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W a s t e M a t e r i a l s f o r P a v e m e n t

C o n s t r u c t i o n : U s a g e &
G o v t . P o l i c i e s
Govt. Policies for waste management
CONTENTS Sources of Waste for pavement
3 construction

Case Studies

(Total length: 5.6 million kms)

State Highways National Highways District and Rural roads

• Total length: 5,326,166
• Total length: 176,166 kms • Total length: 115,530 kms
• Share: 3 per cent of the • Share: 2 per cent of the total
• Share: 95 per cent of the
total roads in India roads in India
total roads in India

• 95% flexible and 5% rigid pavements (in surface roads)

• Most of the flexible pavements has reached their service life –
reconstruction/maintenance – resulting in Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement
Improvements in civil infrastructure are required for India to become a world leading

Developing high-quality infrastructure that meets the needs of the people and
protects the environment is fundamental to achieving effective economic growth

Waste management should be an integral part of a project's development

Present scenario:
Need for sustainable pavement

Production of cement = 1 ton of CO 2

for 1 ton of cement = global warming

Restriction in quarrying – scarcity of

natural aggregates for pavement
construction (Required Environmental
Clearance from NGT)
Disposal issues for industrial,
construction & Demolition wastes

Present scenario:
Need for sustainable pavement

Production of cement = 1 ton of CO 2

for 1 ton of cement = global warming

Restriction in quarrying – scarcity of

natural aggregates for pavement
construction (Required Environmental
Clearance from NGT)
Disposal issues for industrial,
construction & Demolition wastes

Government Policies on
Waste material management

Construction &
National Demolition
Environmental b
Policy, 2006
Rules 2016

Waste Swachh
Management Bharat
Rules, 2016 Mission

Program (FAUP)

Govt.Policies for
Waste Management
Effective management of hazardous waste, so as to avoid environmental
Environmental pollution and adverse health effects due to its improper handing & disposal.
Policy, 2006
The "National Environment Policy 2006" has brought out management
aspects of hazardous wastes

Plastic The Government has notified the Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016,
Management in suppression of the earlier Plastic Waste (Management and Handling)
Rules, 2016
Rules, 2011
Plastic waste can be used in hot mix to improve physical properties of
bituminous aggregate mix by ‘Dry Process’ or ‘Wet Process

FlyAsh Flyash utilization program (FAUP) has been started by Department of

Program (FAUP) Science and Technology, Govt of India New Delhi. Maharashtra became
the first state in the country to adopt the Fly Ash Utilization Policy. It was
approved by state cabinet meeting chaired by CM Devendra Fadnavis
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ambitious project

The Swachh Bharat Mission (under MoUD) envisages processing of 100%

Swachh solid waste generated in cities / towns by 2nd October, 2019 as a key
objective, which includes C & D wastes. Ministry of Urban Development
(MoUD) vide its circular dated 28th June, 2012 stated all states to set up C
& D waste recycling facilities in all cities with population of over 1 million

Construction & Construction & Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016 - addressing
Waste various key urban wastes such as MSW, Plastic wastes, and the
Rules 2016
Construction and Demolition (C & D) Waste Management Guidelines on
Environmental Management of C & D Wastes (CPCB, 2017) are NEW rules
that were notified on 29th March, 2016 by the Ministry of Environment,
Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
India generates about 60 million tonnes of trash every year. Ten million tonnes of garbage is
generated in just the metropolitan cities: Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore
and Kolkata (Source:Central Pollution Control Board)

Total Municipal waste generated million tonnes per year

Top five cities in India which generate
CHENNAI 1.6 the highest municipal waste


India generates about 60 million tonnes of trash every year. Ten million tonnes of garbage is
generated in just the metropolitan cities: Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore
and Kolkata (Source:Central Pollution Control Board)

Total Municipal waste generated million tonnes per year

Top five states in India which generate
CHENNAI 4.5 the highest municipal waste



According to an expert at the Centre of Science and Environment,
instead of constructing new landfill sites, the government should be
looking into innovative methods to dispose and recycle its waste. The
reason why most landfill sites are over-flowing is because the current
waste disposal system is flawed.

