You are on page 1of 46

Energy storage elements

Chapter 7
Prepared by: Engr. Ayyaz Ali

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
• From previous lectures we know that
resistance can only dissipate energy.
• Independent source needed to initiate voltage
or current in circuit.
• For this reason capacitance and inductance
comes in place (energy storage elements).
• Both have time dependent characteristics and
are said to be dynamic elements.
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
7.1 Capacitance
• Have ability to store charge when voltage is
provided.
• Provided in circuits as capacitors or
condensers.
• Consists of 2 plates which stores positive and
negative charge and an insulator between the
two plates.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
• Rate of change of accumulated charge
depends on ‘C’
• C=dQ/dV (7.1)
• SI units is farads (F)
• C=e(A/d) (dependence of capacitance)
• For vacuum, e0= 10^-9/(36pi)
• Er=e/e0 (relative permittivity)
• C is non linear (Q varies with v).

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
Linear capacitances
• For ‘q’ is linear proportional to ‘v’ we have
q=Cv.
• OR C=q/v (7.3)
• This equation explains charge accumulated in
terms of applied voltage.
• Example: 10v and 1uF = 10uC.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
The i-v characteristics

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
The i-v characteristics
• Remember dq=C dv
• Voltage flows from source to top plate and then
from bottom back to the source.
• Current flows through the capacitor
• i=dq/dt
• Substitute dq=C dv which gives
• i= C dv/dt
• Capacitor performs the operation of voltage
differentiation.
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
• So current in capacitor depends on change of
voltage.
• For keeping current in capacitor voltage must
change.
• If voltage is constant then the current will be
zero.
• If current is zero this means voltage is
constant but not necessarily zero.
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
• One of its use is DRAM.
• Capacitor is charged with voltage v and then
the connection is broken.
• This works as a memory where a bit is saved
with voltage ‘v’

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Uniform charge/discharge
• If capacitor is charged/discharged at constant
rate then dv and i are both constant.
• C dv=I dt (7.5)
• This relation holds only if capacitor current is
constant.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
Assignment- 01

Submission date: Next week

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
The v-i characteristics
• In terms of voltage ‘v’ (7.4) will be:

For constant current:

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
• If current is positive then voltage ramp will
increase and vice versa.
• Such property is used in designing triangular
and saw tooth waveforms.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Home assignment

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Home assignment
• Complete exercise 7.3 and 7.4

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Capacitive energy

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Capacitors in parallel
• Parallel connection gives same voltage and
current is increased.
• Net current will be:
• It= Ic1 + Ic2
• By KCL: Cp= C1 + C2
• Combined capacitance will yield summing of
two individual capacitances.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
Capacitance in series
• Same current but voltage will be different.
• By KVL: Vt= V1 + V2

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
• So:
• 1/Cs= 1/C1 + 1/C2

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Home assignment
• Exercise 7.6

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Practical capacitors
• Practical capacitors have parasitic resistance.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Future notes
• Until next class…!!

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Inductance
• Inductance is a circuit element which can
produce magnetic flux linkage in response to
current.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
• Current in the wire wounded around a core
creates magnetic field in the core and hence
magnetic flux (fi).
• For N turns, the quantity: ‘ lambda=N(fi)’ is
called flux linkage and is expressed in weber
turns.
• Rate at which lambda varies with applied
current is denoted as ‘L’ which is inductance of
coil.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
• SI unit is Henry.
• Inductance depends on
– Core material.
– Physical dimensions.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
The v-i characteristics

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
• As I increases, energy is stored in inductor as
voltage and v is positive at tale of arrow.
• If I decreases, energy is being released from
inductor and v is positive at the head of arrow.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Exercise 7.7 home assignment

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
The i-v charateristics

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
Home assignment

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
The principle of duality

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Inductive energy

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
• Inductive energy stored in the form of
potential energy inside magnetic field ‘OR’
storing energy in form of moving charge or
current.
• When current is increased energy is stored
inside inductor and when current is dropped
to zero energy is released from the inductor
• Ideal inductor is non-dissipative.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Applications
• Switched mode power supplies
• Voltage converters.

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Inductor in series

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Inductor in parallel

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Practical inductors

Army Public college of management and


Sciences
Army Public college of management and
Sciences
Comparison of 3 basic elements

Army Public college of management and


Sciences