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Role of SLDC

in real time Grid Operation


&
Management

SANTOSH KUMAR DAS


SLDC, BHUBANESWAR
ELECTRICAL GRID
• An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering
electricity from producers to consumers.
• It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power,
high voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant
sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect
individual customers.
• The electricity grid is a complex and incredibly important system,
and one of the most impressive engineering feats of the modern
era.
• It transmits power generated at a variety of facilities and distributes
it to end users, often over long distances. It provides electricity to
buildings, industrial facilities, schools, and homes.
• And it does so every minute of every day, year-round.
SCEMATIC DIAGRAM OF ELECTRICAL GRID
Substation
Step Down
Transformer

Transmission lines:765/ 400/220/132 kV Sub-transmission


Customer 33kV

Generating
Station

Generating EHT Customer:


Step Up 400/220/132kV
Transformer
LT Customer
400V and 220V
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF OPTCL NETWORK

2x 67.5

6x135

RENGALI S/Y

C
C

JAYANAGAR UTKAL AL
C
INTRODUCTION
‘Transmission’ and ‘Grid Management’ are essential functions for smooth
evacuation of power from generating stations and delivery to the consumers.
Transmission function : Construction and maintenance of the transmission
infrastructure

Grid Management: to operate the transmission system by


• issuing operating instructions to the field
engineers through grid operator
• ensure moment-to-moment power balance in
the control area
• monitoring the power flow through the inter
connected transmission line.
takes care of the overall reliability, security,
economy and efficiency of the power system.
GRID MANAGEMENT FUNCTION

Functions of grid management: Three types namely

1. day ahead,
2. real-time
3. post-facto functions.

1. day ahead functions are more in the nature of planning for the day of
operation. It involves estimating the future load and generation scenarios,
planned outages of transmission elements, evaluating options and making
elaborate plans to meet the anticipated as well as unforeseen events.

2. real time functions are primarily balancing the dynamically varying supply
and demand of electrical energy in the control area and power flow through
the interconnected system.
GRID MANAGEMENT FUNCTION
Vital grid parameters such as frequency, bus voltages, transmission line
loading, transformer loading, electrical (angular) separation between
generation pocket and load centre etc. are monitored round the clock and
suitable instructions are passed on to the SLDCs / Discoms / Field
engineers or generating stations, in case, the values of the above
parameters are seen to be outside the permissible bands.

The operating band has been specified in the Indian Electricity Grid Code
(IEGC) / State Electricity Grid Code as the case may be. All this requires
extensive coordination with the operating personnel positioned at
switching stations, generator control rooms and other load dispatch
centres. Critical decisions have to be taken at the spur of the moment.

3. Post facto functions involve grid performance reporting, postmortem of


events, settlement of accounts, documentation of experience and
interaction with stakeholders.
GRID CONDITIONS
The complexity of the interconnected network & various power system
elements synchronized with the grid, influences the system parameters giving
rise to a dynamically varying system conditions.
These conditions are normal, alert, emergency, extreme and restorative. The
grid operator must be capable enough for maintaining the system in normal
condition for most of the time.
The system may change from a normal to alert, emergency or extreme
condition in fraction of seconds due to a small or large disturbances in the
system. Contingencies also disturb the grid parameters and call for immediate
operator intervention.
Normally, it takes a few minutes to restore the system back to normal
condition but during major disturbances it may take several hours or several
days to restore normalcy.
It is therefore essential that all precautions be taken to prevent the system from
converting to extreme condition, which requires suitable and timely
interventions by the system operator.
AID FOR GRID MANAGEMENT
To enhance the power system visibility and improve the quality of
supervision of grid operation on real time basis, the control rooms at the
national, regional and state level have been equipped with a state-of-the-art
communication and data acquisition system.

The vital system variables are measured by RTUs / transducers installed at


all the important locations. The recorded data is transmitted through
communication channels and ultimately displayed in the operator consoles
in the load despatch centres.

Communication System acts like the sensory organs of the grid operators
and helps them to diagnose the system condition and to take corrective
measures.

It also ensures transparency in grid operation and facilitates amicable


resolution of day-to-day problems associated with this complex task of grid
operation. The real time data is archived continuously and is later retrieved
for analysis of events occurring in the grid.
DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION
•Present power system network comprises of hundreds of Generating
units interconnected by transmission links at different voltage levels and
distribution network spread over vast geographical stretches.
•Power system is dynamic in nature by virtue of inherent characteristics
and continuous exposure to human, environmental and other physical
influences.
•Ensuring a reliable supply of electricity is enormously complex technical
challenge.
•To achieve a reliable & quality supply, the power system must be
operated within the prescribed standards.
•Can be achieved through extensive co-ordination between various Users
of the electricity supply chain such as Generators, Transmission &
Distribution Licensees.
•The System Operators at various control centres provide the co-
ordination services those are vital for operating the system within the
operating limits to ensure grid security.
OPTCL INTER-CONNECTED SYSTEM
KORBA / RAIGARH
(CHHATIS GARH)
VEDANTA
AAL 9x135 MW RAIGARH
DHARMAJAYAGARH
BHUSHAN 6x150 MW
VEDANTA RAIGARH
STEEL
BARGARH(N)
BOLANGIR(N) KATAPALI 1x40+1x60+1x130 RANCHI
+2x8=246 MW 4x600 MW
JAMSEDPUR
BOLANGIR PG OHPC
HIRAKUD
LAPANGA
2X49.5 MW JHARSUGUDA PG
2X32.8 MW BUDHIPADAR
RAIRAKHOL TISCO
SHYAM DRI 3X37.5 MW
OPGC JAMSEDPUR
1x 30 MW TARKERA TSIL
IB TPS BONEI BISRA 18.5+7.5 MW
DVC
2X210 MW
HINDALCO CHAINPAL
BARKOTE JSPL
ARYAN 1X67.5 MW NTPC JODA
ISPAT OHPC 3X100 MW KEONJHAR(PG)
ANGUL TTPS- I RC PUR
1x 18 MW CHIPILIMA
4X60 MW OSISL PALASPONGA
3X24 MW BOINDA CHANDIPOSH
NALCO 1 X 24 MW
OHPC KENDUPOSI
10X120 MW RAIRANGAPUR
U. INDRAVATI JITPL
KESINGA
4 X 150 MW 1x600 K.NAGAR BARIPADA(PG) BANGIRIPOSI
JSPL
6X 135 MW BHOGARAI
VAL OHPC
RENGALI OPCL
OHPC 3x30 MW INDRAVATI PG BARIPADA
4 X 5 MW
U. KOLAB ANGUL 5X50 MW JALESWAR
4 X 80 MW NTPC BALASORE
DUBURI BHADRAK
RENGALI PG TTPS II FACOR
MKD PANDIABILI 2X110 MW
THERUVALI DUBURI (N) 1 X 45 MW KHARGPUR
3x17+
3x23 OHPC
LAXMIPUR MERAMUNDALI PARADEEP
BALIMELA VISA
BHANJANAGAR
6 X 60+ RTFL 3 X 25 MW KOLAGHAT
SAMNAGARA IOCL JINDAL
2 X 75 MW
NAYAGARH IFFCO ESSAR STAINLESS
JAYANAGAR JAYANAGAR PG GMR 2x30 MW 2 X 125 MW
MENDHASAL NTPC 2 X 55 MW
2x350 STPS
MACHAKUND NARENDRAPUR BIDANASI 1x350
MEENAKSHI BSSL 6X500 MW
57.3 MW INFOCITY TATA
[50 % Share] 3X4 + 2X12.5 CHANDAKA (1x33+1x77+ 2x67.5 MW
ATRI
2x150+1x165=575
CUTTACK
CHOUDWAR MW
AARATI MERAMUNDALI
BPPL 1X40+1x50M SHALIVAHANA
2x67.5 W 1X20MW
SRIKAKULAM IMFA
MW
2X54+1x30+2x60 NBVL
MW 1X30+1x65 MW

U. SILERU

GAJUWAKA 15.04.2018
KOLAR HVDC
OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF SLDC
Facilitates: Integrated Grid operation for Quality, Security & Reliability of
power supply in the State of Odisha in coordination with
ERLDC.
Coordinates: Drawal schedule from State sector generators, CGPs,
Bilateral trading and Open Access.
Provides : A venue for intra and regional power exchange.
Telemeters : Live data from major generating plants and sub-stations in
the State
Issues : Clearance for outage of elements for maintenance work
including State sector Generators
Supplies : Management information about performance of system
operation
Monitors: Generation, power flow in major lines & tie lines frequency
and voltage & complies ISGS drawal schedule.
Endeavors: To maintain network security and grid discipline.
Ensures: Compliance of all directions issued by RLDC to STU /
Generating companies / any other licensee of the State
FREQUENCY CONTROL & LOAD GENERATION BALANCING

The State transmission system operates in synchronism with the


Central Synchronous Power System (in which all regions are
connected).
ERLDC is the Apex Body for operation of Eastern Regional Grid.
The constituents of the Eastern Region are required to follow the
instructions of ERLDC for safe and secure operation of the Regional
Grid.
SLDC shall accordingly instruct State Generating Units and CGPs to
regulate generation/export and hold reserves of active and
reactive power, within their respective declared parameters.

