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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

Assignment Topic:
Causes of False Differential Currents
Submitted By:
Abdul Hameed
Registration No:
2015-EE-706
Submitted to:
Doctor Shehzad
Content Page

We will study:
Causes of False Differential Currents
1. Magnetizing Inrush Current During Energization
2. Harmonic Content of the Inrush Current
3. Magnetizing Inrush During Fault Removal
4. Sympathetic inrush
5. Transformer Over excitation
6. CT Saturation
Causes of False Differential Currents

 The percentage differential relay described above takes care of the relatively
small values of differential currents which flow in the relay during normal
load flow conditions, or during an external fault.
 However, certain other phenomena cause a substantial differential current to
flow, when there is no fault, and these false differential currents are
generally sufficient to cause a percentage differential relay to trip, unless
some special precautions are taken.
 All such phenomena can be traced to the nonlinearities in the transformer
core, or in the CT core or in both. We will now consider the effects of these
nonlinearities.
1. Magnetizing Inrush Current During Energization

 When a transformer is first energized, a transient magnetizing inrush current


may flow. This inrush current, which appears as an internal fault to the
differentially connected relays, may reach instantaneous peaks of 8 to 30
times those for full load.
 The factors controlling the duration and magnitude of the magnetizing inrush
current are:
 Size and location of the transformer bank
 Size of the power system
 Resistance in the power system from the source to the transformer bank
 Type of iron used in the transformer core and its saturation density
 Prior history, or residual flux level, of the bank
 How the bank is energized
Contd.

 When a fault external to, but near, the transformer is removed by the
appropriate circuit breaker, the conditions inside the transformer core are
quite similar to those during magnetization of the transformer.
 As the voltage applied to the transformer windings jumps from a low pre-fault
value to the normal (or larger) post-fault value, the flux linkages in the
transformer core are once again forced to change from a low pre-fault value
to a value close to normal.
 Depending upon the instant at which the fault is removed, the transition may
force a DC offset on the flux linkages, and primary current waveforms similar
to those encountered during energization would result. It should be noted
that as there is no remnant flux in the core during this process; the inrush is
in general smaller than that during the transformer energization.
2. Harmonic Content of the Inrush Current
 The false operation of a percentage differential relay for a transformer is
prevented by taking advantage of the fact that the inrush current is rich in
harmonic components While the fault current is a pure fundamental
frequency component (except for a possible decaying DC component).
 Let us calculate the harmonic components of a typical inrush current
waveform.
 We will assume a simplified waveform for the inrush current. Let the
magnetizing characteristic be a vertical line in the A-i plane, and be a
straight line with a finite slope in the saturated region.
 Then, the expression for the current waveform is
3. Magnetizing Inrush During Fault Removal

 When a fault external to, but near, the transformer is removed by the
appropriate circuit breaker, the conditions inside the transformer core are
quite similar to those during magnetization of the transformer.
 As the voltage applied to the transformer windings jumps from a low pre-fault
value to the normal (or larger) post-fault value, the flux linkages in the
transformer core are once again forced to change from a low pre-fault value
to a value close to normal.
 Depending upon the instant at which the fault is removed, the transition may
force a DC offset on the flux linkages, and primary current waveforms similar
to those encountered during energization would result. It should be noted
that as there is no remnant flux in the core during this process; the inrush is
in general smaller than that during the transformer energization.
4. Sympathetic inrush

 When a bank is paralleled with a second energized bank, the energized bank
can experience a sympathetic inrush.
 The offset inrush current of the bank being energized will find a parallel path
in the energized bank.
 The dc component may saturate the transformer iron. creating an apparent
inrush.
 The magnitude of this inrush depends on the value of the transformer
impedance relative to that of the rest of the system, which forms an
additional parallel circuit.
 Again, the sympathetic inrush will always be less than the initial inrush.
Contd.
 The total current at breaker C is the sum
of the initial inrush of bank A and the
sympathetic inrush of bank B.
 Since this waveform looks like an offset
fault current, it could cause disoperation
if a common set of harmonic restraint
differential relays were used for both
banks.
 Unit-type generator and transformer
combinations have no initial inrush
problem because the unit is brought up
to full voltage gradually.
 Recovery and sympathetic inrush may be
a problem, but as indicated above, these
conditions are less severe than initial
inrush.
5. Transformer Over excitation

 During load rejection and certain other operating conditions, a transformer may
be subjected to a steady-state overvoltage at its nominal frequency.
 During over excitation, the transformer flux remains symmetric, but goes into
saturation for equal periods in the positive and the negative half-periods of the
waveform.
 When the cosine Fourier series for this current is calculated, it turns out that all
even harmonics are identically zero.
 The odd harmonics are twice those given by Equation, due to the contributions
from the negative half-cycle of the current wave.
Contd.
 Calculation is

 Waveform is
6. CT Saturation
 For certain external faults, where the fault currents are large, it is likely that
one of the CTs may saturate.
 (We will disregard the possibility of CT remnant flux for the present
discussion).
 The differential current in the relay will then equal the shaded area, which is
the difference between the unsaturated current waveform and the saturated
current waveform. The equation for the shaded current waveform is

 This being an odd function of θ, a sine Fourier series would be appropriate to


determine its harmonic content.
 It is left as an exercise for the reader to show that this waveform contains no
even harmonics, and that there is a significant third harmonic component in
the current.
Reference

 power_system_relaying_by_stanley_h_horowitz_4th
 https://www.slideshare.net/JoeloRoss/abb-transformersprotectioncourse-
2001