“The segregation of biodegradable waste from non-biodegradable

waste is not done properly,” “The municipal authorities should develop a
model to ensure the same.”

In addition, at many landfill sites due to the lack of an effective waste recycling system, solid waste is burned without
segregating bio-degradable waste from non-biodegradable waste. This leads to the release of toxic gases that cause acute
respiratory diseases and environmental degradation

C o u n t r y n e e d s t o s o l v e i t s
w a s t e d i s p o s a l p r o b l e m
Segregation of waste should occur at the colony or neighbourhood level, when the waste is
collected. Recyclable waste like construction and demolition waste, organic waste like
household garbage, toxic waste like medical waste, are all mixed together

“Most of the construction and demolition waste can be recycled,” “It shouldn’t reach the
landfills to begin with. The municipal bodies should learn from countries abroad that recycle
most of their C&D waste.”

“We cannot quantify the amount of organic waste reaching us because it's all mixed,” a
South Delhi Municipal Corporation official said. Once mixed, it is impossible to segregate
recyclable waste from organic waste

S e g r e g a t i o n a n d
r e c y c l i n g o f w a s t e
Nearly 20% of methane gas emissions in India is caused by landfills. Travel past one of
these landfills and you are bound to see great spirals of smoke climbing the horizon, as
the trash catches fire due to the heat generated by the decomposition of waste

Most of these landfills have not been built according to accepted specifications. “Due to the
decomposition of inorganic waste, the ground water is contaminated,“ "There is also the
problem of leachate [when rainfall percolates through the waste in a landfill] because most
of these dumping grounds are not scientific landfills.”

A study by scientists at the School of Environmental Sciences in Jawaharlal Nehru

University found high levels of nickel, zinc, arsenic, lead, chromium and other metals in the
solid waste at landfills in metro cities, especially in Delhi

E n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s
Estimated waste generation in 2002 was 12 billion tonnes of which 11 billion tonnes
were industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tonnes were municipal solid wastes

Expected solid waste generation by year 2025 is around 19 billion tonnes

In India alone about 48 million tonnes of solid waste is being generated and out of
48 million tonnes of solid waste generated in India, C&D waste makes up 25%
Around 40% of construction waste is constituted by concrete waste

Concrete waste can be reprocessed and recycled to be used for applications in fresh
construction works.

Basic compositions of C&D Waste Concrete : 40 %
Ceramics: 30%
Wood : 10%
Plastics : 5%
Metal : 5%
Other : 10%
At present, private contractors remove this waste to privately owned, low-lying land for a price, or
more commonly, dump it in an unauthorized manner along roads or other public land.

Projections for housing sector indicate a shortage of approx. 55,000 million m3 of aggregates, while road
sector requires an additional 750 million m3 of aggregates approximately.

As much as about 25,000 tons of virgin aggregate are consumed per kilometer of pavement construction.

Recycling of C&D waste – An option for source of materials.

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and other codal provisions do not provide specifications for the
use of recycled products in construction activities.
Aggregates obtained from recycling of construction and demolition waste.

Recycled aggregate is produced by crushing concrete, and sometimes

asphalt, to reclaim the aggregate.

Recycling C&D waste (not a new concept) – Romans (often reused stones
from previous roads in rebuilding newer ones)

Technology basically involves crushing, sizing, and blending to meet the

required product mix.

Separate stationary or mobile recycling plants can be used to process

concrete waste, natural sand and gravel.

Recycled Concrete
Basic technique : Mechanical
– chemical
4 Beneficiation methods Beneficiation
Beneficiation by Mechanical abrasion
Beneficiation by Water soaking followed by Mechanical abrasion
Beneficiation by Hcl soaking followed by Chemical-Mechanical abrasion
Beneficiation by H2SO4 soaking followed by Chemical-Mechanical abrasion

Acid soaking : Using 0.1 Molar acidic solution for 24 hrs, makes the mortar brittle.
Abrasion : Based on Los Angeles Abrasion test
12 abrasive charges of 286 grams each (approx.)
Abrasion duration for 10 minutes
Using a concrete mixer – rotating drum type

