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

B

Determine relative velocity in one and two

dimensions

The equation works even in two dimensions.

Suppose you are in car A which is moving at vA

= +40 m s-1 and approaching you at right angles y

is a car B is moving at vB = -20 m s-1 as shown.

Since A and B are moving perpendicular to one

another, use a vector diagram to find vAB. The

solution is on the next slide.

x

A

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

B

Determine relative velocity in one and two

dimensions

Draw in the vectors and use vAB = vA - vB.

vB -v

B

vAB = 45 m s-1

vA

A

2.1 Measuring “g” investigation

This lesson

• Projectile motion

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Projectile motion

A projectile is an object that has been given an initial

velocity by some sort of short-lived force, and then

moves through the air under the influence of gravity.

Baseballs, stones, or bullets are all examples of

projectiles executing projectile motion.

You know that all objects moving through air feel an air

resistance (recall sticking your hand out of the window

of a moving car).

FYI

We will ignore air

resistance in the

discussion that

follows…

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

Regardless of the air resistance, the vertical and the

horizontal components of velocity of an object in

projectile motion are independent.

Slowing down in +y dir.

Speeding up in -y dir.

ay = -g

ay = -g

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

The trajectory of a projectile in the absence of air is

parabolic. Know this!

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion with fluid resistance

If there is air resistance, it is proportional to the square

of the velocity. Thus, when the ball moves fast its

deceleration is greater than when it moves slow.

Peak to left of

original one.

Pre-peak distance

more than post-

peak.

SKETCH POINTS

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

Recall the kinematic equations:

s = ut + (1/2)at 2 Displacement kinematic

v = u + at Velocity equations 1D

a is constant

Since we worked only in 1D at the time, we didn’t have

to distinguish between x and y in these equations.

Now we appropriately modify the above to meet our

new requirements of simultaneous equations:

∆x = uxt + (1/2)axt 2 kinematic

vx = ux + axt equations 2D

∆y = uyt + (1/2)ayt 2 ax and ay are

vy = uy + ayt constant

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

0

∆x = uxt + (1/2)axt 2 kinematic

0 equations 2D

vx = ux + axt

∆y = uyt + (1/2)ayt 2 ax and ay are

vy = uy + ayt constant

projectile motion are

∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of

vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion

SOLUTION:

ax = 0 in the absence of air resistance.

ay = -10 in the absence of air resistance.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of

vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion

EXAMPLE: Use the reduced equations above to prove

that projectile motion is parabolic in nature.

SOLUTION: Just solve for t in the first equation and

substitute it into the second equation.

∆x = uxt becomes t = x / ux so that t 2 = x2 / ux2.

Then since y = uyt - 5t 2, we have

y = (uy / ux)x – (5 / ux2)x2.

FYI

The equation of a parabola is y = Ax + Bx2.

In this case, A = uy / ux and B = -5 / ux2.

Amazing facts!

If a gun is fired horizontally, and at the

same time a bullet is dropped from the same

height, which bullet hits the ground first?

Amazing facts!

Amazing facts!

Amazing facts!

They both hit the ground at the same time!

Amazing facts!

for you. He will need two

coins and a ruler

Amazing facts!

Why?

Vertical and horizontal

Their vertical motion can be considered

separate from their horizontal motion.

Explanation of projectile motion

Vertical and horizontal

Vertically, they both have zero initial velocity

and accelerate downwards at 9.8 m.s-2. The

time to fall the same vertical distance is

therefore the same. We assume constant

horizontal speed

Mythbusters tried this!

Dropped bullet versus fired bullet

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of

vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion

PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle

velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.

(a) What are ux and uy?

SOLUTION: Make a velocity triangle.

uy = u sin

= 15º uy = 56 sin 15º

ux = u cos uy = 15 m s-1.

ux = 56 cos 15º

ux = 54 m s-1

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of

vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion

PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle

velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.

(b) What are the tailored equations of motion?

(c) When will the ball reach its maximum height?

SOLUTION: (b) Just substitute ux = 54 and uy = 15:

∆x = 54t ∆y = 15t - 5t2 tailored equations for

vx = 54 vy = 15 - 10t this particular projectile

(c) At the maximum height, vy = 0. Why? Thus

vy = 15 - 10t becomes 0 = 15 - 10t so that

10t = 15 or t = 1.5 s.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆x = 54t ∆y = 15t - 5t 2 tailored equations for

vx = 54 vy = 15 - 10t this particular projectile

PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle

velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.

(d) How far from the muzzle will the ball be when it

reaches the height of the muzzle at the end of its

trajectory?