SLDC shall also regulate load and bilateral exchange as may be


necessary to meet this objective.
FREQUENCY CONTROL & LOAD GENERATION BALANCING
SLDC in co-ordination with ERLDC shall make all possible efforts to ensure
that the grid frequency always remains within the 49.90 to 50.05 Hz band.
Any frequency deviation beyond the normal range shall be jointly identified
by SLDC and ERLDC and appropriate action taken.
The SLDC/Distribution Licensee shall always endeavour to restrict the net-
drawl from the grid within the drawl schedule keeping the deviations from
the schedule within the limits specified in the appropriate Regulation.
The concerned Distribution Licensees/User, SLDC shall ensure that the
Automatic Demand Management Scheme (ADMS) mentioned in Clause
5.5(2) acts to ensure that there is no over-drawl.
SLDC shall explore and utilise internal generation capacity and then requisite
load shedding as agreed with Distribution Companies, shall be carried out in
the state by SLDC to maintain the net drawl schedule within the deviation
limit.
SLDC shall monitor actual Drawl against scheduled Drawl and regulate
internal generation/demand to maintain this schedule. Generators, CGPs and
bilateral Agencies shall follow the despatch instructions issued by SLDC.
Distribution companies and bilateral Agencies shall co-operate with SLDC in
managing load on instruction from SLDC as required.
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY SLDC

Day ahead generation planning and Load Generation Balance


keeping margin to meet the contingency conditions.

Installation of Automatic Demand Management Scheme (ADMS)


for isolation of pre-identified feeders.

Installation of df/dt relay

Since the frequency is a global parameter, the State has a very


little contribution . However, SLDC may utilize the frequency
variation for the State’s benefit by utilizing the hydro potential
available in the State.
VOLTAGE / REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT
In compliance to the OGC (Odisha Grid Code) clause no 6.3(6) all
Users shall make all possible efforts to ensure that the grid voltage
always remains within the following operating range
Nominal Maximum Minimum
(KV –Rms) (KV –Rms) (KV -Rms)
765 800 728
400 420 380
220 245 198
132 145 122

Odisha Grid has not a good spatial distribution of generation


rendering a fluctuated voltage profile across 220 kV network. In
some pockets of the system where radial loads are fed, low voltage
is experienced. Normally the 400kV system operates within the
prescribed voltage limit as specified in the OGC.
REASON OF HIGH / LOW VOLTAGE

However, in the event of low demand in Southern parts and high


hydro conditions, 220 kV substations like Jayanagar, Theruvali,
Narendrapur etc. experience high voltage. Further fluctuation of
400kV bus Voltage at Jeypore (PG) due to the low fault MVA and
connectivity of the HVDC station Gajuwaka is also the reason of
high and low 220 kV bus Voltage at southern Grid S/Ss. Any power
flow change associated with switching of filter banks operation in
Powergrid line render at times wide fluctuations in voltage at
400kV level.

On the other hand, due to high concentration of load in Central &


North Odisha, 220 kV voltages at Chandaka, Paradeep and Bhadrak
become low, particularly during summer peak.
MEASURES FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL
VAR Exchange by Customers for Voltage and Reactive Control
In line with clause 5.3(6) of OGC Reactive power compensation
should ideally be provided locally, by generating reactive power as
close to the reactive power consumption .The beneficiaries
(Distribution utility & other LTOA customers) are therefore expected
to provide local VAr compensation / generation such that they do not
draw VArs from the EHV grid, particularly under low Voltage
condition.
VAR generation / absorption by Generating Units
In order to improve the overall voltage profile, the state generators
shall run in a manner i.e generate / absorb VAr as per the instruction
of SLDC so as to have counter balancing action corresponding to
low/high backbone grid voltage and to bring it towards the nominal
value.
Transformer Taps
SLDC shall issue instruction to the grid S/Ss for changing of tap
position of power transformers to maintain the bus voltage within
the allowable limit.
MEASURES FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL
High Voltage Condition:
In the event of high voltage (e.g. 400 kV /220 kV voltage going
beyond 420 / 245 kV and having a rising trend) following specific
steps would be taken
• The bus reactor be switched in with the system
• The Generating units on bar at the stations in proximity to high
voltage areas, absorb reactive power within the limits of their
capability curves.
• Possibility of changing the transformer Tap
• Rerouting /change of power flow on transmission lines so that
loading on parallel EHV network can be altered that may result in
reduction in voltage.
• Opening one circuit of lightly loaded multi circuit lines around
the area /substation where high voltage is reported, ensuring
security of the balance network.
MEASURES FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL

Low Voltage Condition


In the event of low voltage(e.g. 400 kV/ 220 kV voltage going below
390 kV/ 198 kV and have a declining trend),
• Close the lines which were opened to control high voltage after
obtaining due permission from ERLDC/SLDCs.
• The bus reactor be switched out from the system
• All generating units on bar shall generate reactive power up to the
limits of their respective capability curves.
• Check the possibility of changing the transformer Tap if one side of
ICT is witnessing Low voltage while other side is having High
voltage
• Operate hydro generator for VAr generation i.e. at lagging p.f.
Flow gates and Congestion Management-1

The state of Odisha being strategically located, it is connected to


SR & WR and states like WB, DVC & Jharkhanda. In the state,
most of the major hydro stations are located in the southern part,
while all the thermal stations are located in the central and
western part, which is the load center as well. During monsoon
period there is a need to maximize hydro generation resulting
large quantum of power flow from the southern part to the load
center. In these periods some of the transmission lines are
critically loaded. Similarly, during summer season the hydro
potential in the state reduces considerably causing power flow
from the central part to the southern part of the state.
Flow gates and Congestion Management-2

The typical generation dispatch pattern during monsoon and summer,


demand scenarios within the state as well as of the neighboring states results
in congestion in some corridors of the State Network.

These congestions are well identified. The anticipated power flow pattern
along these flow gates has a direct impact on the Total Transfer Capability
(TTC) in different seasons. While carrying out the system studies for arriving
at the TTC and ATC figures anticipated flow pattern along these flow gates
need to be checked under and in real time require to be monitored for a
secured operation.

The various flow gates and their characteristics and actions required to be
taken by the system operators during congestions in these flow gates are
being monitored by the System Operator on real time basis
CONSTRAINTS IN TRANSMISSION NETWORK
It is imperative that the power exchanges of the state contained to a level of ATC
and in no case exceed the TTC of the state. All the users of state network and / or
neighboring state(s) will adhere to their levels of net interchanges as advised by
SLDC/ERLDC whenever such breach in TTC level among the states takes place
to ensure the grid security irrespective of frequency and schedule.

Assessment of Total Transfer Capability (TTC), Transmission Reliability


Margin (TRM) and Available Transfer Capability (ATC) for import and export
of power by the state as required for reliable system operation and for facilitating
non-discriminatory open access in transmission shall be carried out by SLDC in
coordination with Eastern Regional Load Despatch Centre.

