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DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

CHAPTER-10

DATA PROCESSING
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AND CASES,AND
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DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII SLIDE 10-1

The data preparation process


DATA EDITING

DATA CODING

DATA CLASSIFICATION
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DATA TABULATION

EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS

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Field work validation


DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

Pre-survey
 In case the form has been translated into another language
 The questionnaire survey has to be done at multiple
locations and if one has outsourced to outside research
investigators , thus there might have been discrepancy in
conduction or recording

Post-survey
 The qualifying instructions like-“in case answer is -----
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please answer the next set of questions else go to


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question-------.” were overlooked.


 The respondent seems to have used the same response
category for all the questions.
 The form that is received back is incomplete.
 The form has been filled in by someone who is not
representative of the population to be studied.
 The forms are not in proportion to the sampling plan.

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SLIDE 10-3

Benefits of data editing


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 The data obtained is complete in all respects.

 It is accurate in terms of information recorded and


responses sought.
 Questionnaires are legible and are correctly
deciphered, especially the open ended questions.
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 The response format is in the form that was


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instructed.
 The data is structured in a manner that entering the
information will not be a problem.

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SLIDE 10-4

Data editing
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

Field editing: usually done by the field investigators


at the end of every field day the investigator(s) who
must review the filled forms for any inconsistencies,
non-response, illegible responses or incomplete
questionnaires.

Centralized in-house editing: usually done at the


researcher’s end.
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 Backtracking
 Allocating missing values
 Plug value
 Discarding unsatisfactory responses

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SLIDE 10-5

Data coding
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

The process of identifying and denoting a numeral to


the responses given by the respondent is called
coding
 Field

 Record
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 File

 Data matrix

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SLIDE 10-6

Data coding
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

Sample record: Excel sheet for two-wheeler owners

Vehicle
Column 3 Km/day Family size
Unit occupation Column 4 Marital status Column 6
Column 1 Column 2 Column 5
1 4 1 20 1 3
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2 3 2 25 2 1
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3 5 1 25 1 4
4 2 1 15 2 2
5 4 2 20 2 4
6 5 2 35 2 6
7 1 1 40 1 3
8 5 2 20 2 4

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DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII SLIDE 10-7

Code book formulation


 Appropriate to the research objective

 Comprehensive

 Mutually exclusive

 Single variable entry


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SLIDE 10-8

Pre-Coding
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

closed-ended questions
 Dichotomous questions:
Do you eat ready-to-eat food? Yes=1; no=0 (X-1)
 Ranking questions

Q.NO. Variable name Coding instructions Variable name


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1. Balika Badhu Number from 1-10 X 10a


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2. Sathiya Number from 1-10 X 10b


3. Sasural Genda Phool Number from 1-10 X 10c
4. Bidai Number from 1-10 X 10d
5. Pathshala Number from 1-10 X 10e
6. Bandini Number from 1-10 X 10f
7. Laptaganj Number from 1-10 X 10g
8. Sajan Ghar Jaaana Hai Number from 1-10 X 10h
9. Tere Liye Number from 1-10 X 10i
10. Uttaran Number from 1-10 X 10j

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SLIDE 10-9
Pre-Coding
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

Closed-ended questions
 Checklists/multiple responses
How many columns will you make for the following
question?
Which of the following newspapers do you read (tick all that you read)

Times of India --------------------


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Hindustan Times ---------------------


Mail Today ----------------------
Indian Express ---------------------
Deccan Chronicle ---------------------
Asian Age ----------------------
Mint ----------------------.

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SLIDE 10-10
Pre-Coding
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

Closed-ended questions
Scaled questions
Col.no. Variable name Coding instructions Variable name
1. Individual shops more A number from 1 to 5 X 1a
SA = 5, A = 4, N = 3, D =
2, SD = 1
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2. Well informed - do - X 1b
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3. Knows what to buy - do - X 1c


4. More spending money - do - X 1d
5. More shopping options - do - X 1e

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SLIDE 10-11
Sample code book extract
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Symbol
Question used for
Variable Name Coding Instruction
No. variable
name
Yes = 1
1. Buy ready to eat food products X1
No = 0
Yes = 1
2. Use ready to eat food products X2
No = 0
Less than 20 yrs = 1,
21 to 26 years = 2,
22. Age 27 to 35 years = 3, X22
36 to 45 years = 4,
More than 45 years = 5
Male = 1
23. Gender X23
Female = 2
Single = 1
24. Marital status Married = 2 X24
Divorced/widow = 3
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25. No. of children Exact no. to be written X25


One to two = 1,
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26. Family size Three to five = 2, X26


Six & more = 3
Rs.20000 to Rs.34999 = 1,
Rs.35000 to Rs.50000 = 2,
27. Monthly household income X27
Rs.50001 to Rs.74999 = 3
Rs.75000 & above = 4
Less than graduation = 1
28. Education Graduation = 2 X28
Post graduation & above = 3
Student = 1
Businessman = 2
Professional = 3
29. Occupation X29
Service = 4
Housewife = 5
Others = 6

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SLIDE 10-12
Post-Coding
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

Open-ended questions
If you think Lean was a success so far, please specify
three most significant reasons that have contributed to its
success in your opinion?
Col.no. Variable name Coding instructions Variable name

63. Improvement at work place by eliminating waste. Yes = 1 X 63a


No = 0
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64 To meet increasing demands of customers Yes = 1 X 63b


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No = 0
65 To improve quality Yes = 1 X 63c
No = 0
66 To achieve corporate goal Yes = 1 X 63d
No = 0
67 It reduces cycle time of the manufacturing & Yes = 1
X 63e

production. No = 0

68 Reduced response time Yes = 1 X 63f


No = 0
69 Enhanced innovation and creativity Yes = 1 X 63g
No = 0

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SLIDE 10-13

Classification and tabulation of data


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 Classification by attributes: mostly categorical

 Classification by class intervals: this could be


exclusive or inclusive
 Tabulation: arrangement of data into an orderly
arrangement of rows and columns in order to subject
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it to statistical analysis

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SLIDE 10-14
Exploratory data analysis
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

Sample characteristics: age group of the sample

Age groups frequency percent

20-25 27 27.0
26-30 37 37.0
31-35 9 9.0
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36-40 22 22.0
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41-45 3 3.0
46 & above 2 2.0
Total 100 100.0

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SLIDE 10-15
Exploratory data analysis
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pie charts
Age Group

20-25
26-30
31-35
36-40
41-45
46 & Above
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SLIDE 10-16
Exploratory data analysis
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bar charts
Age Group

40

30
Frequency

20
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10

0
20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46 & Above

Age Group

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SLIDE 10-17
Exploratory data analysis
DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII

histograms
Histogram

6
Frequency

4
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Mean =18.3553
Std. Dev. =6.55777
0
N =15
10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
purchase in gms

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SLIDE 10-18
Exploratory data analysis
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stem and leaf diagrams


Purchase distribution of customers purchase of
gold jewellery

13 1339
15 668
16 36
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17 37
18 2
22 2
31 0
35 6

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DDRR NNEEEENN AA SS OO NN DDHHIIII SLIDE 10-19

Statistical software packages


 MS EXCEL

 MINITAB

 System for Statistical Analysis(SAS)

 Statistical Software for Social Sciences(SPSS)


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END OF CHAPTER
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