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Phrases ‫مركب غير مفيد‬

The Noun/Adjective &


Possessive Phrases

Shariah Program - © 2003-2009


The Phrase
 Group of words linked together, not forming a
complete sentence
 Many types based on kind of relationship
 Often function as single unit in syntax
 (‫)صفة( & )موصوف‬
 (‫)مضاف إليه( & )مضاف‬

Shariah Program - © 2003-2009


The (‫ )صفة( & )موصوف‬Phrase
 Two Isms
 The first Ism is the noun being described and the
second is the adjective.
 The second Ism describes the first.

 e.g. ‫( الولد الطويل‬tall boy) & ‫( بنت الرشيدة‬intelligent


girl)
 In English the adjective always precedes the
noun e.g. tall boy, intelligent girl.

Shariah Program - © 2003-2009


Essential rulings
 Apart from change in sequence (noun first,
adjective second), there is correspondence in
the following four aspects:
1. Gender: ‫ الولد الطويل‬and ‫البنت الرشيدة‬
2. Plurality: ‫ الولدان الطويالن‬and ‫الرجال المسلمون‬
3. Definiteness/indefiniteness: ‫ول ٌد طوي ٌل‬
4. Grammatical state: ‫المظلم‬
ِ ‫ت‬ِ ‫فى البي‬

Shariah Program - © 2003-2009


The (‫ )مضاف إليه( & )مضاف‬Phrase
 Also two Isms:
 Here the two Isms (which are both nouns) are linked
together in a possessive structure
 ِ ‫(رسو ُل‬Allah’s Messenger).
e.g. ‫للا‬
 Sequence inverted
 The first word is called (‫ )مضاف‬, while the
second
 i.e. the word with the apostrophe in English is
termed (‫)مضاف إليه‬
Shariah Program - © 2003-2009
Essential Rulings
1. The “‫ ”مضاف‬must be empty of both the definite
article “Al-”, as well as the indefinite article tanween:
the “un” sound at the end of nouns and written in the
form of a second “‫”ضمة‬, “‫”فتحة‬, or “‫ ”كسرة‬e.g. ‫كتاب‬ ُ
‫( زيد‬Zaid’s book).
2. The grammatical state of the “‫ ”مضاف إليه‬is fixed on
jarr
3. The grammatical state of the “‫ ”مضاف‬is subject to the
governing agent.

Shariah Program - © 2003-2009