The assessed TTC, TRM and ATC shall be posted on SLDC website.
The detailed procedure for assessment of TTC, monitoring and invoking
congestion conditions in real-time, application of Congestion Charge and
Congestion Charge accounting and settlement shall be as per the regulation /
procedure issued / approved by CERC
Critical Flow gates

The following transmission elements of OPTCL system


are prone to became congested at different power
generation scenarios and considered as critical,
which need to be monitored.

a.220 kV Budhipadar-Tarkera D/C:


b.220 kV Meramundali-Bhanjanagar DC
c.220 kV Mendhasal- Bhanjanagar DC
d.400/220 kV ICT at Mendhasal
e. 220 kV Jayanagar-Jeypore (PG) DC
POWER SECTOR REFORM

Formation of Orissa Electricity Regulatory Commission (OERC),


The apex body to regulate the activity of the utility as well as to
settle disputes between utilities.
1. Unbundling of Distribution, Generation & Transmission system
2. Issue of Licenses for Transmission, Trading & Distribution.
(Transmission License, Bulk Supply License & Retail License)
3. Set of Rules (Codes) agreed by all the users (Orissa Grid Code)
STATE POWER SECTOR

CSG/ISGS BSA
ABT

DISTCOS
OHPC PPA OPTCL
[TRANSMISSION LICENSEE]

PPA GRIDCO
OPGC [POWER PURCHASE & BULK SUPPLY]

PPA
OTHER STATES
IPP

LoI
CGP
CENTRAL POWER SECTOR

ISGS PPA ABT


ABT
SCHUDLE
STATE
ISGS PPA
POWERGRID
[CENTRAL TRANSMISSION
PPA LICENSEE]
ISGS
PPA
IPP Un Requisitioned
Surplus (URS)
POWER EXCHANGE POINTS OF OPTCL SYSTEM
VEDANTA JHARSUGUDA (PG)
INDRAVATI PG INDRAVATI PH

PANDIABIL(PG) I MENDHASAL
O MERAMUNDALI KANIHA
II
P MERAMUNDALI ANGUL (KANIHA)
PANDIABIL(PG) DUBURI (N)
BARIPADA (PG) DUBURI (N)
T MERAMUNDALI ANGUL (BOLANGIR)

BISHRA I TARKERA
C ATRI PANDIABILI
SAMANGARA PANDIABILI
II
L JODA (JSPL) JAMSEDPUR
KANIHA RENGALI PH

RENGALI PG I RENGALI S/Y


S JODA RCPUR
JAYANAGAR I JAYAPORE PG

KORBA
II
I BUDHIPADAR
Y II
KANIHA
MERAMUNDALI I
RAYGARH II
III
BUDHIPADAR S MERAMUNDALI II KANIHA
KATAPALI BOLANGIR PG
BARIPADA (PG) I
II
BALASORE T BOLANGIR NEW BOLANGIR PG

BARIPADA (PG) BARIPADA


E TTPS KANIHA
JODA KENDUPOSI
BARIPADA (PG)
BARIPADA (PG)
JALESWAR
BHOGARAI
M BANGIRIPOSI BARIPADA (PG)

LEGEND:
400 kV -
220 kV -
132 kV -
MONITORING OF DRAWAL

CENTRAL SECTOR
POWER

STATE

~
DEMAND GENERATION

32
POWER FLOW MECHANISM
Mapping from Financial Sector

•Money may be
deposited at any
location

•Withdrawal from
nearest source of
money

33
INSTALLED CAPACITY All Figures in MW
SL.NO. NAME OF POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY FIRM POWER (MW)
1 O.H.P.C.
HIRAKUD POWER STATION
(a)BURLA 2x49.5 = 99 134
2x32 = 64 220.5 Combined capacity of # 5&6 has been
derated to 20 MW as per OERC order
20+1x37.5 = 57.5

(b)CHIPLIMA 3x24 72
BALIMELA POWER HOUSE 6x60 + 2x75 510 135
RENGALI POWER HOUSE 5x50 250 60
UPPER KOLAB POWER HOUSE 4x80 320 95
INDRAVATI POWER HOUSE 4x150 600 224
MACHHKUND POWER HOUSE 3x17 = 51.00 36 30
( Orissa Share 30%, Purchase upto 20% extra) 3x23= 69
TOTAL HYDRO (A) 2008.5

2 N.T.P.C.(TAKEN OVER)
TTPS STAGE-I 4x60 = 240 160.2 160.2 (Auxilliary 10.5 %, Avalability
(Auxilliary 80%)
10.5 %,
Avalability
80%)
TTPS STAGE - II 2x110 = 220 146.85 146.85 (Auxilliary 10.5 %, Avalability
(Auxilliary 80%)
TOTAL TTPS 460
3 O.P.G.C.
IB TPS 2x210 = 420 342.09 342.09 (Auxilliary 9.5 %, Avalability
(Auxilliary 90%)
TOTAL THERMAL (B) 880
CENTRAL SECTOR SHARE
CENTRAL SECTOR GENERATION
SL.NO. NAME OF POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY OPTCL’S SHARE OF AUX. % AGE
INSTALLED CONS. AVAILABILITY
CAPACITY 0N (excluding UA)
REALTIME BASIS.

% age MW % %
1 CHUKHA (BHUTAN) 4 x 84 = 336 15.19 41.00
(Considering 270 MW, 85
total availability )
2 TALA(BHUTAN) 6 x 170 = 1020 4.25 43.40
3 FARAKKA (WEST BENGAL) 3 x 200 = 600 14.18 226.88 7.5 77.91
2 x 500 = 1000
1 x 500 = 500 17.06 85.75 85
4 KAHALGAON (BIHAR) 4 x 210 = 840 15.24 132.47 9 53.98
3 x 500 = 1500 2.05 39.30 9 62.11
5 TSTPP, KANIHA (ORISSA) 2 x 500 = 1000 32.26 323.40 7.5 85

4 x 500 = 2000 10 200.00 7.5


6 TISTA 3 x 170 = 510 20.59 105.00 85
7 BARH 2x660 12.57 195.23
TOTAL ISGS 1392.43
SMALL HYDRO & IPP

Sl.No POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY TOTAL TYPE VOLTAGE


