litho

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litho

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Interpretation

Module 6: Lithology classification

Learning objectives

workflow including the different processes and operations:

Creating classification

Lithology analysis

Lithology prediction

Lesson 1: Introduction to the workflow and class definition

The lithology classification workflow (1)

Three main steps:

3D seismic inversion

Relate seismic related parameters to reservoir parameters with Probability Density

Functions (PDFs) (below) using Lithology Analysis

Generation of lithology prediction volume and its uncertainty using Lithology Prediction

Goal:

Estimate the most HC sand

probable lithology

Sandy

from the seismic shale

attributes

Shale

Sand

The lithology classification workflow (2)

Class definition

First, classes must be defined based on logs to create a Lithoclass log.

Three methods can be used:

Crossplots (most common)

Well log calculator

Supervised Neural network

Lithoclass log

Class definition using crossplot (1)

The first step consists in defining a depth range.

1

Class definition using crossplot (2)

Alternatively, the depth range (or reservoir interval) can be defined using crossplots and

elastic parameters which may help to identify hydrocarbon-related anomalies:

3

4

2

Class definition using crossplot (3)

1

2

3

5

Class definition using crossplot (4)

8

Class definition using the Well log calculator (1)

1 3

Class definition using Neural network (1)

Neural Nets are tools for automatically finding relationships between multiple known parameters

and a single unknown parameter. It is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on

what goes through the network during the learning phase. The Neural net classification allows you

to create a classification model object (for example, facies from well logs).

3

1

2

Note: It is recommended to provide

existing facies interpretation (on a small

interval for example). The process will

extend it to the entire well and other

wells if present.

Exercise 1

calculator.

Display and edit the results if necessary.

Lesson 2: Lithology Analysis

Introduction to Lithology Analysis

Within the same facies, the log response is affected by changes in fluid, saturation, mineralogy,

temperature etc. This is the intrinsic variability of rock properties.

Big challenge in lithology classification:

When we observe a change an attribute change, is it significant or is it just a small

fluctuation within the facies?

the lithoclass log is a

Example of

representative set, a

intrinsic Monte Carlo simulation

variability is performed to express

the intrinsic variability.

Visualization of the Litho Analysis results (1)

The outputs of the Lithology Analysis process are the Probability Density Functions

(PDFs). The less overlapping you have between the different facies, the better.

probability of occurring

around 4000 kPa.s/m in the

“P impedance space”. This

attribute helps us discriminate

the HC sand property from

the other data.

Visualization of the Litho Analysis results (2)

The results can also be interpreted in the 2D/3D space where the data can be plotted

against two or three attributes (multivariate).

2D Plotting mode

1D Plotting mode

3D Plotting mode

QC : The PDF confusion matrix statistics

Goal: Identify if the algorithm has problems when defining the different classes according to the

input data. To get a high-confidence classification results, the values along the diagonal of this

matrix should be as large as possible.

Probability of classifying a

sample of belonging to class I,

given that its true class is J

(Prediction | True).

sample being class I, given that

it was predicted to have class J

(True | Prediction).

Generate the Litho Classification model (1)

Lithoclass

log

1

2

Note: After inserting the lithoclass log you just created, the class names are

automatically populated. The user must set up the prior probability, either

leaving the default value or getting information seismic (structural

interpretation).

Generate the Litho Classification model (2)

The number of bins: how

many bins will be used

when forming the

4 histogram for the attribute.

A high number of bins can

significantly slow the

5 process.

The upscaling factor: The

increase in resolution to

6 apply when interpolating

7 histograms.

The inversion error factor:

Note: Too many bins would limited the results to how much smoothing to

this specific sample when too much smoothing apply to the upscaled

will not capture variability and affect histograms.

discrimination. It is recommended to run a

number of tests.

Generate the Litho Classification model : Results

8

Exercise 2

Display the results in the PDF viewer window

QC the resulst using the PDF confusing matrix

Lesson 3: Lithology Prediction

The Lithology prediction process

Goal: Calibrate the well PDFs to the seismic attributes from the Simultaneous Inversion

process and generate the probability of the lithology given the attribute.

logs are downscaled to the

seismic resolution.

Use of a classifier to form

Maximum A Priori (MAP)

lithology predictions (Kay,

1993) on inversion data.

The largest PDF from the

vector collected at this point

is chosen as the predicted

lithology class.

Use the Lithology prediction process (1)

1

Lithology

Analysis

output

4

3

Note: The output cubes require a continuous template. The template can be

created by clicking the right-hand button (this will be saved in the continuous

other template folder in the Template tab).

Use the Lithology prediction process (2)

6

Use the Lithology prediction process : Results

Exercise 3

QC and identify potential pay interval

Read probability cubes

Review questions

differentiate facies from well logs?

What is the main input of the Litho analysis process?

Why do we use Bayesian approach?

Which window do we use to visualize the PDFs? How many

plotting mode are available?

What is the use of each of the PDF confusion matrix?

What is the main input of the Litho prediction process? How do you

use the different output cubes?

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