B e n e f i c i a t i o n o f
A g g r e g a t e s
Untreated RCA Beneficiated RCA

Removed Adhered
Aggregate Type Removed Adhered Mortar (%)
Maximum mortar removal obtained for
5 Minutes 10 Minutes RCA beneficiated by H2SO4 soaking
Virgin Aggregate - - followed by Mechanical abrasion
Untreated RCA - -

Abraded RCA 9.16 19.5

RCA beneficiated using H2SO4 soaking
Water Soaked Abraded RCA 15.10 18.13 followed by Mechanical abrasion
HCL Soaked Abraded RCA 13.37 19.63 reported best properties all types of
beneficiated RCA.
H2SO4 Soaked Abraded RCA 11.53 22.76

Aggregate Type Specific Water Absorption Aggregate Crushing Value Abrasion All the RCA used henceforth in study were
Gravity (%) Impact Value (%) (%) Value (%)
initially beneficiated using H2SO4 soaking
followed by Mechanical abrasion
Natural Aggregate 2.677 0.274 13.88 17.775 19.24
Untreated RCA 2.417 3.18 22.23 19.42 23.21
Abraded RCA 2.560 2.75 17.00 17.50 20.23
Water Soaked Abraded 2.590 2.25 16.29 17.53 20.35
HCL Soaked Abraded 2.600 2.10 16.38 18.06 20.03
H2SO4 Soaked Abraded 2.660 1.88 15.67 17.91 19.96

A d h e r e d m o r t a r r e m o v a l a n d
A g g r e g a t e P r o p e r t i e s
Polarized microscope : Leica
Thin plate specimens of aggregates

IS: 2386 part VIII

A representative sample of RCA – 3 groups (A, B, C)
Each group – 2 RCA specimens (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2)
A representative NA sample – 2 specimens (N1, N2)

A g g r e g a t e : P e t r o g r a p h i c a n d
S E M I n v e s t i g a t i o n s
N2: Average grain size lying between 0.0625 mm to 2 mm,
grains were closely packed to one another. Very few
fractures in grains, sandstone rock.

Natural aggregates N1 & N2 : Sandstone

N1 N2
N1: Cementing particles were observed to be very little as the
grains were closely packed to one another. Average size of
grains was less than 250 microns approximately, also the
grains were observed to have fractured surfaces. Quartz
belonging to fine grained sandstone rock.

A petrographic microscope is a type of optical microscope used in petrology and optical mineralogy to identify rocks and minerals in
thin sections. The microscope is used in optical mineralogy and petrography, a branch of petrology which focuses on detailed
descriptions of rocks.

P e t r o g r a p h i c I m a g e s
3 groups (A, B, C)

A1 A2 B1 B2

A1, A2, B1 and B2 were observed to have majorly quartz grains closely packed
to one another thereby depicting good interlocking. C1 and C2 were found to
be silty sandstone rocks.
C2 This shows that the recycled concrete aggregates derived from demolished
concrete waste comprised mostly of quartzite or sandstone. Quartzite because of
good interlocking of its grain particles has better load bearing capabilities in
comparison to other rocks.
To study surface morphological variations between natural aggregate and recycled
concrete aggregates
During the test an electron beam elastically
collides with an atom of a compound and are
reflected from the surface thereby providing the
information regarding the crystal shape, size and
intensity of the compound.
In order to obtain the images of specimens under
SEM examination without any scanning faults,
the surface of specimen should be electrically
conductive. This is done by sputtering the surface
of specimen by ultrathin coating of an electrically
conductive material usually platinum or gold.

A scanning electron microscope is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused
beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the surface
topography and composition of the sample

SEM Investigations
Scanning electron microscope
These micro-cracks are incurred in weak
mortar when the concrete structure is
demolished under loading.

These cracks provide an entrance to

water and other elements which in future
will lead to disintegration of structure
thereby compromising with its durability.