LEVEL
IPP & SMALL HYDRO
1 MEENAKSHI POWER LTD. 3 X 4 + 2 X 12.5 37 SMALL HYDRO 132 kV
2 ORISSA POWER CONSORTIUM LTD. 4X5 20 SMALL HYDRO 132 kV
3 VEDANTA LTD., JHARSUGUDA(IPP) 1 X 600 600 THERMAL 400kV
4 GMR KAMALANGA ENERGY LTD. 3 X 350 1050 THERMAL 400kV
5 JITPL 2 X 600 1200 THERMAL 400kV
6 NBVL (MERAMUNDALI) 1 X 60=60 60 THERMAL 132 kV
TOTAL 2967
RENEWABLE SOURCES
Sl.No POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY TOTAL TYPE CONNECTIVITY
VOLTAGE
1 ABACUS HOLDINGS PVT. LTD, SONEPUR 1 MW 1 SOLAR 11 KV
2 AFTAAB SOLAR PVT. LTD. ,BOLANGIR (N) 5 MW 5 SOLAR 33 KV
3 ALEX GREEN ENERGY PVT LTD. PATNAGARH 5 MW 5 SOLAR 33 kV
4 JAY IRON & STEEL, BAMARA 1 MW 1 SOLAR 11 KV
5 J.K. PAPER LTD., THERUVALI 25 MW 25 BIOMASS 132 KV
6 M.G.M. GREEN ENERGY., CHANDPUR 1 MW 1 SOLAR 11 KV
7 MOLISATI VINIMAY PVT. LTD. BARKOTE 1 MW 1 SOLAR 11 KV
8 OCL SOLAR, SALIPUR 2.5 mw 2.5 SOLAR SELF 132 kV
9 VIVACITY R.E PVT. LTD , CHANDPUR 1 MW 1 SOLAR 11 KV
10 RAAJRATNA ENERGY PVT. LTD. BOLANGIR (N) 1 MW 1 SOLAR 11 KV
11 S. N. MOHANTY, BARANGA 1 MW 1 SOLAR 11 KV
12 SHALIVAHAN GREEN ENERGY LTD. 20 MW 20 BIOMASS 132 KV
13 MAHAVIR FERRO ALLOYS (SOLAR), RKL 1 MW 1 SOLAR 33 KV
14 MCL, BURLA, KATAPALI 2 MW 2 SOLAR SELF 11 kV
15 ACME SOLAR, MURSING, BOLANGIR-SAINTALA 25 MW 25 SOLAR 132 kV
16 GEDCOL, MANMUNDA, SONEPUR 20 MW 20 SOLAR 33 kV
17 JYOTI SOLAR SOLUTIONS(P) LTD 10 MW 10 SOLAR 33 kV
18 SADIPALI SOLAR 20 MW 20 SOLAR 33 kV
TOTAL 142.5
CAPTIVE GENERATION
Sl.No POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY TOTAL TYPE VOLTAGE
LEVEL
1 AARATI STEEL GHANTIKHAL 1 X 40 + 1 X 50 90 THERMAL 132 kV
2 ACC, BARGARH 1 X 30 30 THERMAL 132 kV
3 ACTION ISPAT & POWER PVT. LTD. 1 X 12 + 1 X 25 + 1 X 43 80 THERMAL 132 kV
4 ARYAN ISPAT & POWER PVT. LTD. 1 X 18 18 THERMAL 132 kV
5 ADITYA ALUMINIUM Ltd 4 X 150 600 THERMAL 220 kV
6 BHUBANESWAR POWER PVT. LTD. 2 X 67.5 135 THERMAL 132 kV
7 BHUSAN STEEL LTD.,MERAMUNDALI 1 X 33+1 X 77+ 2 X 150+2 X 165 740 THERMAL 220 kV
8 BHUSAN POWER & STEEL LTD, 1X60 + 1X40 +3X130 + 2 X 8 506 THERMAL 220 kV
9 EMAMI PAPER MILLS. 1 X 15 + 1 X 5 20 THERMAL 132 kV
10 ESSAR POWER LTD 2x30 60 THERMAL 220 kV
10 FACOR POWER 1X 45 45 THERMAL 132 kV
11 HPCL(HINDALCO),(HIRAKUD) 1 X 67.5 + 3 X 100 367.5 THERMAL 132 kV
12 IMFA( CHOUDWAR ) 2 X 54 + 1 X 30 + 2 X 60 258 THERMAL 132 kV
13 IFFCO (PARADEEP) 2 X 55 110 THERMAL 132 kV
14 JINDAL STAINLESS LTD., DUBURI 2 X 125 + 1 X 13 263 THERMAL 220 kV
15 JINDAL STEEL & POWER LTD., ANGUL 6 X 135 810 THERMAL 220 kV
16 NINL ( DUBURI ) 2 X 19.25 + 1 X 24 62.5 THERMAL 220 kV
17 MAHAVIR FERRO ALLOYS PVT. LTD. 1 X 12 12 THERMAL 33 kV
18 MAITHAN ISPAT NIGAM LTD., Jajpur Rd 1 X 30 30 THERMAL 220 kV
19 MSP METTALLICS LTD. 1 X 25 25 THERMAL 132 kV
20 NALCO( ANGUL ) 10 X 120 1200 THERMAL 220 kV
21 NALCO( DAMANJODI ) 18.5 X 4 74 THERMAL 132 kV
22 NARBHERAM POWER & STEEL PVT. 1X8 8 THERMAL 132 kV
23 LTD.
NBVL (MERAMUNDALI) 1 X 30 + 1X 64 94 THERMAL 132 kV
24 OCL INDIA LTD., RAJGANGPUR 2 X 27 54 THERMAL 132 kV
25 OISL, RAJGANGPUR 1 X 35 35 THERMAL 132 kV
25 ORISSA SPONGE IRON & STEEL LTD. 1 X 24 24 THERMAL 132 kV
26 PATTANAIK STEEL, (KEONJHAR) 1 X 15 15 THERMAL 33 kV
27 RATHI STEEL & POWER LTD. (Katapalli) 1 X 20 20 THERMAL 33 kV
28 RSP( ROURKELA ) 2 X 60 + 4 X 25 220 THERMAL 220 kV
29 SEVEN STAR STEELS LTD. 1X8 8 THERMAL 33 kV
30 SHYAM DRI, (PANDOLI, SAMBALPUR) 1 X 30 30 THERMAL 132 kV
31 SMC POWER GENERATION LTD. 1 X 8 + 1 X 25 33 THERMAL 132 kV
32 SREE GANESH 1 X 32 32 THERMAL 132 kV
33 TATA SPONGE IRON (JODA) 1 X 18.5 + 1 X 7.5 26 THERMAL 220 kV
34 TATA POWER & STEEL, (K NAGAR) 2 X 67.5 135 THERMAL 220 kV
35 VEDANTA LTD.(SEZ),JHARSUGUDA 3 X 600 1800 THERMAL 400 kV
36 VEDANTA (JHARSUGUDA)) 9 X 135 1215 THERMAL 220 kV
37 VEDANTA (LANJIGARH) 3 X 30 90 THERMAL 132 kV
38 VISA STEEL LTD., (NEW DUBURI) 3 X 25 75 THERMAL 220 kV
39 YAZDANI STEEL & POWER. 1 X 10 10 THERMAL 33 kV
TOTAL 9460
PEAK & AVERAGE DEMAND
FOR FY 2016-17 (3071 MW)

5000

4500

4000
DEMAND IN MW

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
Apr'16 May'16 June'16 July'16 Aug'16 Sept'16 Oct'16 Nov'16 Dec'16 Jan'17 Feb'17 March'17
Peak 4082 4025 4049 4124 4166 3969 4051 3921 3984 3896 3960 4551
Average 3258 3159 3205 3253 3173 3147 3066 2800 2740 2859 2951 3237
PEAK & AVERAGE DEMAND
FOR FY 2017-18 (3317 MW)
5000

4500

4000
DEMAND IN MW

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
Apr'17 May'17 June'17 July'17 Aug'17 Sept'17 Oct'17 Nov'17 Dec'17 Jan'18 Feb'18 March'18
Peak 4281 4203 4008 4271 4225 4472 4685 4122 4236 4260 4277 4617
Average 3489 3451 3177 3318 3385 3593 3607 2961 2929 3113 3282 3498
ELECTRICITY GRID IN INDIA
‘Electricity grid’ in India evolved from small state system in 1960s to regional
grids in 1980s and finally to a national grid in 2013.

Five electrical regions in the country namely, Northern, Eastern, Western, North
Eastern and Southern, divided geographically. All the states and union territories
in India comes under either of these regions.

Grid Management in India is carried out on national / regional / State basis. All
the regions except Southern region were operated in a synchronous mode prior
to 31st December 2013 forming NEW grid.

Southern region was synchronized to the NEW grid on 31st December 2013
through 765 kV single circuit Sholapur-Raichur line. Thus, the mission of ‘One
Nation – One Grid – One Frequency’ has been successfully accomplished.”
Electricity can flow seamlessly across all the regions as per the relative load
generation balance.
ELECTRICAL REGIONS
States under-

NR – J&K, H.P, Punjab,


Hariyana, Rajstan, Delhi, U.P,
Uttaranchal

WR – Gujrat, Maharastra,
Goa, M.P, Chatisgarh

SR – Karnataka, A.P,
Tamilnadu, Kerala,
Pandicheri

ER – Orissa, Bihar,
Jharkhanda, W.B, Sikkim.

NER- Meghalaya,
Arunanchal Prades, Assam,
Nagaland, Manipur,
Mizoram, Tripur
FORMATION OF NATIONAL GRID
CAPACITY- 3,44,002.39 MW
3,916.63 MW
AS ON 31.03.2018

92,967.45 MW 33,402.16 MW NE
N

Power Supplier
1,11,148.99 MW

W ISLANDS- 52.61 MW

S
1,02,514.57 MW
CAPTIVE- 40,726 MW
250000
ALL INDIA INSTALLED CAPACITY
222906.59

200000

150000
MW

100000
69022.39
45293.42 40726
50000

6780
0
Thermal Nuclear Hydro RES Captive
REGIONAL LOAD – CHARACTERISTICS

NR- Deficit in generation, High demand & adverse weather condition

NER- Low demand, High hydro potential

ER- Growing demand, High coal reserve, Base load plants

WR- Deficit region, High industrial demand

SR- High demand, Hydro potential


FORMATION OF NATIONAL GRID
Due to synchronization of ER-NER-WR-NR with SR, the National Grid
was formed.
At present a 3,30,860 MW (approx) capacity Grid is operating in a single
integrated network.

Hundred thousands Tone of rotor mass (inertia) starting from Arunchal to


Maharastra are connected to the Grid.

Thousands of rotors are rotating in the same speed (Frequency) connected


by thousand Kms of transmission network.

