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Topic 2 : Mechanics

Remember to
Physics Hai
I advise you to start preparing
for a test on Chapter 1.
This lesson
• Sketching and interpreting motion graphs
• Distance and displacement
• Speed and velocity
• Acceleration
Describing motion (in 1D)

How would you describe the motion of the hamster?


We must choose a reference point in order to describe
the motion! That is called a frame of reference

0 1 2 3 4
Distance against time graphs

distance

time
Constant speed?

distance

time
Constant speed

distance

time
Constant speed

distance

The gradient of this


graph gives the speed

time
Constant speed
How would the
distance graph look
different for a
faster constant
speed?

time
fast
Constant speed

distance

time
fast
Constant speed
How would the
distance graph look
different for a
slower constant
speed?

time
fast
Constant speed

distance

slow

time
Getting faster? (accelerating)

distance

time
Getting faster (accelerating)

distance

time
Examples

distance

time
A car accelerating from rest and
then hitting a wall

distance

time
A car accelerating from stop and
then hitting a wall

distance

time
Displacement
• Displacement the distance moved in a
stated direction (the distance and direction
from the starting point). A VECTOR
Displacement/time graphs
• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = forward and - =
backwards)
Faster constant
speed backwards
Displacement/
m

Time/s

Constant speed
forwards
Displacement/time graphs
• Gradient gives the VELOCITY

Negative
Displacement/
m

Time/s

Positive
Speed against time graphs

speed

time
No movement?

speed

time
No movement

speed

time
Constant speed?

speed

time
Constant speed

speed

time
Constant speed
How would the
speed graph look
different for a
faster constant
speed?

time
Constant speed

speed
fast

time
Constant speed
How would the
speed graph look
different for a
fast
slower constant
speed?

time
Constant speed

speed
fast

slow

time
Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

time
Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

Constant acceleration

time
Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

The gradient of this


graph gives the
acceleration

time
Getting faster? (accelerating)
v
The gradient of this
speed graph gives the
acceleration

a=v–u
t

(v= final speed, u = initial speed)

u
time
Getting faster? (accelerating)

speed

The area under the graph


gives the distance travelled

time
Example:

speed

time
An object falling from a tall
building (no air resistance)

speed

time
An object falling from a tall
building (no air resistance)
speed

time
An object falling from a tall
building (no air resistance)
speed

Area = height of building

time
Motion sensors
• Matching motion graphs

• On the mean time, get into the Haiku page


and download ‘The moving man’
• You should have Java installed first.
A little game in pairs
• Open the simulation ‘The moving man’
• One person draws a motion graph on an
individual whiteboard
• The other person will try to move the man
in the way described by the graph. (Clear
and hide the graphs before)
Velocity?
Velocity?
• Velocity is the rate of change of
displacement. Also a VECTOR
Velocity/time graphs
• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = forward and - =
backwards)
Ball being thrown into the air,
gradient = constant = -9.81 m.s-2
velocity/m.s-1

Time/s
Velocity/time graphs

Area = displacement

velocity/m.s-1

Time/s
Velocity/time graphs
Gradient = acceleration

If falling, magnitude of
velocity/m.s-1
gradient = 9.8 m.s-2

Time/s
Acceleration?
Acceleration?
• Acceleration is the rate of change of
velocity. Also a VECTOR
An interesting example
Think of a fly orbiting the earth with constant
speed (in a circle).
An interesting example
At this point, what is its velocity?

velocity?
An interesting example

velocity
An interesting example
What is its velocity here?

velocity?
An interesting example
As you can see the velocity has changed
as it is now going in another direction.

velocity
An interesting example
We have constant speed but changing
velocity.

velocity
An interesting example
We have constant speed but changing
velocity.