Natural Aggregate Recycled Concrete Aggregate Such aggregates when incorporated in

fresh works without surface treatment
Natural aggregate surface free from any cracks or flaws
would lead to development of weak ITZ
Recycled concrete aggregates: micro-cracks visible on the surface. among aggregates and cement matrix, as
Small patches of adhered mortar could also be seen for recycled well as increase the porosity of structure.
concrete aggregates
Mechanical Properties Durability Properties

Slump Water Absorption

Compressive Strength Chloride Ion Concentration

Flexural Strength Sorptivity

Split tensile strength Carbonation

Hardened Density Abrasion resistance

Incorporation of RCA
Source of waste
materials in pavement
As Jorosite released from industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Due to the increasing annual production of jarosite, it is major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life.

Waste wastes/mineral

Jarosite is a waste material produced during extraction of zinc ore

Recycled aggregates concentrated by hydrometallurgy operations. At present, the annual

production of Jarosite is about 4 lacs metric tons and they are being
converted into new material called Jarofix by addition of 2% lime and and
• Construction & Demolition waste : Recycled 10% cement.
As Jorosite released from industrial process is complex and its quality and
Concrete Aggregates (RCA) quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Due to the increasing
• RAP : Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement annual production of jarosite, it is major source of pollution for surrounding
environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life.

•Use in Bituminous mixtures

Case Study
Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) can be defined as the

aggregates obtained when the existing flexible pavement is removed
either for construction, overlaying, resurfacing or to find the access
to underlying layers.
RAP in rigid pavement

