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Submitted To Submitted by

Prof. Dr. Siby Zacharias Vishnu M V


Aneesha M Shaji
S3 MBA
TRAINING
DEFINITION
According to Raymond A Noe “ Training refers to
a planned effort by a company to facilitate an
employee learning of job related competencies.”

ELEMENTS
• It is a process
• It is a plan and structured activity.
• It is related to learning of job specific knowledge
and skills.
TRAINING AND EDUCATION
Training is a subset of education
Training is task oriented and task oriented. While
education is very broad or general.
Training is learning skills to perform a specific
kind of work. While education is learning of
skills for life.
Training is imparting attitude, skills and
knowledge for specific job. While education is
preparation for life.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT TRAINING

It is a process leading to self It is to create an efficient and effective


actualization. worker

Development is an end in itself Training is a means to end

Development is to develop a future Training is to create a competent


manager employee

Development is growth of an Training is to help the employee to


individual employees skills or abilities achieve standard performance.
which cannot be quantified.
LEARNING
DEFINITION
Learning is a process of acquiring knowledge
which may or may not result in behavioral change.

Learning is divided into 3 :


1) Cognitive (intellectual)
2) Affective (emotional)
3) Psychomotor (physical change)
TRAINING PROCESS
There are 5 stages in the training process:

1) Analyzing the training needs


2) Planning and designing the training
3) Developing the training material
4) Delivering the training
5) Evaluation
ANALYSING THE TRAINING NEED
Needs are identified at 3 levels:
1) Organizational level
2) Occupational level
3) Individual level
Organizational level
Identifies the needs of the department r sections.
Occupational level
Needs of employees in terms of attitude skills and
knowledge.
Individual level
Need assessment of the individual.
PLANNING AND DESIGNING THE TRAINING

Following are the stages of planning and designing the


training.
 Defining the training objectives
 Deciding on appropriate training methods.
 Deciding on training and support staff.
 Deciding the training content
 Selecting training aids
 Deciding on pre- requisites of training
 Organizing and sequencing the training sections.
 Determining performance standard and evaluation tool.
DEVELOPING THE TRAINING MATERIAL

The following material has to be developed for


effective training.
• Training course outline
• Training section plan
• Learning material
• Audio visual aids
• Power point presentations
• Feedback questionnaires
DELIVERING THE TRAINING AND EVALUATION

Delivering the training


• Actual delivery of the training.

Evaluation
• The training has been success or failure can be
found through evaluation.
• It is backward as well as forward looking.
• Retraining is given on the basis of evaluation.
TRAINING MODELS
A model of a system or a process is a theoretical description
that help you to understand how the system or process
works on how it might work. The models are as follows:

1) Systematic model
2) Transition model
3) Investors in people model
4) Ash ridge model
5) Instructional system designed model
SYSTEMATIC MODEL
According to manpower services commission, systematic
training is training taking on a planned basis as a result of
applying logical generally. It consist of the following steps.

1) Development of training policy


2) Identification of training needs
3) Development of training plans and objectives
4) Implementation of planned training
5) Evaluation and validation of training
TRANSITION MODEL
According to Henry Taylor following assumptions are made for
transition model
• Training is not an investment, it is wastage of money.
• It is not the result of strategic planning.
• significant relation between organization and the individual.
• It is opposite to systematic model.
It has 2 looms

Inner- systematic training


Outer – vision, mission and values
INVESTORS IN PEOPLE MODEL
It is based on 4 key basic training principle they
are as follows:

1. Commitment
2. Planning
3. Action
4. Evaluation
ASHRIDGE MODEL
This model was developed by Ashridge management
research group consultancy. There are 3 approaches:
• Fragmented approach
This approach consider training as a cost. The organization
take little responsibilities for training .
• Formalized approach
All training process is structured and is linked to
performance appraisal of the employee.
• Focused approach
Training is considered as an investment. The organization
consider training as developing the full potential of the
employee.
INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGNED MODEL

According to R Vaghan “ISD Is the systematic approach develop


training programs to ensure that appropriate resources are
created evaluated and modified until trainee attain desired
instructional goals.
It has got five components:

Analysis
Design
Development
Implementation
Evaluation
TYPES OF TRAINING
1. Inductive training
2. Placement training
3. Orientation
4. Human relations training
5. Problem solving training
6. Apprenticeship training
7. Soft skill training
8. Life skill training
9. Computer assisted learning training
10. Finishing school training
11. E learning
Inductive training
Introducing an employee to the job and by the end of this
training they get informed about the policies rules and
regulations of the company.
Placement training
By the end of this training the candidate will be able to
deliver the work assigned through placement.
Orientation
By the end of this training the candidate will be oriented
towards the work culture.
Human relations training
Through this the candidate will be excellent in interpersonal
behavior.
Problem solving training
The candidate are made expert in solving problems of the
department.
Apprenticeship training
To provide basic skills to row unskilled individuals to make
them employable.
Life skill training
By this training we will able to manage your life
successfully.
Soft skill training
To provide skills relating to communication, etiquettes
mannerisms etc.
Computer assisted training
Providing training about how to use the computer.