Of course a changing
velocity means it must
be accelerating!

velocity
Acceleration/time graphs
• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = up and - =
down)

accel/m.s-2

Time/s
Projectiles
• Usually in 1 dimension (+ = up and - =
down)
Acceleration = constant = -9.81
m.s-2
accel/m.s-2

Time/s
Note!
The area under an
acceleration acceleration/time graph gives
the change in velocity

time
Be careful! Constant speed
speed

distance

time
Gradient = speed

Area = distance
travelled
time
Be careful! Constant
acceleration
speed
Gradient =
acceleration
a = (v-u)/t

distance

time

Area = distance
travelled
time
Average speed/velocity?
• Average speed/velocity is change in
distance/displacement divided by time taken
over a period of time.
Instantaneous speed/velocity?
• Instantaneous speed/velocity is the change
in distance/displacement divided by time at
one particular time.
This lesson
• Equations of motion for uniform
acceleration
The equations of motion
• The equations of motion can be used when
an object has constant acceleration.
• There are four equations relating five
quantities
u initial velocity, v final velocity,
s displacement, a acceleration, t time
SUVAT equations
The four equations
1 v = u + at This is a re-arrangement of
v-u
a=
t

2 1 This says displacement = average


s = (v + u)t
2 velocity x time
3 1 2 With zero acceleration, this
s = ut + at becomes displacement = velocity
2
x time
4 2 2
Useful when you don’t know the
v = u + 2as time
Beware!
• All quantities are vectors (except time!).
These equations are normally done in one
dimension, so a negative result means
displacement/velocity/acceleration in the
opposite direction.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform
acceleration
EXAMPLE: How far will Pinky and the Brain go in 30.0
seconds if their acceleration is 20.0 m s -2?
KNOWN FORMULAS
a = 20 m/s2 Given s = ut + 12at2
t = 30 s Given v = u + at
u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED s=? SOLUTION
t is known - drop the s = ut + 12at2
timeless eq’n. s = 0(30) + 12 20(30)2
Since v is not wanted,
drop the velocity eq'n: s = 9000 m
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform
acceleration
EXAMPLE: How fast will Pinky and the Brain be going
at this instant?
KNOWN FORMULAS
a = 20 m/s2 Given s = ut + 12at2
t = 30 s Given v = u + at
u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED v=? SOLUTION
t is known - drop the v = u + at
timeless eq’n. v = 0 + 20(30)
Since v is wanted, drop
v = 600 m s-1
the displacement eq'n:
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform
acceleration
EXAMPLE: How fast will Pinky and the Brain be going
when they have traveled a total of 18000 m?
KNOWN FORMULAS
a = 20 m/s2 Given s = ut + 12at2
s = 18000 m Given v = u + at
u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED v=? SOLUTION
Since t is not known - v2 = u2 + 2as
drop the two eq’ns which v2 = 02 + 2(20)(18000)
have time in them.
v = 850 m s-1
Example
Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the
engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and
his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the
car to come to rest?
Example
Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the
engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and
his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the
car to come to rest?
What does the question tell us. Write it out.
Example
Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the
engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and
his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the
car to come to rest?
u = 10 m.s-1
v = 0 m.s-1
a = -2 m.s-2
t=?s
Example
Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the
engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and
his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the
car to come to rest?
u = 10 m.s-1
v = 0 m.s-1
a = -2 m.s-2
t=?s
Choose the equation that has these quantities in
v = u + at
Example
Mr Blanchard is driving his car, when suddenly the
engine stops working! If he is travelling at 10 m.s-1 and
his decceleration is 2 m.s-2 how long will it take for the
car to come to rest?
u = 10 m.s-1 v = 0 m.s-1 a = -2 m.s-2 t = ? s
v = u + at
0 = 10 + -2t
2t = 10
t = 5 seconds
Example
Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr
Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does
not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting
Sara?
Example
Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr
Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does
not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting
Sara?
What does the question tell us. Write it out.
Example 2
Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr
Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does
not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting
Sara?
u = 10 m.s-1
v = 0 m.s-1
a = -2 m.s-2
t=5s
s=?m
Example 2
Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr
Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does
not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting
Sara?
u = 10 m.s-1 v = 0 m.s-1 a = -2 m.s-2 t = 5 s s = ? m
Choose the equation that has these quantities in
v2 = u2 + 2as
Example
Sara steps into the road, 30 metres from where Mr
Blanchard’s engine stops working. Mr Blanchard does
not see Sara. Will the car stop in time to miss hitting
Sara?
u = 10 m.s-1 v = 0 m.s-1 a = -2 m.s-2 t = 5 s s = ? m
v2 = u2 + 2as
02 = 102 + 2x-2s
0 = 100 -4s
4s = 100
s = 25m, the car does not hit Jan.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the acceleration of free-fall
experimentally
Everyone knows that when you drop an
object, it picks up speed when it falls.
Galileo did his famous freefall
experiments on the tower of Pisa long ago,
and determined that all objects fall at the
same acceleration in the absence of air
resistance.
Thus, as the next slide will show, an apple
and a feather will fall side by side!
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the
acceleration of free-fall
experimentally
Consider the multiflash
image of an apple and a
feather falling in a partial
vacuum:
If we choose a convenient
spot on the apple, and mark
its position, we get a series
of marks like so:
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the
acceleration of free-fall
experimentally
0 cm
Now we SCALE our data.
Given that the apple is 8 cm -9 cm
in horizontal diameter we
can superimpose this scale -22 cm
on our photograph.
Then we can estimate the
position in cm of each -37 cm
image.