Field studies
Usage of
RAP RAP in flexible

RAP in base and sub -base



RAP in rigid pavement : Literature

Author Title / Replacement Observations Gaps

(Year) Journal
Delwar Use of 100,75,50,25 * decrease in unit weight and •use of additives
et. Reclaime and 0% coarse slump with inclusion of RAP and admixtures
Al(1997) d Asphalt RAP while fine * decrease in compressive in RAP
Pavemen aggregate was strength with inclusion of RAP aggregates
t as an 100% RAP; and decrease in strength with • durability
Aggregat and vice-versa increase in w/c ratio studies
e in with w/c = 0.4 *longer curing periods required *microscopic
Portland and 0.5 for achieving higher strengths analysis
Cement *relatively high flexural capacity
Concrete - application as a pavement
; ACI material *stiffness of RAP
Materials concrete decreases with
Journal amount of RAP *RAP
concrete more flexible than
conventional concrete as it
Author Title / Journal Replaceme Observations Gaps
(Year) nt
Sommer & Concrete with coarse * acceptable RAP content of 40- •* replacement of
Bohrn Asphalt as replacemen 50%, beyond which insufficient fine aggregate
(1998) supplement t by RAP at strength and frost resistance for with RAP fine
(translated from 0,25,50,75 adequate pavement performance * inclusion of
Beton mit and 100% * strength of RAP concrete could other admixtures
Asphalt als be improved with reduction of w/c * other durability
Zuschlag); *decrease in compressive, split studies
Bundesminister tensile and flexural strength, frost
ium fur resistance and elastic modulus
wirtschaftliche with increase in coarse RAP
Angelegenheite * Addition of 7% silica fume
n resulted in higher compressive
strength, split tensile and flexural
strength and modulus of elasticity
and improved frost resistance
Author Title / Journal Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) ent
Hassann The use of in addition * lowest compressive and flexural •* Other reclaimed to control strength, greatest porosity and replacement level
(2000) asphalt mix, 100% oxygen permeability for combo • * durability
pavement coarse mix * similar compressive study
aggregates in RAP with and flexural strengths of 100% * use of other
concrete; natural coarse RAP and 30% flyash and admixtures
Waste sand, similar mix without flyash but with *microscopic
materials in 100% lower porosity and oxygen studies
construction coarse and permeability
fine RAP,
mix of
RAP and
30% flyash
as cement
Author Title / Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ent
Mathias Recycling *Coarse * compressive, split tensile •* other Reclaimed replaceme strength and elastic modulus replacement
(2004) Asphalt nt by RAP tested at 2,20 and 40 C, to test ratios
Pavement in at the temperature sensitivity * durabiltiy test
Concrete 0,12.5,26, * decrease in compressive, * microscopic
Roads; 51 and split tensile and elastic analysis
International 90% modulus with increase in RAP
RILEM *concrete became more
Conference sensitive to temperature as
on the Use of RAP content increases
Recycled * Thermal shrinkage test
Materials in showed cracks at the same
Buildings and time and same number of
Structures cracks - concrete RAP
behaved similar in terms of
thermal shrinkage to control
Author Title / Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ent
Huang Laboratory 100% *conventional methods & •*Use of field
et. al , investigation replaceme equipments can be used for RAP instead of
2005 of portland nt of conventional and RAP laboratory
cement coarse & concrete manufactured
concrete fine *systematic reduction in RAP * Studies
containing separately compressive strength & split with other
recycled and tensile strength replacement
asphalt combined ratios
pavement; *Investigate
Cement & flexural
Concrete strength,
Research durability
admixtures *
Treatment of
Author Title / Journal Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) ent
Huang et. Mechanical 10,30,50, *poor workability with all fine • Other
al (2006) properties of 100% RAP concrete * replacement
concrete coarse and For same RAP content :total level *
containing fine aggregate, fine RAP concrete durability study
recycled replaceme comp strength > coarse RAP * use of
asphalt nt concrete comp strength admixtures
pavement; separately *reduction in compressive *microscopic
Magazine of and strength studies
concrete combined * Coarse&fine RAP concrete
research with/out strength much less than coarse
silica fume RAP concrete and fine RAP
and / or concrete *no
HRWRA significant difference in
compressive strength with silica
fume in RAP concrete
*increase in strength in RAP
concrete with HRWRA
*improve post peak performance
of concrete * increase in
Author Title / Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ent
Al-Orami Recycling of 25,50,75,1 *Reduction in slump with •* use of mineral
et al Reclaimed 00% increase in RAP content and admixtures *
(2009) Asphalt coarse increase in w/c * durability
Pavement in replaceme fresh concrete density studies
Portland nt at w/c = decreases with increase in RAP * studies of
Cement 0.45 & 0.5 content * mixes with fine
Concrete; The reduction in compressive RAP
Journal of strength with RAP content, * microscopic
Engineering same reduction for 100% RAP studies
Research for both w/c ratio mix *
reduction in flexural strength
and modulus of elasticity with
increase in RAP content
Author Title / Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ent
Topcu Effects of 0,25,50,75 *found hardened unit weight, •* Testing of
I.B and crushed RAP ,100% compressive strength, flexural other durability
Isikdag B on free and replaceme strength, modulus of elasticity, properties and
(2009) restrained nt of fine ultrasound pulse velocity and mechanical
shrinkage of aggregate abrasive resistance decrease properties like
mortars; with fine with increase in % of RAP split tensile
International RAP in strength,
Journal of cement sorptivity etc.
Concrete mortar * inclusion of
Structures mineral
and materials admixtures as
*pretreatment of
* microscopic
Author Title / Replace Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ment
Okafor Performanc using *RAP concrete less •* More
F.O e of 100% workable than natural appropriate
(2010) Recycled crushed aggregate concrete testing method
Asphalt coarse *Lower compressive and to assess
Pavement RAP flexural strength of RAP aggregate
as Coarse aggregat concrete crushing value
Aggregate e at *Feasible to recycle waste since
in Concrete; proportio asphalt pavement for measurable
leonardo ns of concrete aggregate results were
Electronic 1:2:4 and not found
Journal of 1:3:6 with * Other
Practices w/c of replacement
and 0.5,0.6,0. level *
Technologie 7 use of fine
s RAP in
Author Title / Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ent
Hossiney Concrete *0,10,20,4 * reduction in compressive •* other
et. Al containing 0% strength, splitting tensile replacement
(2010) RAP for use replaceme strength, flexural strength and percentages
in concrete nt of elastic modulus with increase * mineral
pavement; coarse in RAP percentage admixtures in
International and fine *coefficient of thermal cement
Journal of aggregate expansion and drying concrete *
Pavement s with shrinkage not significantly durability
Research RAP affected by RAP content studies
and *maximum stress to flexural
Technology strength ratio reduced as
compared to reference
concrete with no RAP.
* concrete containing RAP
could possibly result in
improvement in performance
of concrete pavements
Author Title / Journal Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) ent
Bermel Feasibility of Coarse and • 28 day strength dependent on •* durability
B.N Reclaimed fine natural coarse and fine RAP content- studies *
(2011) Asphalt aggregates fine RAP affected the strength microscopic
Pavement as replaceme more than coarse RAP analysis
Aggregate in nt by RAP
Portland aggregate
Montana State
Author Title / Replacem Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ent
Solanki Mechanical Coarse * decrease in compressive and •* higher
and Dash properties of and fine flexural strength * replacement
(2015) concrete replaceme decrease due to weak bonding level between
containing nt in between the asphalt of RAP 50 and 100%
recycled concrete particles and cement-flyash * durability
asphalt with RAP matrix * mix of RAP and studies
pavement independe Class C Flyash in concrete mix *microscopic
and Class C ntly at can be used for driveways, studies
flyash; 2015 10,20 and sidewalks, gutters and patching * other
World of Coal 40% and cementatious
Ash (WOCA) cement materials and
Conference in replaceme activated flyash
Nashville nt with
flyash at
at w/c =
Author Title / Replace Observations Gaps
(Year) Journal ment
Brand Bonding in Cement * several chemical oxidative •* durability
A.S & cementitious mortar treatments of asphalt studies with the
Roesler materials study with improved the interfacial oxidative
J.R with asphalt 100 % cement-asphalt bond energy treatments and
(2017) coated fine RAP without affecting ITZ porosity with other
particles: and size * replacement
Part II - failure mode preferentially levels
cement occurred as asphalt cohesion
asphalt failure rather than cement-
chemical asphalt adhesion
and Building
Extraction of RAP


