A Presentation On

Design and Implementation of Multiple Routing Configuration to Detect Network Failure

Seminar by


Sriharsha .M,
USN: 5ZC08SCN22, M.Tech(CNE-FT), NIE ± Mysore.

Dr. K. Raghuveer,
Professor & Head, Dept of IS&E, NIE ± Mysore.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Preface Existing System Proposed System Multiple Routing Network Recovery Requirements Specification Features of Multi Routing Configurations System Design System Implementation System Testing Conclusion and Future Scope Screenshots

Problem Statement
Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem.

Causes of Network Failure
‡ Typical events that cause network failures are accidental cable cuts, hardware malfunctions, software errors, natural disasters (e.g., floods, fires, etc.), and human error (e.g., incorrect repair or maintenance, etc.)

Moreover. ‡ A study says 20% of the failures are due to planned maintenance and more than 85% of the unplanned failures affect only a single link or share a single router. even in well-managed and well provisioned networks. routine maintenance. . a majority of these failures are transient: 46% last less than a minute and 86% last less than ten minutes. and accidental fiber cuts.Preface ‡ Failures occur frequently due to various causes such as faulty interfaces. router crashes.

each router individually calculates new valid routing tables. . ‡ This re-convergence assumes full distribution of the new link state to all routers in the network domain. ‡ When the new state information is distributed. since IGP routing protocols like OSPF are designed to update the forwarding information based on the changed topology after a failure.Existing System ‡ In existing system IP networks are intrinsically robust.

and a link or node failure is typically followed by a period of routing instability.Existing System Limitations of Existing System ‡ Network-wide IP re-convergence is a time consuming process. packets may be dropped due to invalid routes and has an adverse effect on real-time applications. too rapid triggering of the re-convergence process can cause route flapping and increased network instability. ‡ A key problem is that since most network failures are short lived. ‡ During this period. .

and allows packet forwarding to continue over an alternative preconfigured output link immediately after the detection of a failure. . and without knowing the root cause of the failure. ‡ System is strictly connectionless. and assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures.Proposed System ‡ Proposed system exhibits recovery in all single failure scenarios. ‡ It is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers.

‡ It can be implemented with only minor changes to the existing solutions. .Proposed System Advantages ‡ System is proactive and local protection mechanism. hence fast.

‡ These multiple paths can be used either in case of failures as backup paths to replace the primary path. ‡ Multipath routing via splitting helps to increase the network performance by balancing the network traffic and consequently decreasing the queuing delay that the data packets experience. .Multiple Routing ‡ More than one path is discovered for a given source-destination pair. ‡ They can be used simultaneously in the routing process of different data packets via splitting.

Multiple Routing Multiple Routing Scenario Area 0 SW0 1 2 F0/0 3 Area 2 S1/0 R3 F1/0 S0/0 FR1 Area 1 F0/0 S1/0 R4 1 2 S0/0 FR0 3 S0/0 S0/1 R5 S0/2 S0/0 FR2 R6 External EIGRP Router S0/0 FR3 .

Multiple Routing Hop by Hop Forwarding Destination R2 20.0/16 10.3.0/16 20.0/24 Next Hop R3 R3 R2 direct direct R2 .1.0/24 10.1.0/24 10.1.0/16 20.1.0/24 10.0/24 10.1.0/28 Next Hop R1 R1 direct R4 direct direct Destination 10.0/24 10.0/28 20.0/28 Next Hop R3 direct direct R3 R2 R2 Destination 20.1.0/24 10.1.0/28 Next Hop direct direct R4 direct R4 R4 Destination 10.0/28 Next Hop R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 direct H2 10.0/16 30.2.0/24 20.2.0/24 10.0/16 R4 Destination 10.1.0/24 Next Hop direct R3 R3 R3 R3 R3 Destination 10.0/24 20.0/24 10.0/24 10.1.0/24 20.0/24 R1 H1 10.0/24 10.0/16 20.0/24 R3 10.

many criteria are required to be considered for a network recovery design. following it. After it. the reversion cycle. . For example.the recovery cycle and. etc. the convergence time of the recovery process. the network is considered operational again. ‡ After the fault repair. the reversion cycle redirects the traffic from the backup path back to the working primary path. ‡ In network recovery there are two main cycles. the cost of traffic rerouting.Network Recovery ‡ Since network recovery is multi-dimensional in terms of characteristics. ‡ The recovery cycle detects a fault and restores traffic onto the backup paths.

it may or may not be optimal to reroute all the traffic back to the repaired primary path. However. considering the cost of rerouting traffic.Network Recovery Recovery and Reversion Process ‡ It is very common that backup paths are usually less optimal than the primary path. .

5 .40 GB or higher ‡ Monitor .3 ± IDE ‡ Windows XP SP2 .Display panel (640 x 480) Software Requirements ‡ SUN JDK 1.Requirements Specification Hardware Requirements ‡ PC (Intel Pentium Processor with more than 500 MHz) ‡ RAM .256 MB ‡ Hard Disk .Operating System .Java development kit ‡ Eclipse Europa 3.