E learning
Provides various sites of learning.

Finishing school training


By the end of this training we will equipped to get into
corporate world.
TRAINING FACILITIES AND TRAINING SITES

According to Smith and Delhay a good training


site should have the following features.

• It should be comfortable and accessible.


• It should be free of interruptions.
• There should be enough space to accommodate
the trainees.
• It should have sufficient work space.
According to C L Fingel the following factors should be
considered while selecting training site.
1. Noise
2. Colors
3. Room structure
4. Lighting
5. Wall and floor covering
6. Acoustics
7. Ceiling
8. Glare
9. Room chairs
10. Electrical outlets
11. Wall clocks
Noise
The site should be free from unwanted noise.
Colors
Warm colors are used such as green blue and yellow.
Room structure
Square shaped structure are preferred. Long and narrow
room makes employee uncomfortable.
Lighting
It should be bright enough to illuminate the materials are
enable and the trainee to read and write comfortable.
Wall and floor covering
The floor should be carpeted with warm colors like blue
green and red. Wall should not be decorated with unwanted
pictures.
Acoustics
Check the echo from the walls, ceiling and floor.
Ceiling
It should be 10 ft above the trainees.
Glare
Avoid glare from blades, windows and white boards.
Room chairs
Chair should have wheel for movement.
Electrical outlets
It should available at 6 feat around the room.
Wall clocks
It should behind the trainee.
SEATING PLANS
• Circle
• Broken circle
• Circle and table
• Square table
• Rectangular table
• U shaped
• V shaped
• Class room style
• Auditorium style
• Herring bone
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
1) Principle of recency
2) Principle of appropriateness
3) Principle of motivation
4) Principle of primacy
5) Principle of 2 way communication
6) Principle of feedback
7) Principle of active learning
8) Principle of multisence learning
9) Principle of exercise
THEORIES OF LEARNING
There are mainly 6 theories they are:
1) Reinforcement theory
2) Cognitive theory/ Gestalt Psychology theory
3) Social learning theory
4) Goal setting theory
5) Maslow’s need hierarchy theory
6) Vroom’s expectancy theory
7) Experimental learning theory
REINFORCEMENT THEORY
There is 2 types of conditioning in learning.
Classical conditioning
Evan Paulo conducted a experiment on a dog. The dog
were given food along with a bell, once he ring the bell
without giving food, still the dog salivated. ( stimuli
response model)
Operant conditioning
B F Skinner conducted an experiment on a dog. A dog cross
the bridge along with a bone, saw the reflection in the
water, never bark because of learned behaviour. (response
stimuli model)
COGNITIVE THEORY
 The insight knowledge of a thing is called Gestalt
Psychology.
Gestalt psychology is also called closure principle.
Gestalt psychology get practical wisdom by Wolfang
Kohler.
Two phases in insight learning.
1. Problem solving phase : Issues are identified and
solution is developed.
2. Storage of the solution: Solution is retrieved for
application.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
• Man is a social animal.
• Learning through observing others
• People acquire new skills and behaviour by
observing and by imitating them.
• This theory suggest that a learner has to be
attentive and observer.
• This theory believes that behaviour that is
rewarded or positively reinforced will be
reproduced by the learner in future.
GOAL SETTING THEORY
• Given by 2 persons E A Lock and Lather
• It consist of 4 elements:
1. Goal acceptance
2. Goal specificity
3. Goal challenge
4. Feed back
• Goal orientation: It is a goal set by the trainee for himself.
• Two types of orientation.
1. Learning orientation
2. Performance orientation
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY

SELF ACTUALISATION
ESTEEM NEEDS
LOVE AND AFFECTION

SAFETY AND SECURITY

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
• According to this theory :

Force= Expectancy * Valence


Expectancy
The effort will lead to the requisite result.
Valence
The belief of strength of a person towards the
outcome.
EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING THEORY
• Behavioural change occurs with experience.
• 4 stages in experimental learning.
1. Learning begin with here and now experience.
2. The new learning experience followed by a collection of
data.
3. Analysis of new learning experience.
4. Behavioural change occurs.
There are 4 types of learning styles
1. Converger
2. Diverger
3. Assimilator
4. Accommodator