-55 cm
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the
acceleration of free-fall
experimentally
0 cm
Suppose we know that the
time between images is -9 cm
0.056 s.
We make a table starting -22 cm
t(s) y(cm) t y v
with the raw data columns
.000 0
of t and y.
.056To find t
FYI: -9you .056 -37-9
need to subtractcm TWO-161
We then make t's. Therefore t is
.112
FYI: Tofind
To -22
findyvtthe
youfirst
you .056
needentry
need to for
-13
todivide
subtracty TWO
-232
by
calculations columns in t, BLANK.
t.
y's.
t's.
.168By
Byconvention,
By convention,
convention,
-37 CURRENT
CURRENT
CURRENT
.056 y
-15tyMINUS
MINUS
-268
y and v. DIVIDED
FYI: SameBY
PREVIOUS
.224
t.CURRENT
thing
y.
-55
t. y.
for the first
.056 -18 -321
-55 cm
FYI: Since v = y / t, the first v entry is
also BLANK.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the t(s) y(cm) t y v
acceleration of .000 0
free-fall .056 -9 .056 -9 -161
experimentally .112 -22 .056 -13 -232
Now we plot v .168 -37 .056 -15 -268
v
vs. t on a .224 -55 .056 -18 -321
graph. TIME / sec
VELOCITY / cm sec-1

.000 .056 .112 .168 .224


0 t
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
-300
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the FYI
acceleration of The graph v vs. t is linear. Thus a is
free-fall constant.
experimentally The y-intercept (the initial velocity of
the apple) is not zero. But this just
v
means we don’t have all of the
images TIME
of the apple.
(sec)
.000 .056 .112 .168 .224
VELOCITY (cm/sec)

0 t/s
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
-300
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the FYI
acceleration of Finally, the acceleration is the slope
free-fall of the v vs. t graph:
experimentally
a = v = -220 cm/s = -982 cm/s2
v t 0.224 s

TIME (sec)
.000 .056 .112 .168 .224
VELOCITY (cm/sec)

0 t/s
t = 0.224 s

v = -220 cm/s
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
-300
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determining the acceleration of free-fall experimentally
Since this acceleration due to gravity is so important
we give it the name g.
ALL objects accelerate at -g , where
g = 980 cm s-2
in the absence of air resistance.
We can list the values for g in three ways:
g = 980 cm s-2 We usually round magnitude of
the metric value to the freefall
g = 9.80 m s-2
10: acceleration
g = 32 ft s-2 g = 10. m s-2