Diversity – Temperature (10-40 degree), Agriculture & Festival

GRID- Largest Electrical Machine, created by human being, operated by


many (thousands) operators.
HIERARCHY OF LOAD DESPATCHING
Each region has a Regional Load Despatch Centre (RLDC) and every
state has a State Load Despatch Centre (SLDC).
The RLDCs and SLDCs are the apex body to ensure integrated operation
of the power system in their respective Regions and States. The RLDCs
for North, East, West, South and Northeast regions are located at Delhi,
Kolkatta, Mumbai, Bangalore and Shillong respectively
The RLDCs coordinate amongst themselves both off line as well as online
for maintaining the security and stability of the integrated pan-India grid.
RLDCs are managed and operated by Power System Operation
Corporation Ltd (POSOCO), a wholly owned subsidiary of
POWERGRID, the Central Transmission Utility (CTU),
SLDCs in the state are owned operated and managed by the respective
State Transmission Utility (STU) or the State Electricity Board (SEB) as
the case may be.
The National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC), under POSOCO is the apex
body for optimum scheduling and despatch of electricity across various
regions and also coordinating cross border energy exchanges in real time.
HIERARCHY OF GRID OPERATION

NLDC

RLDC
RLDC
RLDC

RLDC RLDC

State Grid SLDC


SLDC SLDC SLDC SLDC
SLDC SLDC SLDC SLDC
STATE LOAD DESPATCH CENTER (SLDC)

Section 32(1), Electricity Act 2003:

“The State Load Despatch Centre shall be the apex


body to ensure integrated operation of the power
system in a State”
FUNCTIONS OF SLDC
Section 32 (2), EA 2003:

The State Load Despatch Centre shall -


(a) be responsible for optimum scheduling and despatch of electricity
within a State, in accordance with the contracts entered into withthe
licensees or the generating companies operating in that State;
(b) monitor grid operations;
(c) keep accounts of the quantity of electricity transmitted through the
State grid;
(d) exercise supervision and control over the intra-state transmission
system; and
(e) be responsible for carrying out real time operations for grid control
and despatch of electricity within the State through secure and
economic operation of the State grid in accordance with the Grid
Standards and the State Grid Code
REGIONAL LOAD DESPATCH CENTER(RLDC)

Section 28(1), Electricity Act 2003:

“The Regional Load Despatch Centre shall be


the apex body to ensure integrated operation
of the power system in the concerned region”
FUNCTIONS OF RLDCS
Section 28 (3), EA 2003:

The Regional Load Despatch Centre shall -


(a) be responsible for optimum scheduling and despatch of electricity
within the region, in accordance with the contracts entered
into with the licensees or the generating companies operating in the
region;
(b) monitor grid operations;
(c) keep accounts of the quantity of electricity transmitted through the
regional grid;
(d) exercise supervision and control over the inter-State transmission
system; and
(e) be responsible for carrying out real time operations for grid control
and despatch of electricity within the region through secure and
economic operation of the regional grid in accordance with the
Grid Standards and the Grid Code
NATIONAL LOAD DESPATCH CENTER (NLDC)

Section 26(1), Electricity Act 2003:

“The Central Government may establish a centre at the national level, to


be known as the National Load Despatch Centre for optimum scheduling
and despatch of electricity among the Regional Load Despatch Centres”
FUNCTIONS OF NLDC (1)
National Load Despatch Center 2004 (Gazette Notification dated 7-Mar-05):
National Load Dispatch Centre (NLDC) is the apex body to ensure integrated
operation of the national power system. The main responsibilities of NLDC
are:
(a) Supervision Over the Regional Load Despatch Centres.
(b) Scheduling and dispatch of electricity over the inter-regional links in
accordance with grid standards specified by the authority and grid code
specified by Central Commission in coordination with Regional Load
Dispatch Centres.
(c) Coordination with Regional Load Dispatch Centres for achieving
maximum economy and efficiency in the operation of National Grid.
(d) Monitoring of operations and grid security of the National Grid.
(e)Supervision and control over the inter-regional links as may be required
for ensuring stability of the power system under its control.
(f) Coordination with Regional Power Committees for regional outage
schedule in the national perspective to ensure optimal utilization of power
resources.
FUNCTIONS OF NLDC (2)
National Load Despatch Center 2004 (Gazette Notification dated 7-Mar-05):

(g) Coordination with Regional Load Dispatch Centres for the energy
accounting of inter-regional exchange of power.
(h) Coordination for restoration of synchronous operation of national grid
with Regional Load Dispatch Centres.
(i) Coordination for trans-national exchange of power.
(j) Providing Operational feedback for national grid planning to the
Authority and Central Transmission Utility.
(k) Levy and collection of such fee and charges from the generating
companies or licensees involved in the power system, as may be specified
by the Central Commission.
(l) Dissemination Of information relating to operations of transmission
system in accordance with directions or regulations issued by Central
Government from time to time.
JURISDICTION OF LOAD DESPATCH CENTERS
NLDC:
Apex body to ensure integrated
operation of National Power System

RLDC:
Apex body to ensure integrated
operation of power system in the
concerned region

SLDC:
Apex body to ensure integrated
operation of power system in a state
LDCs AS SYSTEM OPERATOR
• Responsible for Secure and Reliable operation
• Increased complexity due to
– Fast growth - Interconnection size
– System inadequacies - Deployment of new technology
– Diversity - Increased frequency of natural calamities
– Number of Utilities
• Future challenges
– Deployment of new technology
– Wide Area Measurement - Intelligent grid
– Distributed Generation - Sabotage
– Cyber security
• Essential requirements at LDCs
– Technical know how - Experience
– Situational Awareness - Precision -Response time
LDCs AS MARKET OPERATOR
• Energy scheduling
• Open Access, Market Information System
• Metering, Energy Accounting, Settlement
• Pool account administration
• Increased complexity due to
– Increased number of players, Freedom and choice
– Evolving market mechanisms, regulations
– Commercial consciousness and Time constrained activity
• Vital elements
– Non-discriminatory and transparent approach
– Efficient and professional handling of market mechanisms
OTHER ROLES OF LDCs
• LDCs as agent for economy and efficiency
– Merit order scheduling
– Energy conservation, Demand Side Management
– Reactive power management, Transmission loss optimisation
– Exploiting arbitrage opportunities
• LDCs as change agents in reform process
– Implementation of new mechanisms
– Proposals for system improvement
– Consensus building
• LDCs for feedback to
– Policy makers, Regulators, Planners, Technologists, Educational institutions
COMPLIANCES OF SLDC DIRECTIONS

Section 33, EA 2003:

(1) The State Load Despatch Centre in a State may give such directions
and exercise such supervision and control as may be required for
ensuring the integrated grid operations and for achieving the maximum
economy and efficiency in the operation of power system in that State.

(2) Every licensee, generating company, generating station, substation


and any other person connected with the operation of the power system
shall comply with the direction issued by the State Load Despatch Centre
under subsection (1)
COMPLIANCES OF SLDC DIRECTIONS

Section 33, EA 2003:

(4) If any dispute arises with reference to the quality of electricity or


safe, secure and integrated operation of the State grid or in relation to any
direction given under sub-section (1) , it shall be referred to the State
Commission for decision:
Provided that pending the decision of the State Commission, the direction
of the State Load Despatch Centre shall be complied with by the licensee
or generating company

(5) If any licensee, generating company or any other person fails to


comply with the directions issued under sub-section(1), he shall be liable
to penalty not exceeding rupees five lacs.
COMPLIANCES OF RLDC DIRECTIONS

Section 29, EA 2003:

(1) The Regional Load Despatch Centre may give such directions and
exercise such supervision and control as may be required for ensuring
stability of grid operations and for achieving the maximum economy and
efficiency in the operation of the power system in the region under its
control.

