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this is all about energy storage elements such as resistor,capacitor and inductor

this is all about energy storage elements such as resistor,capacitor and inductor

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Chapter 7

Prepared by: Engr. Ayyaz Ali

Sciences

• From previous lectures we know that

resistance can only dissipate energy.

• Independent source needed to initiate voltage

or current in circuit.

• For this reason capacitance and inductance

comes in place (energy storage elements).

• Both have time dependent characteristics and

are said to be dynamic elements.

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

7.1 Capacitance

• Have ability to store charge when voltage is

provided.

• Provided in circuits as capacitors or

condensers.

• Consists of 2 plates which stores positive and

negative charge and an insulator between the

two plates.

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

• Rate of change of accumulated charge

depends on ‘C’

• C=dQ/dV (7.1)

• SI units is farads (F)

• C=e(A/d) (dependence of capacitance)

• For vacuum, e0= 10^-9/(36pi)

• Er=e/e0 (relative permittivity)

• C is non linear (Q varies with v).

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

Linear capacitances

• For ‘q’ is linear proportional to ‘v’ we have

q=Cv.

• OR C=q/v (7.3)

• This equation explains charge accumulated in

terms of applied voltage.

• Example: 10v and 1uF = 10uC.

Sciences

The i-v characteristics

Sciences

The i-v characteristics

• Remember dq=C dv

• Voltage flows from source to top plate and then

from bottom back to the source.

• Current flows through the capacitor

• i=dq/dt

• Substitute dq=C dv which gives

• i= C dv/dt

• Capacitor performs the operation of voltage

differentiation.

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

• So current in capacitor depends on change of

voltage.

• For keeping current in capacitor voltage must

change.

• If voltage is constant then the current will be

zero.

• If current is zero this means voltage is

constant but not necessarily zero.

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

• One of its use is DRAM.

• Capacitor is charged with voltage v and then

the connection is broken.

• This works as a memory where a bit is saved

with voltage ‘v’

Sciences

Uniform charge/discharge

• If capacitor is charged/discharged at constant

rate then dv and i are both constant.

• C dv=I dt (7.5)

• This relation holds only if capacitor current is

constant.

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

Assignment- 01

Sciences

The v-i characteristics

• In terms of voltage ‘v’ (7.4) will be:

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

• If current is positive then voltage ramp will

increase and vice versa.

• Such property is used in designing triangular

and saw tooth waveforms.

Sciences

Home assignment

Sciences

Home assignment

• Complete exercise 7.3 and 7.4

Sciences

Capacitive energy

Sciences

Capacitors in parallel

• Parallel connection gives same voltage and

current is increased.

• Net current will be:

• It= Ic1 + Ic2

• By KCL: Cp= C1 + C2

• Combined capacitance will yield summing of

two individual capacitances.

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

Capacitance in series

• Same current but voltage will be different.

• By KVL: Vt= V1 + V2

Sciences

• So:

• 1/Cs= 1/C1 + 1/C2

Sciences

Home assignment

• Exercise 7.6

Sciences

Practical capacitors

• Practical capacitors have parasitic resistance.

Sciences

Future notes

• Until next class…!!

Sciences

Inductance

• Inductance is a circuit element which can

produce magnetic flux linkage in response to

current.

Sciences

• Current in the wire wounded around a core

creates magnetic field in the core and hence

magnetic flux (fi).

• For N turns, the quantity: ‘ lambda=N(fi)’ is

called flux linkage and is expressed in weber

turns.

• Rate at which lambda varies with applied

current is denoted as ‘L’ which is inductance of

coil.

Sciences

• SI unit is Henry.

• Inductance depends on

– Core material.

– Physical dimensions.

Sciences

The v-i characteristics

Sciences

• As I increases, energy is stored in inductor as

voltage and v is positive at tale of arrow.

• If I decreases, energy is being released from

inductor and v is positive at the head of arrow.

Sciences

Exercise 7.7 home assignment

Sciences

The i-v charateristics

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

Home assignment

Sciences

The principle of duality

Sciences

Inductive energy

Sciences

• Inductive energy stored in the form of

potential energy inside magnetic field ‘OR’

storing energy in form of moving charge or

current.

• When current is increased energy is stored

inside inductor and when current is dropped

to zero energy is released from the inductor

• Ideal inductor is non-dissipative.

Sciences

Applications

• Switched mode power supplies

• Voltage converters.

Sciences

Inductor in series

Sciences

Inductor in parallel

Sciences

Practical inductors

Sciences

Army Public college of management and

Sciences

Comparison of 3 basic elements

Sciences

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