Hammer and feather drop Apollo 15


Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of motion
for uniform acceleration
EXAMPLE: A ball is dropped off of the
Empire State Building (381 m tall). How fast
is it going when it hits ground?
KNOWN FORMULAS
1 2
2
a = -10 m/s Implicit s = ut + 2at
s = -381 m Given v = u + at
u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED v=? SOLUTION
Since t is not v2 = u2 + 2as
known - drop the v2 = 02+ 2(-10)(-381)
two eq’ns which
v = -87 m s-1
have time in them.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of motion
for uniform acceleration
EXAMPLE: A ball is dropped off of the
Empire State Building (381 m tall). How long
does it take to reach the ground?
KNOWN FORMULAS
a = -10 m/s2 Implicit s = ut + 12at2
s = -381 m Given v = u + at
u = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED t=? SOLUTION
Since t is desired s = ut + 12at2
and we have s drop -381 = 0t + 12 (-10)t2
the last two eq’ns.
t = 8.7 s
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of
motion for uniform acceleration
EXAMPLE: A cheer leader is thrown up
with an initial speed of 7 m s-1. How high
does she go?
KNOWN FORMULAS
a = -10 m/s2 Implicit s = ut + 12at2
u = 7 m s-1 Given v = u + at
v = 0 m/s Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED s=? SOLUTION
Since t is not known - v2 = u2 + 2as
drop the two eq’ns which
02 = 72 + 2(-10)s
have time in them.
s = 2.45 m
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of
motion for uniform acceleration
EXAMPLE: A ball is thrown upward at 50 m s-1 from the
top of the 300-m Millau Viaduct, the highest bridge in
the world. How fast does it hit ground?
KNOWN FORMULAS
a = -10 m/s2 Implicit s = ut + 12at2
u = 50 m s-1 Given v = u + at
s = -300 m Implicit v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED v=? SOLUTION
Since t is not known - v2 = u2 + 2as
drop the two eq’ns which v2 = 502 + 2(-10)(-300)
have time in them.
v = -90 m s-1
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Solving problems using equations of
motion for uniform acceleration
EXAMPLE: A ball is thrown upward at 50 m s-1 from the
top of the 300-m Millau Viaduct, the highest bridge in
the world. How long is it in flight?
KNOWN FORMULAS
1 2
a = -10 m/s 2 Implicit s = ut + 2at
u = 50 m s-1 Given v = u + at
v = -90 m s-1 Calculated v2 = u2 + 2as
WANTED t=? SOLUTION
Use the simplest t v = u + at
equation. -90 = 50 + (-10)t
t = 14 s
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of
24 m.s-1.
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of
24 m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?
u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = 12 m.s-1
t=?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?
u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = 12 m.s-1
t=?
v = u + at
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball 12 m.s-1?
u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = 12 m.s-1
v = u + at
12 = 24 + -9.8t
-12 = -9.8t
t = 12/9.8 = 1.2 seconds
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?
u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = -12 m.s-1
t=?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?
u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = -12 m.s-1
v = u + at
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• When is the velocity of the ball -12 m.s-1?
u = 24 m.s-1 a = -9.8 m.s-2 v = -12 m.s-1
v = u + at
-12 = 24 + -9.8t
-36 = -9.8t
t = 36/9.8 = 3.7 seconds
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the displacement of the ball at those
times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the displacement of the ball at those
times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)
t = 1.2, v = 12, a = -9.8, u = 24 s = ?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the displacement of the ball at those
times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)
t = 1.2, v = 12, a = -9.8, u = 24 s = ?
s = ut + ½at2 = 24x1.2 + ½x-9.8x1.22
s = 28.8 – 7.056 = 21.7 m
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the displacement of the ball at those
times? (t = 1.2, 3.7)
t = 3.7, v = 12, a = -9.8, u = 24 s = ?
s = ut + ½at2 = 24x3.7 + ½x-9.8x3.72
s = 88.8 – 67.081 = 21.7 m (the same?!)
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after
launch?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after
launch?
u = 24, t = 1.50, a = -9.8, v = ?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after
launch?
u = 24, t = 1.50, a = -9.8, v = ?
v = u + at
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the velocity of the ball 1.50 s after
launch?
u = 24, t = 1.50, a = -9.8, v = ?
v = u + at
v = 24 + -9.8x1.50 = 9.3 m.s-1
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the maximum height reached by the
ball?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the maximum height reached by the
ball?
u = 24, a = -9.8, v = 0, s = ?
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the maximum height reached by the
ball?
u = 24, a = -9.8, v = 0, s = ?
v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 576 + 2x-9.8xs
0 = 576 -19.6s
Example 3
• A ball is thrown upwards with a velocity of 24
m.s-1.
• What is the maximum height reached by the
ball?
u = 24, a = -9.8, v = 0, s = ?
0 = 576 -19.6s
19.6s = 576
s = 576/19.6 = 29.4 m
Let’s do some questions
2.1 Basic
suvat
questions
p.41-44
HOMEWORK
Finish the SUVAT
questions for next
lesson
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determine relative velocity in one and two dimensions
Suppose you are a passenger in a car on a perfectly
level and straight road, moving at a constant velocity.
Your velocity relative to the pavement might be 60 mph.
Your velocity relative to the driver of your car is zero.
Whereas your velocity relative to an oncoming car might
be 120 mph.
Your velocity can be measured relative to any
reference frame.