. MRC involves ‡ Creating backup configurations. ‡ Calculate configuration specific shortest paths and create forwarding tables in each router.Features of Multi Routing Configurations ‡ MRC is based on building a small set of backup routing configurations that are used to route recovered traffic on alternate paths after a failure. ‡ Forwarding process that takes advantage of the backup configurations to provide fast recovery from a component failure.

and forwarded on an alternative interface towards its destination. ‡ MRC does not affect the failure-free original routing. a normal re-convergence will be triggered.Features of Multi Routing Configurations ‡ Construct configuration where link or node is not used to forward traffic in a network. ‡ Packets that would normally be forwarded over the failed interface are marked as belonging to a backup configuration. so the routers along the path know which configuration to use. ‡ The packets must be marked with a configuration identifier. ‡ If a failure lasts for more than a specified time interval. .

System Architecture Client Router A Router B Router C Server .System Design ‡ System design is a process of problem solving and planning for a software solution.

System Design System Flow Chart Source Source sends file to destination Routing is done Multi routing configurations Router fails Yes Backup configuration is done No Connects to another router Source side information is sent from the damaged router File transferred to destination Destination .

System Design ‡ A use case diagram is a type of behavioral diagram defined by UML created from a Use Case analysis. Client Select file View file path View file size Send file View router status .

System Design Router View file View file size View router Status Server View files received .

Source File Processing Router Backup Configuration Destination File Transmitting Sending file to router Router failure Information to source Transmitting file using backup configuration .System Design ‡ Sequence Diagrams are an easy and intuitive way of describing the behavior of a system by viewing the interaction between the system and its environment.

which is same in all configurations. ‡ Network topology will be represented as graph G= (N. and the associated link weights. which differ among configurations. ‡ In the backup configurations. Like ³isolated´ links that do not carry traffic and ³restricted´ links that carry traffic only if no other path available. with a set of nodes N and a set of unidirectional links (arcs) A. selected links and nodes must not carry any transit traffic.System Design Configuration Structure ‡ Configurations are defined by the network topology. A). .

1 2 3 4 6 2 5 3 ‡ Isolated node: All adjacent links at 1 least restricted. Restricted link: High weight.System Design Isolated Links and Nodes ‡ Isolated link: Infinite weight. ‡ Combinations possible. Normal Isolated Restricted 23 1 4 6 2 5 3 4 6 5 .

Normal Configuration 7 6 1 4 2 5 0 3 C0 .System Design ‡ Distinguish between the normal configuration as C0. and backup configuration as Ci. i >0 can be made.

System Design Building Configurations 6 1 7 7 2 5 0 3 0 5 3 0 6 1 7 2 5 3 6 1 4 4 4 2 C1 C2 C3 .

System Design Forwarding 6 1 7 7 2 5 0 3 0 5 6 1 4 4 2 3 .

‡ Forwarding process. A) Ci Si Bi A (u) (u. Notations G= (N. v) pi (u. v) in configuration Ci The total weight of the links in path p in configuration Ci The weight of a restricted link The number of configurations to generate (algorithm input) . v) wi (p) wr n Graph comprising nodes N and directed links (arcs) A The graph with link weights as in configuration i The set of isolated nodes in configuration Ci The backbone in configuration Ci The set of links from node u The directed link from node u to v A given shortest path between nodes u and v in Ci The nodes on path p The links on path p The weight of link (u.System Implementation Modules ‡ Network module. ‡ Route configuration. v) N (p) A (p) wi (u.

System Implementation Algorithm for Configuration .

System Implementation Packet Forwarding Packet arrives Switched configuration before? No Lookup in neighbor¶s backup configuration Output link failed? No Yes Failed link returned? No Forward 29 Yes Drop packet Normal lookup Yes Lookup in own backup configuration .

‡ Integration Testing.System Testing Levels of Testing ‡ Unit Testing. ‡ System and Acceptance Testing. Test Cases-Unit Testing Actual Output Sl. No 1 Test Case Client Server Communication Input Socket connection established between client and server Expected Result Client request to be processed Same as excepted Pass Result .

The server is expected to receive data and display the same form client2. The request from client2 should be processed by idle router.System Testing Blackbox Testing Sl. should display data The server should receive the data Send data from client2 to server via Browse any file and click on send 2 router First identified router should fails to process the request and acknowledge the same The next identified router will process the request and acknowledge the same. No 1 Test Case Input Expected Output First identified router should fails to process the request and acknowledge the same The next identified router will process the request and acknowledge the same. Same as expected Pass Same as expected Same as expected Pass Pass Same as expected Pass Same as expected Same as expected Pass Pass Same as expected Pass Actual Output Same as expected Pass Result Send data from client1 to server via Browse any file and click on send router . Server is expected to receive data from client1 first As soon as server receives data from client1. should display data The server should receive the data 3 Send data simultaneously from client1 and clent2 to server via router Browse any file from client1 and client2 click on send simultaneously Request from client1 should be processed and acknowledged by router.

‡ Covers link and node failures. ‡ Modest state overhead. . Incremental topology changes. Multi-fault tolerance.Conclusion and Future Scope ‡ Assured single-fault tolerance. local recovery. Multicast node-fault tolerance. ‡ Need not know the root cause of failure.Load balancing. ‡ Rapid. ‡ Future scope. Loop-free convergence.

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