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A Guide to Writing Chapter II

Chapter II
This chapter starts with a very brief introductory
paragraph concerning the researcher’s exploration of
related literature and studies on the research problem.
It states the main coverage of the said chapter.

The purpose of this chapter is :

• To expand the context and background of the study.

• To help further define the problem.
• To provide an empirical basis for the subsequent
development / formulation of the hypothesis.
Theoretical framework:
• consists of at least five (5) theories used by the
researcher as bases or which support his study.
• It is a theoretical scheme of his research problem.
Related Literature

Nature. The review on related literature embodies the

cited theories, variables or aspects as gleaned
from books, research journals, monographs, and
other scholarly publications perused by

Purpose :
• to provide the researcher/writer with a theoretical
background of information on what is already known
on the area of interest and what still needs to be done
for his research undertaking.
Purpose (Cont.)

• it furnishes him with ample research possibilities

by which to expand, modify, and / or improve
parts of his planned study to make it more novel
and noteworthy.

• also opens up avenues of rich ideas to the reader

who may be interested in undertaking a similar
project for his own study or for some other
Purpose (Cont.)

• to provide a basis for the formulation of

hypothesis. In other words, articles are not
reviewed for their own sake but as a basis for
generalizing from them to your own study,
and providing logic for both the reader and
Organizing the literature review section by sub-headings makes it
easier for the researcher to follow. To be meaningful, the sub-headings should
reflect the variables and the problem (their relationship).

Related Studies

Nature: The related studies include discussion

of “studies abroad” and “studies in the
Philippines” research problems and
findings, conclusions, and / or
recommendations. The names of the
authors are duly cited when discussing
their respective studies.
• to provide an overview and assessment of the merits and /
or shortcomings of previous research investigations out of
which ideas can be generated on probable research
dimensions that may be included or modified in the
contemplated study.

• alerts the researcher on strong points as well as

weaknesses noted in the explored studies’ research
problems, hypotheses, sampling procedures, methodology,
statistical treatments, findings, conclusions, and
recommendations which are worth considering as he works
on the design of his study.
Purpose (Cont.)

• furnishes the reader with a better understanding on

how the reviewed past studies have contributed to
the evolvement and improvement of the research
problem, the hypotheses, and the design of the
research project.
Conceptual Framework

• The conceptual framework provides a legitimate basis for

defining the parameters of research, consists of a synthesis
of a set of related ideas / concepts / theories developed
after an exhaustive review of related literature and
findings. This synthesis is translated into symbolic models
or paradigms which represent set of related ideas /
concepts organized around a bigger conception of what the
research problem ought to be like.

• Essentially, the conceptual framework consists of basic

assumptions, hypothesis and description of the variables of
the study synthesized in a research paradigm.
Conceptual framework (Cont.)

• it should be reduced into a paradigm/schematic diagram

showing the variables for the framework and their inter-

• consists of at least 5 concepts or ideas, which support the


• Organizes existing data meaningfully in a specific area of

• Provides a basis for evaluating the hypothesis of the study.
• Guides systematically the operation of the research project :
– directs the identification of and development of items in
the research question.
– serves as a basis in the interpretation of research findings.

• Provides a system for visualizing creative “solutions” to new

Statement of the Hypotheses

Following the conceptual framework is the statement of the hypothesis.

What is a hypothesis ?

Hypothesis - is a conjectural statement of the relation between two

or more variables. It is a tentative or temporary
answer to a research problem.

- a tentative statement about the expected relationship

between two or more variables
It has the following characteristics:

• It should conjecture upon a relationship between

two or more variables.

• It should be stated clearly and unambiguously in

the form of a declarative sentence.

• It should be testable; that is it should be possible

to restate it in an operational form which can
then be evaluated based on data.
A hypothesis may be classified as:

a. null hypothesis (Ho) – states the absence of

difference or relation

- is a statement of “no significant

relationship” or “no significant
difference” between two or
more variables or groups that are
to be measured and tested
through inferential statistics.

1) Sex is not significantly related to

mathematical ability

2) Boys and girls do not differ significantly in

mathematical ability
A hypothesis may be classified as:

b. alternative hypothesis (H1) – usually called the

research hypothesis, it states the presence of
a difference or relation. It contradicts the null

- is the reverse statement of a null hypothesis. It

states that “there is a significant difference”
or “there is a significant relation” (for a non-
directional / two-tailed test) or that the
difference or relation is in a certain direction
(for a directional / one-tailed test).
There were two types of alternative hypothesis:

a. directional hypothesis – if there is a difference, then one

group has the higher / lower value

- if there is a relationship, then the

relationship is either positive or

Example :
1) Boys perform significantly better than girls in mathematics

2) There is a significant positive relationship between attitude

toward math and performance in math.
There were two types of alternative hypothesis:

b. non-directional hypothesis – the direction of

difference or relationship is not specified

Example :

1) Boys and girls differ significantly in mathematics.

2) There is a significant relationship between sex

and mathematical ability.
When formulating any of the above-cited types of hypothesis
statements, the following criteria must be considered :

– It must be specific and concisely stated;

– It must be based on theories or empirical
evidences to make it worthy of hypothesis testing;
– It must be testable, that is, it is stated in the null
form of “no difference” or of “no relationship”
in the mean, proportion, or other measures of
categorized data on the pertinent variables and
comparison groups involved, so it could be treated
by inferential statistics.
Definition of Terms

Operational Definition of the Variables

An operational definition is a definition based on
the observable characteristics of that which is being
There are three approaches or types of constructing
operational definition, arbitrarily labeled as A, B, and C.

A Type A operational definition can be

constructed in terms of the operations that
must be performed to cause the phenomenon
or state being defined to occur.

Example : An intelligent child can be defined

operationally as the child produced
by the marriage of above average,
intelligent couples.
There are three approaches or types of constructing
operational definition, arbitrarily labeled as A, B, and C.
A Type B operational definition can be
constructed in terms of how particular object
or thing being defined operates, that is, what
it does or what constitutes its dynamic

Example : Thus an intelligent student can be

operationally defined as a person who gets high
grades in school or a person who demonstrates
capability for solving complicated mathematical
There are three approaches or types of constructing
operational definition, arbitrarily labeled as A, B, and C.

A Type C operational definition can be

constructed in terms of what the object or
phenomenon being defined looks like, that is,
what constitutes its static properties.

Example : Thus, an intelligent student can be defined for instance as

a person who has a good memory, a large vocabulary,
good reasoning ability, good mathematical skills,
Operational Definition of Academic Achievement

Academic Achievement – refers to the mean

scores obtained in a standardized
achievement test where students are
classified as high achievers (90 – 100);
average achievers(70 – 89);
and low achievers (less than 70).

- it may also mean the grade point

average (GPA) obtained in all
subjects at the end of the semester.
Conceptual Definition of Academic Achievement

Academic Achievement – connotes the level of

learning which a student acquires in class
based on his ability to apply what he has
learned in a subject course.