A
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Determine relative velocity in one and two dimensions
Consider two cars, A and B, shown below.
Suppose you are in car A which is moving at vA = +20
m s-1 and next to you is car B, moving at vB = +40 m s-1.
As far as you are concerned your velocity vAB relative
to car B is -20 m s-1 because you seem to be moving
backwards relative to B’s coordinate system.
We write
vAB = vA - vB velocity of A relative to B

A
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion

B
Determine relative velocity in one and two
dimensions
The equation works even in two dimensions.
Suppose you are in car A which is moving at vA
= +40 m s-1 and approaching you at right angles y
is a car B is moving at vB = -20 m s-1 as shown.
Since A and B are moving perpendicular to one
another, use a vector diagram to find vAB. The
solution is on the next slide.
x

A
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion

B
Determine relative velocity in one and two
dimensions
Draw in the vectors and use vAB = vA - vB.

vAB2 = vA2 + vB2

vAB2 = 402 + 202


vB -v
B
vAB = 45 m s-1
vA

A
2.1 Measuring “g” investigation
This lesson
• Projectile motion
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Projectile motion
A projectile is an object that has been given an initial
velocity by some sort of short-lived force, and then
moves through the air under the influence of gravity.
Baseballs, stones, or bullets are all examples of
projectiles executing projectile motion.
You know that all objects moving through air feel an air
resistance (recall sticking your hand out of the window
of a moving car).
FYI
We will ignore air
resistance in the
discussion that
follows…
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
Regardless of the air resistance, the vertical and the
horizontal components of velocity of an object in
projectile motion are independent.
Slowing down in +y dir.

Speeding up in -y dir.
ay = -g
ay = -g

Constant speed in +x dir. ax = 0


Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
The trajectory of a projectile in the absence of air is
parabolic. Know this!
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion with fluid resistance
If there is air resistance, it is proportional to the square
of the velocity. Thus, when the ball moves fast its
deceleration is greater than when it moves slow.
Peak to left of
original one.

Pre-peak distance
more than post-
peak.

SKETCH POINTS
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
Recall the kinematic equations:
s = ut + (1/2)at 2 Displacement kinematic
v = u + at Velocity equations 1D
a is constant
Since we worked only in 1D at the time, we didn’t have
to distinguish between x and y in these equations.
Now we appropriately modify the above to meet our
new requirements of simultaneous equations:
∆x = uxt + (1/2)axt 2 kinematic
vx = ux + axt equations 2D
∆y = uyt + (1/2)ayt 2 ax and ay are
vy = uy + ayt constant
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
0
∆x = uxt + (1/2)axt 2 kinematic
0 equations 2D
vx = ux + axt
∆y = uyt + (1/2)ayt 2 ax and ay are
vy = uy + ayt constant

PRACTICE: Show that the reduced equations for


projectile motion are
∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of
vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion

SOLUTION:
ax = 0 in the absence of air resistance.
ay = -10 in the absence of air resistance.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of
vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion
EXAMPLE: Use the reduced equations above to prove
that projectile motion is parabolic in nature.
SOLUTION: Just solve for t in the first equation and
substitute it into the second equation.
∆x = uxt becomes t = x / ux so that t 2 = x2 / ux2.
Then since y = uyt - 5t 2, we have
y = (uy / ux)x – (5 / ux2)x2.
FYI
The equation of a parabola is y = Ax + Bx2.
In this case, A = uy / ux and B = -5 / ux2.
Amazing facts!
If a gun is fired horizontally, and at the
same time a bullet is dropped from the same
height, which bullet hits the ground first?
Amazing facts!
Amazing facts!
Amazing facts!
They both hit the ground at the same time!
Amazing facts!

Jaime can demonstrate this


for you. He will need two
coins and a ruler
Amazing facts!

Why?
Vertical and horizontal
Their vertical motion can be considered
separate from their horizontal motion.
Explanation of projectile motion
Vertical and horizontal
Vertically, they both have zero initial velocity
and accelerate downwards at 9.8 m.s-2. The
time to fall the same vertical distance is
therefore the same. We assume constant
horizontal speed
Mythbusters tried this!
Dropped bullet versus fired bullet
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of
vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion
PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle
velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.
(a) What are ux and uy?
SOLUTION: Make a velocity triangle.
uy = u sin 
 = 15º uy = 56 sin 15º
ux = u cos  uy = 15 m s-1.
ux = 56 cos 15º
ux = 54 m s-1
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
∆x = uxt ∆y = uyt - 5t 2 reduced equations of
vx = ux vy = uy - 10t projectile motion
PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle
velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.
(b) What are the tailored equations of motion?
(c) When will the ball reach its maximum height?
SOLUTION: (b) Just substitute ux = 54 and uy = 15:
∆x = 54t ∆y = 15t - 5t2 tailored equations for
vx = 54 vy = 15 - 10t this particular projectile
(c) At the maximum height, vy = 0. Why? Thus
vy = 15 - 10t becomes 0 = 15 - 10t so that
10t = 15 or t = 1.5 s.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
∆x = 54t ∆y = 15t - 5t 2 tailored equations for
vx = 54 vy = 15 - 10t this particular projectile
PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle
velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.
(d) How far from the muzzle will the ball be when it
reaches the height of the muzzle at the end of its
trajectory?
SOLUTION:
From symmetry tup = tdown = 1.5 s so t = 3.0 s.
Thus
∆x = 54t
∆x = 54(3.0)
∆x = 160 m.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
∆x = 54t ∆y = 15t - 5t 2 tailored equations for
vx = 54 vy = 15 - 10t this particular projectile
PRACTICE: A cannon fires a projectile with a muzzle
velocity of 56 ms-1 at an angle of inclination of 15º.
(e) Sketch the following graphs:
a vs. t, vx vs. t, vy vs. t:
SOLUTION: The only acceleration ay
is g in the –y-direction. -10 t
vx
vx = 54, a constant. Thus it does 54
not change over time. t
vy = 15 - 10t Thus it is linear with vy
a negative gradient and it crosses 15
1.5 t
the time axis at 1.5 s.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

The acceleration is ALWAYS g for projectile motion-


since it is caused by Earth and its field.
At the maximum height the projectile switches from
upward to downward motion. vy = 0 at switch.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

The flight time is


limited by the y
motion.
The maximum
height is limited by
the y motion.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

ax = 0.

ay = -10 ms-2.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

∆y = uyt - 5t 2
-33 = 0t - 5t 2
-33 = -5t 2
(33/5) = t 2

Fall time limited by y-equations:

t = 2.6 s.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

∆x = uxt
∆x = 18(2.6)

Use x-equations and t = 2.6 s:


∆x = 47 m.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
18

vy = uy – 10t 26
vx = ux vy = 0 – 10t
vx = 18. vy = –10(2.6) = -26.