SOLUTION:

From symmetry tup = tdown = 1.5 s so t = 3.0 s.

Thus

∆x = 54t

∆x = 54(3.0)

∆x = 160 m.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆x = 54t ∆y = 15t - 5t 2 tailored equations for

vx = 54 vy = 15 - 10t this particular projectile

PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle

velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.

(e) Sketch the following graphs:

a vs. t, vx vs. t, vy vs. t:

SOLUTION: The only acceleration ay

is g in the –y-direction. -10 t

vx

vx = 54, a constant. Thus it does 54

not change over time. t

vy = 15 - 10t Thus it is linear with vy

a negative gradient and it crosses 15

1.5 t

the time axis at 1.5 s.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

since it is caused by Earth and its field.

At the maximum height the projectile switches from

upward to downward motion. vy = 0 at switch.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

limited by the y

motion.

The maximum

height is limited by

the y motion.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

ax = 0.

ay = -10 ms-2.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆y = uyt - 5t 2

-33 = 0t - 5t 2

-33 = -5t 2

(33/5) = t 2

t = 2.6 s.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆x = uxt

∆x = 18(2.6)

∆x = 47 m.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

18

vy = uy – 10t 26

vx = ux vy = 0 – 10t

vx = 18. vy = –10(2.6) = -26.

tan = 26/18

= tan-1(26/18) = 55º.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

CONSTANT.

The vertical component of velocity is vy = uy – 10t ,

which is INCREASING (negatively).

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆EK + ∆EP = 0

∆EK = -∆EP

∆EK = -mg∆h

EKo = (1/2)mu2

EK = +138 + (1/2)(0.44)(222) = 240 J.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

consumed, 76% remains.

0.76(240) = 180 J

(1/2)(0.44)v2 = 180 J

v = 29 ms-1.

(1/2)mvf2 - (1/2)mv2 = -∆EP

Topic 2: Mechanics mvf2 = mv2 + -2mg(0-H)

2 = v2 + 2gH

2.1 – Motion v f

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

uy = u sin

uy = 28 sin 30º

ux = u cos

ux = 28 cos 30º

ux = 24 m s-1.

uy = 14 m s-1.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

∆x = uxt

16 = 24t

t = 16 / 24 = 0.67

The time to the wall is found from ∆x…

∆y = uyt – 5t 2

∆y = 14t – 5t 2

∆y = 14(0.67) – 5(0.67)2 = 7.1 m.

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

0.5s

0.0s

4m

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

0.5s

11 m

0.0s

4m

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

2.0 2.5 3.0

1.5

1.0

30 m

0.5s

11 m

0.0s = tan-1(30/24) = 51º

4m 24 m

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 – Motion

Analysing projectile motion

New

peak

below and

left.

Pre-peak

greater

than post-

peak.

Let’s try some questions.

2.1 Projectile motion

p.47-48

Can you find your projectile

motion questions?

Let’s try some harder questions.

2.1 Projectile motion

Worked examples p50-52

This lesson

• Fluid resistance and terminal speed

Falling without air resistance

Falling without air resistance

Falling without air resistance

This time there is only one force acting in the

ball - gravity

gravity

Falling without air resistance

The ball falls faster….

gravity

Falling without air resistance

The ball falls faster and faster…….

gravity

Falling without air resistance

The ball falls faster and faster and faster…….

m/s2)

This number is called “g”, the acceleration due

to gravity.

gravity

Falling without air resistance?

distance

time

Falling without air resistance?

distance

time

Falling without air resistance?

speed

time

Falling without air resistance?

speed

time

Falling without air resistance?

speed

time

Velocity/time graphs

Taking upwards are the positive direction

gradient = constant = -9.81 m.s-2

velocity/m.s-1

Time/s

Falling with air resistance?

distance

time

Falling with air resistance?

distance

time

Falling with air resistance?

velocity

time

Falling with air resistance?

Terminal speed

velocity

time

Projectiles and air resistance

2.1 Projectile motion investigation

Make your own investigation

• Film a projectile motion of your choice or

download it from the internet.

• Use the video tracker to investigate its

motion.

• Establish your objectives before you start.

(What are you trying to find out? Initial

speed, finding g, max height, is it really

parabolic, be creative)

Assessment criteria?

• Personal engagement - 2 marks (8%)

• Exploration – 6 marks (25%)

• Analysis – 6 marks (25%)

• Evaluation – 6 marks (25%)

• Communication – 4 marks (17%)

Personal engagement - 2

Exploration - 6

Analysis - 6

Evaluation - 6

Communication - 4

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