(2) Every licensee, generating company, generating station, substation and


any other person connected with the operation of the power system shall
comply with the direction issued by the Regional Load Despatch Centres
under sub-section (1).
COMPLIANCES OF RLDC DIRECTIONS
Section 29, EA 2003:
(3) All directions issued by the Regional Load Despatch Centres to
any transmission licensee of State transmission lines or any other licensee
of the State or generating company (other than those connected to inter
State transmission system) or sub-station in the State shall be issued
through the State Load Despatch Centre and the State Load Despatch
Centres shall ensure that such directions are duly complied with the
licensee or generating company or sub-station.
(5) If any dispute arises with reference to the quality of electricity or safe,
secure and integrated operation of the regional grid or in relation to any
direction given under sub-section (1), it shall be referred to the Central
Commission for decision :
Provided that pending the decision of the Central Commission, the
directions of the Regional Load Despatch Centre shall be complied with
by the State Load Despatch Centre or the licensee or the generating
company, as the case may be.
(6) If any licensee, generating company or any other person fails to
comply with the directions issued under sub-section (2) or sub-section (3),
he shall be liable to penalty not exceeding rupees fifteen lacs.
AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF
INTRODUCTION

Availability Base Tariff is a self disciplinary


mechanism applicable to the generators as well as
buyers / beneficiaries to maintain the committed
generation or drawal through schedule. Aim of ABT is
to maintain the system frequency within the standard
Operating band as decided by the CERC.
CONVENTIONAL TARIFF
The generators have to recover their investment through selling
energy at a tariff determined by the appropriate commission. The
fixed and variable costs are being considered while determining
the tariff.
The fixed cost elements are interest on loan, return on equity,
depreciation, O&M expenses, insurance, taxes and interest on
working capital.
The variable cost comprises of the fuel cost, i.e., coal and oil in
case of thermal plants and nuclear fuel in case of nuclear plants.
This mechanism shall not provide any incentive for backing
down or enhancement of generation as per the grid demand,
rather encourages to generate more power to reduce the unit cost
of power generation.
WHY AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF
Prior to the introduction of Availability Tariff, the regional grids had
been operating in a very undisciplined and haphazard manner. There
were large deviations in frequency from the rated frequency of 50.00
cycles per second (Hz). In the earlier tariff mechanism, it was
profitable to go on generating at a high level irrespective of the
demand.
Low frequency : total generation available in the grid is less than the
total consumer load.
High frequency : total generation available is more than the consumer
load. The reason being insufficient backing down of generation when
the total consumer load has fallen during off-peak hours.
The issue can be addressed by:
•backing down generation during off-peak hours
•enhancing generation during peak-load hours or reducing consumer
load.
AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF-1
In the Availability Tariff mechanism, the fixed and variable cost
components are treated separately
The payment of fixed cost to the generating company is linked to
availability of the plant, that is, its capability to deliver MWs on
a day-by-day basis Hence the name ‘Availability Tariff’. This is
the first component of Availability Tariff, and is termed ‘capacity
charge’.
The second component of Availability Tariff is the ‘energy
charge’, which comprises of the variable cost of the power plant
for generating energy as per the drawal schedule by the
beneficiary / buyer for the day. The energy charge is not based
on actual generation and plant output, but on scheduled
generation.
The third component is the deviation charges for the deviation of
generation or drawal from the schedule, at a rate depending on
system frequency.
AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF-2
In case there are deviations from the schedule (e.g., if a power
plant delivers 600 MW while it was scheduled to supply only
500 MW), the energy charge payment would still be for the
scheduled generation (500 MW),

The excess generation(100 MW) would get paid for at a rate


dependent on the system conditions prevailing at the time.
If the grid has surplus power at the time and frequency is above
50.0 cycles, the rate would be lower. If the excess generation
takes place at the time when the frequency would be below 50.0
cycles, the payment for extra generation would be at a higher
rate.
AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF-3

Availability Tariff comprises of three components:

(a) capacity charge, towards reimbursement of the fixed cost of


the plant, linked to the plant's declared capacity to supply
MWs,
(b) Energy charge, to reimburse the fuel cost for scheduled
generation, and
(c) A payment for deviations from schedule, at a rate dependent
on system conditions. The last component would be negative
(indicating a payment by the generator for the deviation) in
case the power plant is delivering less power than scheduled.
BENEFITS OF AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF-1
Providing incentives for enhancing output capability of power plants,
enables more consumer load to be met during peak load hours.
Backing down during off-peak hours no longer results in financial loss
to generating stations
Merit order and most economic generation is encouraged as a result of
which low cost power gets a priority in generation.
The shares of beneficiaries in the Central generating stations acquire a
meaning, which was previously missing.
The beneficiaries now have well-defined entitlements, and are able to
draw power up to the specified limits at normal rates of the respective
power plants.
Discourages over drawal at low frequency rather encourages under
drawal through incentive at low frequency condition.
BENEFITS OF AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF-2
The mechanism has dramatically streamlined the operation of regional
grids in India.
Firstly, through the system and procedure in place, constituents’
schedules get determined as per their shares in Central stations, and
they clearly know the implications of deviating from these schedules.
Any constituent which helps others by under-drawal from the regional
grid in a deficit situation, gets compensated at a good price for the
quantum of energy under-drawn.
Secondly, the grid parameters, i.e., frequency and voltage, have
improved, and equipment damage correspondingly reduced. During
peak load hours, the frequency can be improved only by reducing
drawls, and necessary incentives are provided in the mechanism for the
same.
High frequency situation on the other hand, is being checked by
encouraging reduction in generation during off-peak hours.
BENEFITS OF AVAILABILITY BASE TARIFF-3

Thirdly, because of clear separation between fixed and variable


charges, generation according to merit-order is encouraged and pithead
stations do not have to back down normally. The overall generation
cost accordingly comes down.
Fourthly, a mechanism is established for harnessing captive and co-
generation and for bilateral trading between the constituents.
Lastly, Availability Tariff, by rewarding plant availability, enables
more consumer load to be catered at any point of time.
DEVIATION CHARGES
Average Frequency of the Charges for Average Frequency of Charges for
time block Deviation the time block Deviation
Below Not below Paise/kWh Below Not below Paise/kWh
- 50.05 0.00 49.87 49.86 469.76
50.05 50.04 35.60 49.86 49.85 490.60
50.04 50.03 71.20 49.85 49.84 511.44
50.03 50.02 106.80 49.84 49.83 532.28
50.02 50.01 142.40 49.83 49.82 553.12
50.01 50.00 178.00 49.82 49.81 573.96
50.00 49.99 198.84 49.81 49.80 594.80
49.99 49.98 219.68 49.80 49.79 615.64
49.98 49.97 240.52 49.79 49.78 636.48
49.97 49.96 261.36 49.78 49.77 657.32
49.96 49.95 282.20 49.77 49.76 678.16
49.95 49.94 303.04 49.76 49.75 699.00
49.94 49.93 323.88 49.75 49.74 719.84
49.93 49.92 344.72 49.74 49.73 740.68
49.92 49.91 365.56 49.73 49.72 761.52
49.91 49.90 386.40 49.72 49.71 782.36
49.90 49.89 407.24 49.71 49.70 803.20
49.89 49.88 428.08 49.70 - 824.04
49.88 49.87 448.92 - - -
DEVIATION CHARGES VECTOR
900.00
<49.7
850.00 49.7
803 p/kWh 803 p/KWh
800.00
750.00
700.00
650.00
600.00
550.00 20. 84/KWh/
0.01 step
500.00
450.00
400.00
350.00
50.00,
300.00 178 p/kWh
250.00
200.00 35.60/KWh/
IEGC BAND
150.00 49.9-50.05 Hz 0.01 step

100.00
50.00
0.00
49.66 49.68 49.70 49.72 49.74 49.76 49.78 49.80 49.82 49.84 49.86 49.88 49.90 49.92 49.94 49.96 49.98 50.00 50.02 50.04 50.06
Highlights of deviation charges
Charges for deviation for each 0.01 Hz step is equivalent to 35.60 Paise/kWh in the
frequency range of 50.05-50.00 Hz, and 20.84Paise/kWh in frequency range below
50 Hz to below 49.70 Hz
Provided that
(i) The charges for the Deviation for the generating stations regulated by
Commission using coal or lignite or gas supplied under Administered Price
Mechanism (APM) as fuel, when actual injection is higher or lower than the
scheduled generation, shall not exceed the Cap Rate of 303.04 Paise/kWh.
(ii) Provided that no cap rate shall be applicable with effect from the date of
revision of price of APM gas by Govt. of India on the charges for the Deviation
for the generating stations regulated by consumer using gas supplied under
Administered Price Mechanism (APM) as the fuel.
(iii) the charges for the Deviation for the under drawal by the buyer in a time block
in excess of 12% of the schedule or 150 MW, whichever is less, shall be zero.
(iv) the charges for the Deviation for the over-injection by the seller in a time block
in excess of 12% of the schedule or 150 MW, whichever is less, shall be zero,
except in case of injection of infirm power by a generating station during
testing prior to COD for a period not exceeding six months.
Limits on Deviation volume
(1) The over-drawals / under drawals of electricity by any buyer
during a time block shall not exceed 12% of its scheduled
drawal or 150 MW, whichever is lower, when grid frequency
is “49.70”Hz and above"

Provided that no over drawal of electricity by any buyer shall


be permissible when grid frequency is “below 49.70 Hz”.