 According to IRC: 120-2015, Milling of

 Demolition & Crushing individual Layer is considered best.


Coarse 1. Silica Fume
Coarse RAP1 Fine RAP1 Fine RAP2
RAP2 2. Flyash
Petrographic Analysis 3. Bagasse Ash
Particle Size Distrib. Slump & Loss with time
Specific Gravity Aggregate Properties Density
Water Absorption Compressive Strength
Impact Value Dry Lean Concrete Flexural Strength
Abrasion Value (DLC) Split Tensile Strength
Crushing Value Pavement Quality Permeable Voids
Density Water Absorption
Concrete (PQC) Rate & Coefficient of
Elongation Field Suitability absorption
Flakiness (Test Track) Abrasion Resistance
MDD ITZ & Microstructure
Compressive Strength via specimens & FWD Alkalinity
Strength Curling Stresses via temperature Carbonation
Permeable Voids Fatigue Analysis via IRC:58 Sulphate Attack Resistance
Water Absorption Chloride Attack Resistance
PHASE-I Effect of service, stockpiling & milling method on aggregates properties
Worst and favorable conditions for RAP to be used for concrete mixes
Property Worst Condition Favorable Condition
Age: ~3 Years
Stockpiling : Zero
Asphalt Coating Very Soft Highly Stiff Reclamation: Controlled
Service Life of Section Less than 5 Years More than 15 Years Parent Layers: Up to DBM

Stockpiling Life No stockpiling More than 5 Months

Method of Reclamation Controlled Milling Uncontrolled Milling

Location: Gurukul Narson, NH-58, UK RAP1 Processing

Aggregate Procurement ………

Location: Manglaur, NH-58, UK Horizontal Crusher Open Environment Stockpiling

Age: ~20 Years
Stockpiling : 6 to 8 Months
Reclamation: Un-Controlled
Parent Layers: Up to DBM



Screening of COARSE and FINE RAP
Aggregate Properties
Asphalt Content
Asphalt Content (%)




Consistency Properties
Binder Penetration Value Softening Point
(dmm) (˚C)

RAP1 21 80.2
RAP2 1 101

Penetration Ring & Ball

Coarse Aggregate Properties
Particle Size Distribution 90

Cumulative Passing (%)


60 CR2

Lower Limit
Upper Limit



1 10 100
Sieve Size (mm)

Agglomerated Particles
Sieve Size (mm) Quantity of agglomerated particles
16 – 12.5 57.4 7.7
12.5 - 10 50.8 12.5
10 – 4.75 34 18.6
Total 38.06 15.42
Coarse Aggregate Properties………..
Properties of considered coarse aggregates
Specific Gravity 2.65 2.39 2.49
Water Absorption (%) 0.7 1.1 1.9
AIV (%) 16 9 13
ACV (%) 22 np 16
LAV (%) 23 16 20
Elongation Value (%) 14 20 13
Flakiness Value (%) 16 3 17
Voids (%) 42 46 41
Density (kg/m3) 1539 1401 1497

Elongation & Flakiness Index Density & Voids

Fine Aggregate Properties………..

