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 Name: Registration No:

 Muhammad Hassan UW-17-CHE-BSC-016

 Junaid Johnson UW-17-CHE-BSC-027

 Muhammad Hamza UW-17-CHE-BSC-024

 Bilal Sarfaraz UW-17-CHE-BSC-002

Copper belongs to group 11 of the periodic table along with Ag and Au. Copper is a member of first

row transition series of element. The element has an atomic number of 29, an atomic mass of 63, two

main oxidation states (+1 and +2) and two naturally occurring isotopes (63Cu and 65Cu), with

abundances of 69.17% and 30.83%. Copper was used long before 10,000 years ago. These materials

have assumed important roles in modern technology, because of their number and properties.

Copper is costly than iron and steel but often possess certain properties or combinations or

combinations of properties that are not available in the ferrous metals.

English word copper and the chemical symbol Cu are derived from the word Cyprium. Copper being

highly resistant to corrosion in severe environments such as the ambient atmosphere, seawater, and

some industrial chemicals. The mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties of copper may be

improved by alloying. Most copper alloys cannot be hardened or strengthened by heat-treating

procedures; accordingly, cold working or solid-solution alloying must be used to improve the mechanical

properties. Copper and copper-based alloys, retaining an appropriate arrangement of physical properties

and it’s been using in a variety of applications since antiquity.

Copper is typically extracted from oxide and sulfide ores that contain between 0.5 and 2.0 percent

copper. Pure copper is rarely found in nature, but is usually combined with other chemicals in the form

of copper ores. The most copper ores known are sulfide ores in which the copper is chemically bonded

with sulfur. Others are known as oxide ores, carbonate ores, or mixed ores depending on the chemicals

present. Copper is synthetically extracted from ores. The most common sulfide ore is chalcopyrite,

CuFeS2 , also known as copper pyrite or yellow copper ore. Chalcocite, Cu 2 S, is another sulfide ore.

Cuprite, or red copper ore, Cu2O, is an oxide ore. Malachite, or green copper ore, Cu(OH) 2 •CuCO3 , is

an important carbonate ore, as is azurite, or blue copper carbonate, Cu(OH) 2 •2CuCO3.

Most sulfide ores are taken from huge open-pit mines by drilling and blasting with explosives. In this type

of mining, the material located above the ore is first removed. These ores are then passed through

concentration process and are then smelted.

Copper is then collected at the respective electrodes from there they are refined.
After refining, the copper cathodes are melted and cast into ingots, cakes, billets, or rods depending on the final


• Ingots are rectangular or trapezoidal bricks.

They are then re-melted along with some other metals to make brass and bronze products. They are rolled to

make copper plate, strip, sheet, and foil products.

• Billets are cylindrical logs about 8 in (20 cm) in diameter and several feet (meters) long.

They are extruded or drawn to make copper tubing and pipe. After passing through refining furnace, they are

usually cast into long lengths, which are coiled. This coiled material is then drawn down further to make copper

Alloys of Copper:
Copper is generally combined with other metals to form alloys.

Some Copper Alloys are:

• Brass: Copper + 10-50%Zinc

• Bronze: 78.5%Copper + 2.9%Tin + 17.2%Zinc + 1.4%Lead

• Cupro Nickle: Copper + Nickel


Zinc is the most commonly used alloying element. This Alloy is manufactured to overcome softness,

low strength and high casting temperature of Cu.

• They are quite Ductile and Formable.

• Yellow in color.
Cartridge Brass (70% Cu and 30%Zn):

• Red in color.

• Provides the best combination of strength and ductility and best for sheet-forming operations. These high

Zn brass have poor Cold working properties; they deform easily at elevated temperatures.

Leaded Brass:

For high machinability 2 or 3% Lead is added to the brass. Brass casting alloys are most commonly used in

Plumbing and fittings, low pressure valves.

They have good fluidity during pouring and low melting points. An alloy having 50-55% Copper and remaining

Zinc is used as a filler metal in brazing.


1) Bronze is an alloy of Cu and Sn (less than 12% Sn)

2) It’s strength increases as Tin is added to about 20% but high percentage of tin in alloys tend to be brittle.

Tin bronzes offer:

• Good strength and toughness

• High Wear resistance

• Good Corrosion resistance

Aluminum Bronzes:

It contains 93% Cu and 7% Al gives high strength and corrosion resistance, 8% less Al alloys are usually ductile

but when it exceeds 9%, the ductility falls and hardness approaches to that of steel.
Phosphor Bronzes:

Tin bronzes as they are sometimes called, contain between 0.5% and 11% tin and 0.01% to 0.35% phosphorous. Tin

increases their corrosion resistance and tensile strength; phosphorous increases wear resistance and stiffness.

Phosphor bronzes shows excellent spring qualities.

They have High fatigue resistance.

Excellent formability and solder ability.

High corrosion resistance.

Silicon Bronzes:

They contain less than 20% zinc and up to 6% silicon and are solid solution strengthened. Silicon red brasses are

used for valve stems where corrosion resistance and high strength are critical. Silicon bronzes are used to make

bearings, intricately shaped pumps and valve components.

Cupro Nickel:

Alloys of Copper and Nickel. It is formed by Cu + Ni (2-30%). Copper and Nickel exhibit complete solubility.

They have:

• Cupro Nickel is thermal conductive

• They have good resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion resistance and seawater.


• Heat exchangers

• Cookware

• Coinage

Nickel Silvers:

Nickel silvers do not contain silver but 10-30% Nickel and 5% Zinc, used for ornamental applications and musical

Applications of Copper:

Copper and Copper alloys are use in an immense range of applications. Some of them include:

 Power transmission lines

 Architectural

 Cooking utensils

 Electrical wiring, cables and bus bars

 High conductivity wires

 Electrodes

 Heat exchangers

 Refrigeration tubing

 Plumbing

1) The main benefit is that it has high thermal and electrical conductivity due to which can be used in various

fields of life.

2) It has high ductility which enhances its durability.

3) It is easily obtainable.

4) The reason why copper is highly versatile is due to its malleability and ideal for various applications _For

example, in making copper sheets, coins and utensils.

5) Copper is highly valued for its corrosion-resistant properties.


1) Copper is being unreliable as a bonding agent and is not suitable for complex wiring.

2) Copper costs far more.

3) Copper wire is susceptible to electromagnetic interference, potentially leading to some devices working


4) Copper wires are preferred to use in high-tech automotive parts and semiconductors because of its lack

in the ability to control electrical surges.

5) Easily loses its color due to heating.

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