(2)The under-injection / over-injection of electricity by a seller


during a time-block shall not exceed 12% of the scheduled
injection of such seller or 150 MW, whichever is lower when
frequency is “49.70 Hz and above”
Limits on Deviation Volume-2
Provided that–
(i) no under injection of electricity by a seller shall be
permissible when grid frequency is "below 49.70 Hz” and no
over injection of electricity by a seller shall be permissible
when grid frequency is "50.10 Hz and above”.

(ii) any infirm injection of power by a generating station prior to


COD of a unit during testing and commissioning activities
shall be exempted from the volume limit specified above for
a period not exceeding 6 months or the extended time
allowed by the Commission in accordance with the
Connectivity Regulations.

(iii) any drawal of power by a generating station prior to COD of


a unit for the startup activities shall be exempted from the
volume limit specified above when grid frequency is “49.70
Hz and above”.
Additional Charges for Deviation
Over drawal by Buyer or under injection by seller when grid frequency is 49.7 and above

When 12 % of schedule is < or= 150 MW


Over drawal / under injection in excess of 12% up 20 % of charges for deviation corresponding to
to 15% of schedule the block frequency . 20 % of cap rate of 303.04
paise/ Kwh for sellers whichever is less.
Over drawal / under injection in excess of 15% up 40 % of the charges for deviation corresponding
to 20% of schedule to the block frequency. 40 % of cap rate of
303.04 paise/ Kwh for sellers whichever is less.

Over drawal / under injection in excess of 20 % 100 % of the charges for deviation corresponding
to the block frequency. 100 % of cap rate of
303.04 paise/ Kwh for sellers whichever is less.

When 12 % of schedule is > 150 MW


Over drawal / under injection in excess of 150 MW 20 % of charges for deviation corresponding to
up to 200 MW the block frequency . 20 % of cap rate of 303.04
paise / Kwh for sellers whichever is less.
Over drawal / under injection in excess of 200 MW 40 % of charges for deviation corresponding to
up to 250 MW the block frequency. 40 % of cap rate of 303.04
paise / Kwh for sellers whichever is less.
Over drawal / under injection in excess of 250 MW 100 % of charges for deviation corresponding to
the block frequency . 100 % of cap rate of 303.04
paise / Kwh for sellers whichever is less.
Additional Charges for Deviation
Provided that –
(i) Additional Charge for Deviation for under-Injection of electricity, during
a time-block in excess of the volume limit specified when grid frequency
is “49.70 Hz and above”, by the generating stations regulated by the
CERC using fuel supplied under APM shall be as a percentage of the Cap
Rate or the Charges for Deviation corresponding to the grid frequency
of the time block, or both with due consideration to the behavior of the
generating stations regulated by CERC towards grid discipline:

(ii) Any drawal of power by a generating station prior to COD of a unit for
the start up activities shall be exempted from the levy of additional
Charges of Deviation.

(iii) Additional charge for deviation shall be applicable for over-


injection/under drawal of electricity for each time block by a
seller/buyer as the case may be when grid frequency is ‟50.10 Hz and
above” at the rates equivalent to charges of deviation corresponding to
the grid frequency of “below 50.01 Hz but not below 50.0 Hz”.
Additional Charges for Deviation

Additional Charge for Deviation shall be applicable for over-


drawal or under-injection of electricity when grid frequency is
“below 49.70 Hz‟ shall be equivalent to 100% of the Charge for
Deviation of 824.04 Paise/kWh corresponding to the grid
frequency of "below 49.70 Hz".

Provided further that Additional Charge for Deviation for under-


Injection of electricity by a seller, when grid frequency is “below
49.70 Hz”, by the generating stations using fuel under APM shall
be equivalent to 100% of the Cap Rate for Deviations of 303.04
Paise/kWh.
Sustained Deviation
In the event of sustained deviation from schedule in one
direction (positive or negative) by any regional entity, such
regional entity (buyer or seller) shall have to make sign of their
deviation from schedule changed, at least once, after every 12
time blocks.

To illustrate, if a regional entity has positive deviation from


schedule from 07.30 hrs to 10.30 hrs, sign of its deviation from
schedule shall be changed in the 13th time block i.e. 10.30 to
10.45 hrs from positive to negative or negative to positive as the
case may be.
Role of RLDC
The Regional Load Despatch Centre shall, on monthly basis,
prepare and publish on its website the records of the Deviation
Accounts, specifying the quantum of over-drawal/ under-
injection and corresponding amount of Charges for Deviation
payable / receivable for each buyer and seller for all the time-
blocks when grid frequency was "49.90 Hz and above" and
"below 49.90“ Hz” separately.

All payments on account of Charges for Deviation including


Additional Charges for Deviation levied under these regulations
and interest, if any, received for late payment shall be credited
to the funds called the “Regional Deviation Pool Account Fund”,
which shall be maintained and operated by the concerned
Regional Load Despatch Centre in each region in accordance
with provisions of these regulations.
Application of deviation fund

The surplus amount, if any in the Deviation Pool Account


Fund as on last day of the month, shall be transferred to a
separate fund namely "Power Systems Development Fund"
specified by the Commission in the first week of the next
month and shall be utilized, for the purpose specified by the
Commission.
Open Access
WHEELING OF ELECTRICITY

132 kV

33 kV
Transmission
System 33 kV

220 kV 11 kV
11 kV
m
m
440V
Generating Distribution
Station System 87
Consumer
STRUCTURE OF POWER SYSTEM

The electrical power system mainly consists of:


•Generation, Transmission and Distribution.
•There are many PSUs and private owned generating stations
generates electricity.
•The electrical transmission system is mainly carried out by
State Transmission Utility within the State and by Central
Transmission Utility (PGCIL) in side the country.
•Further, every state is having a SLDC (state load dispatch
centre) for operation of the State transmission system.
•The distribution business is carried out by the distribution
companies (DISCOMS) operating in the State / SEBs (State
electricity board.).
INTRODUCTION
Electrical energy is most useful form of energy because it can
be most conveniently transformed into other forms of energy
like heat light, mechanical energy that we require in our day
to day life.

Introduction of Open Access in the power system facilitates


transporting and selling of Electricity like any other
commodities from the source (Generation) to the destination
of use (consumer point) irrespective of the location or
connectivity.
Open Access in a simpler form is allowing access for use of
Transmission / Distribution assets by the intending user for
transmission of Electricity.
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OPEN ACCESS- TYPES
Inter State Open Access:
Seeking Access for use of the Inter-State transmission assets by the Open
Access Customer for power flow to any State / Region. This will be
guided by the Regulation notified by the Central Electricity Regulatory
Commission.

Intra State Open Access:


Seeking Access for use of the Intra-State transmission and / or
Distribution assets by the Open Access Customer for power flow to any
location within the State periphery. This will be guided by the Regulation
notified by the Odisha Electricity Regulatory Commission.
DEFINITION OF “OPEN ACCESS” IN THE
ELECTRICITY ACT, 2003

The Electricity Act 2003 is one of the landmark legislations in


India that made openings in the power sector to a number of
players by laying down provisions for a power market and
competition. Clause (47)of Section 2 of Electricity Act, 2003
defines “Open Access” as :

“Non-discriminatory provision for the use of transmission lines


or distribution system or associated facilities with such lines or
system by any licensee or consumer or a person engaged in
generation in accordance with the regulations specified by the
Appropriate Commission”.
OPEN ACCESS REGULATION
Section 178 of Electricity Act 2003.
CERC issued the (Open Access in Inter-State Transmission)
Regulation, 2004 on 30.01.2004 and was effected from 01.04.2004
This has also been subsequently amended from time to time.
Section 42(2) of the Electricity Act, 2003,
OERC specified OERC - (Terms and Conditions for Open Access)
Regulation 2005 with effect from 21.06.2005
and
OERC Regulation-2006 (Determination of Open Access Charges)
Regulations.2006 with effect from 18th July 2006, for intra-state
transmission and Distribution system irrespective of ownership of
the asset.
ROLE OF CTU & STU

Section 38(2)(D) and 39 (2)(D) and 40(C) of Electricity Act


2003 while dealing with the functions of Central
Transmission Utility and State Transmission Utility (CTU &
STUs) stipulates to provide non-discriminatory open access
to its transmission system for use by any licensee or
generating company or consumer on payment of
transmission charges, surcharges and cross subsidy.
OPEN ACCESS- CONSEQUENCES

allows large users of power - typically having connected load


of 1 MW and above - to buy cheaper power if available from
the open market.

