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Petrel 2015 Quantitative

Interpretation
Module 6: Lithology classification
Learning objectives

In this module, you will learn about the lithology classification

workflow including the different processes and operations:
 Creating classification
 Lithology analysis
 Lithology prediction
Lesson 1: Introduction to the workflow and class definition
The lithology classification workflow (1)
Three main steps:
 3D seismic inversion
 Relate seismic related parameters to reservoir parameters with Probability Density
Functions (PDFs) (below) using Lithology Analysis
 Generation of lithology prediction volume and its uncertainty using Lithology Prediction

Goal:
 Estimate the most HC sand
probable lithology
Sandy
from the seismic shale
attributes
Shale

Sand
The lithology classification workflow (2)
Class definition
First, classes must be defined based on logs to create a Lithoclass log.
Three methods can be used:
 Crossplots (most common)
 Well log calculator
 Supervised Neural network
Lithoclass log
Class definition using crossplot (1)
The first step consists in defining a depth range.

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Class definition using crossplot (2)
Alternatively, the depth range (or reservoir interval) can be defined using crossplots and
elastic parameters which may help to identify hydrocarbon-related anomalies:

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Class definition using crossplot (3)
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Class definition using crossplot (4)

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Class definition using the Well log calculator (1)

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Class definition using Neural network (1)
Neural Nets are tools for automatically finding relationships between multiple known parameters
and a single unknown parameter. It is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on
what goes through the network during the learning phase. The Neural net classification allows you
to create a classification model object (for example, facies from well logs).

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Note: It is recommended to provide
existing facies interpretation (on a small
interval for example). The process will
extend it to the entire well and other
wells if present.
Exercise 1

 Create a classification using either a crossplot or the Well log

calculator.
 Display and edit the results if necessary.
Lesson 2: Lithology Analysis
Introduction to Lithology Analysis
Within the same facies, the log response is affected by changes in fluid, saturation, mineralogy,
temperature etc. This is the intrinsic variability of rock properties.
Big challenge in lithology classification:
When we observe a change an attribute change, is it significant or is it just a small
fluctuation within the facies?

With the assumption that

the lithoclass log is a
Example of
representative set, a
intrinsic Monte Carlo simulation
variability is performed to express
the intrinsic variability.
Visualization of the Litho Analysis results (1)
The outputs of the Lithology Analysis process are the Probability Density Functions
(PDFs). The less overlapping you have between the different facies, the better.

“HC Sand” has the highest

probability of occurring
around 4000 kPa.s/m in the
“P impedance space”. This
attribute helps us discriminate
the HC sand property from
the other data.
Visualization of the Litho Analysis results (2)
The results can also be interpreted in the 2D/3D space where the data can be plotted
against two or three attributes (multivariate).

2D Plotting mode

1D Plotting mode

3D Plotting mode
QC : The PDF confusion matrix statistics
Goal: Identify if the algorithm has problems when defining the different classes according to the
input data. To get a high-confidence classification results, the values along the diagonal of this
matrix should be as large as possible.

Probability of classifying a
sample of belonging to class I,
given that its true class is J
(Prediction | True).

Probability of the true class of a

sample being class I, given that
it was predicted to have class J
(True | Prediction).
Generate the Litho Classification model (1)

Lithoclass
log
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Note: After inserting the lithoclass log you just created, the class names are
automatically populated. The user must set up the prior probability, either
leaving the default value or getting information seismic (structural
interpretation).
Generate the Litho Classification model (2)
 The number of bins: how
many bins will be used
when forming the
4 histogram for the attribute.
A high number of bins can
significantly slow the
5 process.
 The upscaling factor: The
increase in resolution to
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7 histograms.
 The inversion error factor:
Note: Too many bins would limited the results to how much smoothing to
this specific sample when too much smoothing apply to the upscaled
will not capture variability and affect histograms.
discrimination. It is recommended to run a
number of tests.
Generate the Litho Classification model : Results

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Exercise 2

 Use the Lithology Analysis process

 Display the results in the PDF viewer window
 QC the resulst using the PDF confusing matrix
Lesson 3: Lithology Prediction
The Lithology prediction process
Goal: Calibrate the well PDFs to the seismic attributes from the Simultaneous Inversion
process and generate the probability of the lithology given the attribute.

 The PDFs derived the well

logs are downscaled to the
seismic resolution.
 Use of a classifier to form
Maximum A Priori (MAP)
lithology predictions (Kay,
1993) on inversion data.
 The largest PDF from the
vector collected at this point
is chosen as the predicted
lithology class.
Use the Lithology prediction process (1)
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Lithology
Analysis
output

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Note: The output cubes require a continuous template. The template can be
created by clicking the right-hand button (this will be saved in the continuous
other template folder in the Template tab).
Use the Lithology prediction process (2)

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Use the Lithology prediction process : Results
Exercise 3

 Use the Lithology prediction process

 QC and identify potential pay interval
 Read probability cubes
Review questions

 What is the most common way to establish classification and

differentiate facies from well logs?
 What is the main input of the Litho analysis process?
 Why do we use Bayesian approach?
 Which window do we use to visualize the PDFs? How many
plotting mode are available?
 What is the use of each of the PDF confusion matrix?
 What is the main input of the Litho prediction process? How do you
use the different output cubes?