12 CRANIAL NERVES

Locations and Functions

. Olfactory: Sensory nerves for smell

I

II. Optic: Sensory nerve for vision.

II - Optic yExamine the Optic Fundi

III. Oculomotor: Somatic & Parasympathetic: control of extrinsic eye muscles and pupil dilation.

IV. TROCHLEAR: SOMATIC
CONTROL OF MUSCLES THAT SURROUND THE EYE.

V. Trigeminal: Sensory & Somatic control of facial nerves and muscles for chewing.

VI. ABDUCENS: SOMATIC
MUSCLE CONTROL OF LATERAL MOVEMENT OF THE EYEBALL.

VII. FACIAL: SENSORY, SOMATIC & PARASYMPATHETIC
CONTROL OVER FACIAL EXPRESSION AND TASTE.

VIII. Vestibulocochlear or Auditory Nerve: Sensory nerve for hearing.

Rinne Test:

IX. Glossopharyngeal: Sensory, Somatic & Parasympathetic control over taste, the tongue and the pharynx.

X. Vagus Primary Parasympathetic nerve with some Somatic and Sensory functions. Controls visceral organs.

XI. Accessory: Somatic control over larynx, pharynx and sternocleidomastoid muscles

XII. Hypoglossal: Somatic control over the tongue.

Testing the hypoglossal nerve. Patient is instructed to stick out the tongue and then move it laterally against resistance.

SUMMARY

Cranial Nerve Olfactory Optic

Number I II

Innervation(s) Sensory Sensory

Primary Function(s) Smell Vision Upper lid elevation, extraocular eye movement, pupil constriction, accommodation Superior oblique muscle

Test(s) Identify odors Visual acuity, fields, color, nerve head Physiologic "H" and near point response

Oculomotor

III

Motor

Trochlear Trigeminal

IV V

Motor Motor

Physiologic "H"

Muscles of mastication Corneal reflex Scalp, conjunctiva, teeth Clench jaw/palpate, light touch comparison Abduction, physiologic "H"

Trigeminal

V

Sensory

Abducens

VI

Motor

Lateral rectus muscle

Facial

VII

Motor

Muscles of facial expression

Smile, puff cheeks, wrinkle forehead, pry open closed lids

Facial

VII

Sensory

Taste-anterior two thirds of tongue Hearing and balance Tongue and pharynx Taste-posterior one third of tongue Pharynx, tongue, larynx, thoracic and abdominal viscera Larynx, trachea, esophagus Sternomastoid and trapezius muscles Muscles of tongue Shrug, head turn against resistance Tongue deviation Gag reflex Rinne test for hearing, Weber test for balance Gag reflex

Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal Glossopharyngeal Vagus Vagus Accessory Hypoglossal

VIII IX IX X X XI XII

Sensory Motor Sensory Motor Sensory Motor Motor

THE

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