The customers can choose among a large number of


competing power companies–instead of being forced to buy
electricity from their existing electric retail supply licensee.

Helps large consumers particularly the sick textile, cement and


steel industrial units by ensuring regular supply of electricity
at competitive rates.
OPEN ACCESS- CONSEQUENCES

Open Access on Transmission and Distribution on payment of charges to


the Utility will enable number of players utilizing these capacities and
transmit power from generation to the load centre. This will mean
utilization of existing infrastructure and easing of power shortage.

Trading, now a licensed activity and will also help in innovative pricing
which will lead to competition resulting in lowering of tariffs.

Renewable energy developers shall be permitted to sale electricity to any


consumer they want.

Great tool to promote renewable energy and weed out in-efficiencies in


the system.
DEFINITIONS
Section 2(47) of Electricity Act 2003
• “Open Access” means the non-discriminatory provision for the use of
transmission lines or distribution system or associated facilities with
such lines or system by any licensee, or consumer, or a person engaged
in generation in accordance with the regulations specified by the
Appropriate Commission”.

• “Bilateral transaction” means a transaction for exchange of energy


(MWh) between a specified buyer and a specified seller, directly or
through a trading licensee or discovered at power exchange through
anonymous bidding, from a specified point of injection to a specified
point of drawl for a fixed or varying quantum of power (MW) for any
time period during a month

• “Collective transactions” are done in Day Ahead Market (DAM)


through PXs only. These are closed auction type sale and purchase of
electricity involving multiple buyers and sellers unknown to each other
unlike bilateral transaction where buyer knows who the seller is and
vice versa.
OPEN ACCESS- CATEGORY
Inter State Open Access: When buying and selling involves two entities
belongs to different states, power flow shall be through Inter-State
transmission lines. In this case CERC (Open access in Inter state
Transmission) Regulations are to need to be followed. It is further
categorized as:

1. Short Term Open Access (STOA): open access allowed for the
period of less than one month.

2. Medium Term Open Access (MTOA): open access allowed for a


period of 3 months to 3 years.

3. Long Term Open Access (LTOA): open access allowed for a


period of 12 years to 25 years.
OPEN ACCESS- CATEGORY

Intra State Open Access: When buying and selling entity belongs to
same state. In this case SERC regulations are followed. In Odisha, it is
further categorized as STOA and LTOA.

1. Long Term Open Access (LTOA): open access allowed for a


period of 25 years or more.

2. Short Term Open Access (STOA): customers other than the long
term customers with maximum duration for which the short term
access allowed at a time shall not exceed one year.
CRITERIA FOR GRANTING OF SHORT TERM O A

Short-term open access shall be allowed , if request can be


accommodated by utilizing:-
a. Inherent design margins;
b. Margins available due to variation in power flows; and un
utilized capacity, if any, and
c. Margins available due to in-built spare transmission
capacity in transmission and/ or distribution systems
created to cater to future load growth.
NODAL AGENCY

• For Short-Term Customers


– RLDC of the Region in which the drawal point is located.

• For Long-Term & Medium Term Customers


– Central Transmission Utility (CTU), if its system is used
– Transmission Licensee/ STU of the region in which the drawl
point is located when CTU system is not involved.
OA-CAPTIVE GENERATING PLANTS

• As per Clause-9 of the Act, a person may construct, maintain or operate a


captive generating plant and dedicated transmission lines. Provided that the
supply of electricity from the captive generating plant through the grid shall
be regulated in the same manner as the generating station of a generating
company.

• CGP shall have the right to Open Access for the purposes of carrying
electricity from his captive generating plant to the destination of his use.

• Provided that such Open Access shall be – subject to availability of


adequate transmission facility and such availability of transmission facility
shall be determined by the CTU or the STU as the case may be.
OPEN ACCESS CHARGES
There are several charges to be paid by open access consumers to
distribution licensee, transmission licensees and other related
entities, other than the power purchase cost paid to the generator
or supplying entity. These charges include:
• Connectivity Charges – For infrastructure development for LTOA
• P o C Charges- Transmission charges for CTU network.
• Transmission Charges – Transmission charges for Intra State OA
• Transmission Losses – For CTU and STU network
• Wheeling Charges – for Distribution network
• Wheeling Losses- For Distribution network
• Cross Subsidy Surcharge – For Distribution utility to compensate
loss of Cross Subsidy
• SLDC Charges – For scheduling and application processing
• RLDC Charges – For scheduling and application processing
LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Section 38: (CTU Function)


• CTU to provide open access to Licensee or Generating Company on
payment of transmission charges.
• CTU can not engage in generation and trading.

Sections 39: (STU Function)


• Similar provisions for STU and Transmission Licensee.
• Transmission Licensee can not engage in trading (Section 41)
TIME LINE FOR OPEN ACCESS APPLICATION
M1 M2 M3 M4
DL-10 DL-5 DL DL+5 DOP-4 DOP

DOP-1
Adv
Application FCFS
for M2

Adv
Application for
M3,
Approvals for
M2

Adv
Application for
M4, Day Ahead /
Approvals for PX LEGEND:
M3
DOP : Day of Operation
DL : Last day of M1
Approvals for
M4
New Open Access Regulations w.e.f.
01-April-2008
Open Access Regulations, 2008:
Provisions For Collective Transactions

• Thrust on Empowerment of SLDCs


• SLDC Concurrence [Clause 8(2)]
– NOC/Standing Clearance to be obtained by State Utilities/Intra-State
Entities from the SLDC for trading through PX
– SLDC to respond within 3 days
– SLDCs may charge appropriate fee for such NOC/Standing Clearance
(as per SERC or Rs. 5000 if not notified by SERC)
POWER EXCHANGE

An electricity Power Exchange provides a


spot market, mainly day-ahead, for
electricity, which like any other market
matches demand and supply for each time
block, while providing a public price index
BIDDING THROUGH EXCHANGE
Sale Bid- The Sellers offers their minimum sale price
indicating the quantum of electricity they want to sale during
the hour / block.

Buy Bid - The Buyers offers their maximum purchase price


indicating the quantum of electricity they want to buy in that
hour/ block.

With all the buyers and sellers bid-price, two separate curves
are being plotted by the Exchange.

The inter section of both the curves is the price discovered at


that hour / block and the corresponding quantity is the
volume of electricity cleared for sale at that hour.
PRICE & VOLUME

Purchase price
Sail price
Price

Quantity
The supply curve shows the relationship between its price and the
amount of electricity the producers are willing to sell, the demand curve
indicates the quantum of electricity the buyers willing to purchase
provided the price is equal or less that the bid price, other things held
constant
The intersection of two curves is the equilibrium point, which determine
the volume of electricity and the sell price at that hour / block
Illustration of a typical
Bilateral Transaction

Injecting Utility : Jindal Stainless Ltd, Odisha (OPTCL),ER

Drawee Utility : Jindal Stainless Ltd(Haryana),NR

Quantum : 20 MW
NETWORK INVOLVED
Co-ordination for Scheduling,
JSL, Odisha
Settlement & System Operation by
CPP
Seller

OPTCL SLDC-OPTCL
Seam
Changes ER ISTS ERLDC

NR ISTS NRLDC

Haryana SLDC-Haryana

Buyer
JSL, Hissar
TRANSMISSION CHARGES

JSL, Hissar JSL, Odisha

HARYANA OPTCL
36 paisa per unit 6.25 paisa per unit

NR ISTS ER ISTS
16.89 paisa per unit 16.89 paisa per unit

Overall transmission charges76.03 paisa per unit


TRANSMISSION LOSSES
JSL (H) JSL (O)
18.364MW 20MW

HARYANA OPTCL
3.93% Loss 3.75% Loss

19.116MW 19.75MW

WR ISTS ER ISTS
Withdrawal PoC Loss Injection PoC Loss
2% 1.23%
19.507MW
OPEN ACCESS TRANSACTIONS
5000
4564
4500

4000 3783
3464
3500

3000
MU

2500

2000 1866

1500
883
1000 829

500

0
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YEAR
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