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# Energy storage elements

Chapter 7
Prepared by: Engr. Ayyaz Ali

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• From previous lectures we know that
resistance can only dissipate energy.
• Independent source needed to initiate voltage
or current in circuit.
• For this reason capacitance and inductance
comes in place (energy storage elements).
• Both have time dependent characteristics and
are said to be dynamic elements.
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7.1 Capacitance
• Have ability to store charge when voltage is
provided.
• Provided in circuits as capacitors or
condensers.
• Consists of 2 plates which stores positive and
negative charge and an insulator between the
two plates.

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• Rate of change of accumulated charge
depends on ‘C’
• C=dQ/dV (7.1)
• SI units is farads (F)
• C=e(A/d) (dependence of capacitance)
• For vacuum, e0= 10^-9/(36pi)
• Er=e/e0 (relative permittivity)
• C is non linear (Q varies with v).

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Linear capacitances
• For ‘q’ is linear proportional to ‘v’ we have
q=Cv.
• OR C=q/v (7.3)
• This equation explains charge accumulated in
terms of applied voltage.
• Example: 10v and 1uF = 10uC.

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The i-v characteristics

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The i-v characteristics
• Remember dq=C dv
• Voltage flows from source to top plate and then
from bottom back to the source.
• Current flows through the capacitor
• i=dq/dt
• Substitute dq=C dv which gives
• i= C dv/dt
• Capacitor performs the operation of voltage
differentiation.
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• So current in capacitor depends on change of
voltage.
• For keeping current in capacitor voltage must
change.
• If voltage is constant then the current will be
zero.
• If current is zero this means voltage is
constant but not necessarily zero.
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• One of its use is DRAM.
• Capacitor is charged with voltage v and then
the connection is broken.
• This works as a memory where a bit is saved
with voltage ‘v’

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Uniform charge/discharge
• If capacitor is charged/discharged at constant
rate then dv and i are both constant.
• C dv=I dt (7.5)
• This relation holds only if capacitor current is
constant.

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Army Public college of management and
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Assignment- 01

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The v-i characteristics
• In terms of voltage ‘v’ (7.4) will be:

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• If current is positive then voltage ramp will
increase and vice versa.
• Such property is used in designing triangular
and saw tooth waveforms.

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Home assignment

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Home assignment
• Complete exercise 7.3 and 7.4

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Capacitive energy

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Capacitors in parallel
• Parallel connection gives same voltage and
current is increased.
• Net current will be:
• It= Ic1 + Ic2
• By KCL: Cp= C1 + C2
• Combined capacitance will yield summing of
two individual capacitances.

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Capacitance in series
• Same current but voltage will be different.
• By KVL: Vt= V1 + V2

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• So:
• 1/Cs= 1/C1 + 1/C2

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Home assignment
• Exercise 7.6

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Practical capacitors
• Practical capacitors have parasitic resistance.

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Future notes
• Until next class…!!

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Inductance
• Inductance is a circuit element which can
produce magnetic flux linkage in response to
current.

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• Current in the wire wounded around a core
creates magnetic field in the core and hence
magnetic flux (fi).
• For N turns, the quantity: ‘ lambda=N(fi)’ is
called flux linkage and is expressed in weber
turns.
• Rate at which lambda varies with applied
current is denoted as ‘L’ which is inductance of
coil.

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• SI unit is Henry.
• Inductance depends on
– Core material.
– Physical dimensions.

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The v-i characteristics

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• As I increases, energy is stored in inductor as
voltage and v is positive at tale of arrow.
• If I decreases, energy is being released from
inductor and v is positive at the head of arrow.

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Exercise 7.7 home assignment

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The i-v charateristics

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Home assignment

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The principle of duality

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Inductive energy

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• Inductive energy stored in the form of
potential energy inside magnetic field ‘OR’
storing energy in form of moving charge or
current.
• When current is increased energy is stored
inside inductor and when current is dropped
to zero energy is released from the inductor
• Ideal inductor is non-dissipative.

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Applications
• Switched mode power supplies
• Voltage converters.

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Inductor in series

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Inductor in parallel

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Practical inductors

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Comparison of 3 basic elements

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