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Assignment Topic:

Causes of False Differential Currents

Submitted By:

Abdul Hameed

Registration No:

2015-EE-706

Submitted to:

Doctor Shehzad

Content Page

We will study:

Causes of False Differential Currents

1. Magnetizing Inrush Current During Energization

2. Harmonic Content of the Inrush Current

3. Magnetizing Inrush During Fault Removal

4. Sympathetic inrush

5. Transformer Over excitation

6. CT Saturation

Causes of False Differential Currents

The percentage differential relay described above takes care of the relatively

small values of differential currents which ﬂow in the relay during normal

load ﬂow conditions, or during an external fault.

However, certain other phenomena cause a substantial differential current to

ﬂow, when there is no fault, and these false differential currents are

generally sufﬁcient to cause a percentage differential relay to trip, unless

some special precautions are taken.

All such phenomena can be traced to the nonlinearities in the transformer

core, or in the CT core or in both. We will now consider the effects of these

nonlinearities.

1. Magnetizing Inrush Current During Energization

may flow. This inrush current, which appears as an internal fault to the

differentially connected relays, may reach instantaneous peaks of 8 to 30

times those for full load.

The factors controlling the duration and magnitude of the magnetizing inrush

current are:

Size and location of the transformer bank

Size of the power system

Resistance in the power system from the source to the transformer bank

Type of iron used in the transformer core and its saturation density

Prior history, or residual flux level, of the bank

How the bank is energized

Contd.

When a fault external to, but near, the transformer is removed by the

appropriate circuit breaker, the conditions inside the transformer core are

quite similar to those during magnetization of the transformer.

As the voltage applied to the transformer windings jumps from a low pre-fault

value to the normal (or larger) post-fault value, the ﬂux linkages in the

transformer core are once again forced to change from a low pre-fault value

to a value close to normal.

Depending upon the instant at which the fault is removed, the transition may

force a DC offset on the ﬂux linkages, and primary current waveforms similar

to those encountered during energization would result. It should be noted

that as there is no remnant ﬂux in the core during this process; the inrush is

in general smaller than that during the transformer energization.

2. Harmonic Content of the Inrush Current

The false operation of a percentage differential relay for a transformer is

prevented by taking advantage of the fact that the inrush current is rich in

harmonic components While the fault current is a pure fundamental

frequency component (except for a possible decaying DC component).

Let us calculate the harmonic components of a typical inrush current

waveform.

We will assume a simpliﬁed waveform for the inrush current. Let the

magnetizing characteristic be a vertical line in the A-i plane, and be a

straight line with a ﬁnite slope in the saturated region.

Then, the expression for the current waveform is

3. Magnetizing Inrush During Fault Removal

When a fault external to, but near, the transformer is removed by the

appropriate circuit breaker, the conditions inside the transformer core are

quite similar to those during magnetization of the transformer.

As the voltage applied to the transformer windings jumps from a low pre-fault

value to the normal (or larger) post-fault value, the ﬂux linkages in the

transformer core are once again forced to change from a low pre-fault value

to a value close to normal.

Depending upon the instant at which the fault is removed, the transition may

force a DC offset on the ﬂux linkages, and primary current waveforms similar

to those encountered during energization would result. It should be noted

that as there is no remnant ﬂux in the core during this process; the inrush is

in general smaller than that during the transformer energization.

4. Sympathetic inrush

When a bank is paralleled with a second energized bank, the energized bank

can experience a sympathetic inrush.

The offset inrush current of the bank being energized will find a parallel path

in the energized bank.

The dc component may saturate the transformer iron. creating an apparent

inrush.

The magnitude of this inrush depends on the value of the transformer

impedance relative to that of the rest of the system, which forms an

additional parallel circuit.

Again, the sympathetic inrush will always be less than the initial inrush.

Contd.

The total current at breaker C is the sum

of the initial inrush of bank A and the

sympathetic inrush of bank B.

Since this waveform looks like an offset

fault current, it could cause disoperation

if a common set of harmonic restraint

differential relays were used for both

banks.

Unit-type generator and transformer

combinations have no initial inrush

problem because the unit is brought up

to full voltage gradually.

Recovery and sympathetic inrush may be

a problem, but as indicated above, these

conditions are less severe than initial

inrush.

5. Transformer Over excitation

During load rejection and certain other operating conditions, a transformer may

be subjected to a steady-state overvoltage at its nominal frequency.

During over excitation, the transformer ﬂux remains symmetric, but goes into

saturation for equal periods in the positive and the negative half-periods of the

waveform.

When the cosine Fourier series for this current is calculated, it turns out that all

even harmonics are identically zero.

The odd harmonics are twice those given by Equation, due to the contributions

from the negative half-cycle of the current wave.

Contd.

Calculation is

Waveform is

6. CT Saturation

For certain external faults, where the fault currents are large, it is likely that

one of the CTs may saturate.

(We will disregard the possibility of CT remnant ﬂux for the present

discussion).

The differential current in the relay will then equal the shaded area, which is

the difference between the unsaturated current waveform and the saturated

current waveform. The equation for the shaded current waveform is

determine its harmonic content.

It is left as an exercise for the reader to show that this waveform contains no

even harmonics, and that there is a signiﬁcant third harmonic component in

the current.

Reference

power_system_relaying_by_stanley_h_horowitz_4th

https://www.slideshare.net/JoeloRoss/abb-transformersprotectioncourse-

2001

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