tan  = 26/18
 = tan-1(26/18) = 55º.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

The horizontal component of velocity is vx = ux which is


CONSTANT.
The vertical component of velocity is vy = uy – 10t ,
which is INCREASING (negatively).
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

 ∆EK + ∆EP = 0
∆EK = -∆EP
∆EK = -mg∆h
EKo = (1/2)mu2

∆EK = -(0.44)(9.8)(-32) = +138 J = EK – EKo


EK = +138 + (1/2)(0.44)(222) = 240 J.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

If 34% of the energy is


consumed, 76% remains.
0.76(240) = 180 J
(1/2)(0.44)v2 = 180 J

v = 29 ms-1.
(1/2)mvf2 - (1/2)mv2 = -∆EP
Topic 2: Mechanics mvf2 = mv2 + -2mg(0-H)
2 = v2 + 2gH
2.1 – Motion v f

Analysing projectile motion

Use ∆EK + ∆EP = 0.


Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

uy = u sin 
uy = 28 sin 30º
ux = u cos 
ux = 28 cos 30º

ux = 24 m s-1.

uy = 14 m s-1.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

∆x = uxt
16 = 24t
t = 16 / 24 = 0.67
The time to the wall is found from ∆x…

∆y = uyt – 5t 2
∆y = 14t – 5t 2
∆y = 14(0.67) – 5(0.67)2 = 7.1 m.
Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

0.5s

0.0s
4m

ux = ∆x / ∆t = (4 - 0) / (0.5 - 0.0) = 8 ms-1.


Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion

0.5s
11 m
0.0s
4m

uy = ∆y / ∆t = (11 - 0) / (0.5 - 0.0) = 22 ms-1.


Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
2.0 2.5 3.0
1.5

1.0
30 m
0.5s
11 m
0.0s   = tan-1(30/24) = 51º
4m 24 m

D2 = 242 + 302 so that D = 38 m ,@  = 51º.


Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1 – Motion
Analysing projectile motion
New
peak
below and
left.

Pre-peak
greater
than post-
peak.
Let’s try some questions.
2.1 Projectile motion
p.47-48
Can you find your projectile
motion questions?
Let’s try some harder questions.
2.1 Projectile motion
Worked examples p50-52
This lesson
• Fluid resistance and terminal speed
Falling without air resistance
Falling without air resistance
Falling without air resistance
This time there is only one force acting in the
ball - gravity
gravity
Falling without air resistance
The ball falls faster….

gravity
Falling without air resistance
The ball falls faster and faster…….

gravity
Falling without air resistance
The ball falls faster and faster and faster…….

It gets faster by 9.81 m/s every second (9.81


m/s2)
This number is called “g”, the acceleration due
to gravity.

gravity
Falling without air resistance?

distance

time
Falling without air resistance?

distance

time
Falling without air resistance?

speed

time
Falling without air resistance?

speed

time
Falling without air resistance?

speed

Gradient = acceleration = 9.8 m.s-2

time
Velocity/time graphs
Taking upwards are the positive direction

Ball being thrown into the air,


gradient = constant = -9.81 m.s-2
velocity/m.s-1

Time/s
Falling with air resistance?

distance

time
Falling with air resistance?

distance

time
Falling with air resistance?

velocity

time
Falling with air resistance?
Terminal speed

velocity

time
Projectiles and air resistance
2.1 Projectile motion investigation
Make your own investigation
• Film a projectile motion of your choice or
download it from the internet.
• Use the video tracker to investigate its
motion.
• Establish your objectives before you start.
(What are you trying to find out? Initial
speed, finding g, max height, is it really
parabolic, be creative)
Assessment criteria?
• Personal engagement - 2 marks (8%)
• Exploration – 6 marks (25%)
• Analysis – 6 marks (25%)
• Evaluation – 6 marks (25%)
• Communication – 4 marks (17%)

• “Best fit approach”


Personal engagement - 2
Exploration - 6
Analysis - 6
Evaluation - 6
Communication - 4