Fine 80 FR2 Zone I Upper Limits

RAP1 70 Zone I Lower Limits Zone II Upper Limits

Cumulative Passing (%)

(FR1) 60
Zone II Lower Limits




Fine RAP2
(FR2) 0
0.1 Sieve Size (mm) 1 10

Properties of considered fine aggregates

Property FNA FR1 FR2
Reason for
gap-graded Fineness Modulus 2.65 4.43 3.38
Specific Gravity 2.61 2.32 2.25
Water Absorption (%) 0.8 0.6 2.46
Voids (%) 28 43 30
Density (kg/m3) 1869 1313 1576
Conclusions from Phase I
Significant effect of service life, stockpiling duration and method of milling of properties
of RAP aggregates.
 Higher service life, more oxidation and thus brittle asphalt film with
Service life less agglomerated particles.
 Less agglomerated particles, more specific gravity & density and
lesser voids between aggregates.
Stockpiling Duration  More stockpiling duration, accelerated oxidation, least agglomerated
particles and superior aggregate properties
 Controlled Milling will always yield coarser and gap-graded fine
Reclamation Technique aggregates.
 Uncontrolled milling may provide with relatively well graded fine RAP.
However, would increase the water absorption of aggregates.
RAP in Rigid Pavement Slab – Field Studies
Other field studies of RAP in rigid pavements

1. FHWA 2015, in their second phase, evaluated the field performance of high RAP (50% FA &100% CA) and high
strength (25% FA & 50% CA) mixes by constructing individual slabs (15x15x10 foot) for these mixes on a
roadway near Lewistown, MT. The mixes were processed by using conventional machinery both for laying and

– The performance was monitored for 2 years via site visits and internal vibrating wire strain gauges.

– It was found that no cracking or spalling were present in both slabs. Internal gauges showed that no
excessive shrinkage or curling was present but high RAP mix slab had experienced more shrinkage
than high strength mix slab which clearly suggest that RAP up to 50% coarse and 25% fine can be
used in rigid pavement slab.
RAP in flexible pavement

Highway agency Max amount of RAP (%)

Alabama Permeable asphalt treated base – 0
Open graded friction course – 0
Stone mastic asphalt – 15
Superpave & Improved bituminous - 20
Arkansas 30%
California 15% in new Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)
Colorado 15%
Connecticut 40%
Florida 50% by weight if ESAL < 10000000
30% by weight if ESAL > 10000000
Georgia 40% for continuous mix type plant
Iowa 30% of asphalt binder in final surface course mixture
India 30%
RAP in base & sub-base

Author Max amount of RAP (%)

Hoppe Upto 50% by weight
Thakur geocell reinforced RAP or blending with other recycled aggregates

RAP in Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement

Author Max amount of RAP (%)
Thakur geocell reinforced RAP or blending with other recycled aggregates
Publications wrt RAP : Dr.G.D.Rasinchung R.N
Ransinchung G.D.R.N

., Ransinchung G.D.R.N

Ransinchung G.D.R.N

Ransinchung G.D. R.N

Ransinchung G.D.R.N
Ransinchung G.D.R.N.,


Ransinchung G.D.R.N., (2018).

Ransinchung G.D.R.N. (2018).

Ransinchung G.D.R.N. (2018).

Ransinchung G.D.R.N. (2018).

Ransinchung G.D.R.N.,

Ransinchung G.D.R.N.,

Ransinchung G.D.R.N

Ransinchung G.D.R.N.,

Ransinchung G.D.R.N.,

Ransinchung G.D.R.N

18.Ransinchung G.D.R.N