Unit 2 Materials Structure and Uses

Section A: Why We use what we do.

Intro to Unit 2: Materials: Structure and Uses
• Topics introduced include:
• Chemical and physical properties • Chemical symbols and formulas • The periodic table • Reactivity of metals • Oxidation-reduction • Law of conservation of matter and energy • Writing and balancing chemical equations • Use of formulas to calculate molar

Section A.1 Properties make the difference
• Every substance has characteristic properties that distinguish it form other substances

Section A.1 Properties make the difference
• Physical properties: • Can be determined without altering the chemical make up of the material • Color • Density • Odor • Physical changes: • Identity still stays the same • Melting • Boiling

• Bending

Section A.1: Properties make the difference
• Chemical properties: • Key to the usefulness of material • (How it will react with other substances) • Chemical Change • Transform into new substances • Can be detected in: • The formation of a gas or solid • A color change • Change on the surface of a solid • Temperature change

A.2 Physical and Chemical Properties
1. Pure metals have a higher luster (are shiny reflect light) 2. The surfaces of some metals become dull when exposed to air. 3. Nitrogen gas, which is a relatively nonreactive element at room temperature, can form nitrogen oxides at the high temperature of an operating automobile engines 4. Milk turns sour if left too long at room temperature 5. Diamonds are hard enough to be used in drill bits. 6. Metals are typically ductile (can be drawn into wire). 7. Bread dough increases in volume if it is allowed to “rise” before baking. 8. Argon gas, rather than air is used in many Light bulbs to prevent oxidation of metal filament. 9. Generally, metals are better conductors of heat and electricity than are non metals.

1. Pure metals have a higher luster (are shiny reflect light) Physical 2. The surfaces of some metals become dull when exposed to air. Chemical – the metal reacts with oxygen 3. Nitrogen gas, which is a relatively non-reactive element at room temperature, can form nitrogen oxides at the high temperature of an operating automobile engines Chemical – new substances are formed 4. Milk turns sour if left too long at room temperature Chemical – material changes, depends on bacteria in milk 5. Diamonds are hard enough to be used in drill bits. Physical 6. Metals are typically ductile (can be drawn into wire). Physical 7. Bread dough increases in volume if it is allowed to “rise” before baking. Chemical – bread rising is due to the production of carbon dioxide 8. Argon gas, rather than air is used in many Light bulbs to prevent oxidation of metal filament. Chemical – Argon does not react with the filament 9. Generally, metals are better conductors of heat and electricity than are nonmetals. Physical

Section A.4 The Chemical Elements
• Elements can be grouped or classified according to their similarities and differences • Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids • Metals • Non-Metals • Metalloids
• Iron, tin, zinc, copper • Carbon, Oxygen • Silicon, germanium • Relatively few: properties are intermediate some characteristics of metals, some properties of nonmetals,

Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Nonmetals

Metals

Metalloids

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 349

Me tals •most elements are metals •elements to the left of the stair step line are metals or metal like elements

Ph ysic al Pr oper ties of Me tals:
-Luster (shininess) -Good conductors of heat and electricity -High density (heavy for their size) -High melting point -Ductile (most metals can be drawn out into thin wires) -Malleable (most metals can be hammered into thin sheets)

Ch emic al Pr oper tie s of Me tals:
-Easily lose electrons -Corrode easily---Corrosion is a gradual wearing away. (Example: silver tarnishing and iron rusting)

Nonme ta ls
-found at the right of the stair step line -characteristics are opposite those of metals

Ph ysic al Pr oper ties of No nme tals:
-No luster (dull appearance) -Poor conductor of heat and electricity -Brittle (breaks easily) -Not ductile -Not malleable -Low density -Low melting point

Ch emic al Pr oper tie s of Nonme ta ls:
•-Tend to gain electrons

Me tallo id s
-Elements on both sides of the zigzag line have properties of both metals and nonmetals.

Ph ysic al Pr oper ties of Me tallo ids:
-Solids -Can be shiny or dull -Ductile -Malleable -Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals
• Semiconductors

Section A.4: The Periodic Table
• 60 elements found by 1800’s
• Five non metals • 2 liquids • The rest all solids

• The periodic table
• An effort to impose some organization of the information related to the elements
• Dimitri Mendeleev
− Russian Chemist produced periodic table

A little bit of chemistry history
• A little about Dimitri Mendeleev
• Family history • Contribution to chemistry

• Julius Lothar Meyer
• The original periodic table…

• Henry Mosley
• British physicists • Contribution to chemistry

Section A.4: The Periodic Table

• Early Periodic table was grouped according to two main characteristics
• Atomic mass
• It was known that atoms of different elements have different masses.

• Combining capacity
• How a respective element combined with other elements.
− KCl – one to one ratio − MgCl – one to two ratio

Section A.10: The Periodic Table
• Vertical columns: groups or families
• Similar chemical properties

• Horizontal rows: periods
• Increasing atomic weights

A.10 Organization of the Periodic Table
• Group 1: Alkali metals (except hydrogen)
• Highly reactive • Low densities • Soft enough to be cut with a knife

• Group 2 Alkaline: earth metals • Groups 3-12d: transition metals • Group 17-Hologens • Group 18: Noble gases

• Groups f: transition metals (inner transition metals)

• Hydrogen is its own family

• Almost entirely un-reactive • Completely filled S and P orbital • Few noble gas compounds can be made

Homework
• Page 130 #1-5, 7-12, 13-15.