You are on page 1of 33


At the end of this chapter student should be

able to:
a) Identify durability characteristics (CO1-
b) Extract the sub-frames from the main
frame of structure.(CO2-PO10)
c) Analyze the braced frame. (CO2-PO10)
d) Analyze the un-braced frame. (CO2-
1. What type of distress
2. Explain the possibility causes
3. How to rectify/overcome the problem
 Durability requirements are to ensure that a
structure has satisfactory durability and
serviceability performance for intended purpose
under working environment for the life-time of
the structure
 A durable concrete element is one that is
designed and constructed to protect embedded
metal from corrosion and to perform
 To achieve this it is necessary to consider many
interrelated factors at various stages in the
design and construction process.
EC2 recommends simple rules
concerning the concrete mix and cover to
reinforcement, minimum member
dimension, and limits to reinforcement
quantities and spacing which must be
taken into account at the member sizing
and reinforcement detailing stage.
The nominal cover (Clause 4.4.1 EN1992-1-1) can be assessed as

Cnom = Cmin + DCdev

Where Cmin shall be provided in order to ensure:
•The safe transmission of bond forces (Table 4.2 EN 1992-1-1)
•The protection of steel against corrosion (Durability) (Table
4.4N EN 1992-1-1)
•An adequate fire resistance (Table 5.5 & 5.6 EN 1992-1-2)
•Cmin = asd - link – (bar /2)
• asd = a + 10mm
And DCdev (Clause EN 1992-1-1) is and allowance which
should be made in the design for deviation from the minimum
cover. It should be taken as 10 mm. It is permitted to reduce to 5
mm if the fabrication subjected to a quality assurance system.
Table 4.2 (EN 1992-1-1) : Minimum cover, cmin,b requirements with regard to bond
Arrangement of Minimum cover cmin,b*
Separated Diameter of bar
Bundle Equivalent diameter
n =  nb ≤ 55 mm
Where nb is the number of bars in the bundle,
which is limited to
nb ≤ 4 for vertical bars in compression
nb ≤ 3 for all other cases
* If the nominal maximum aggregate size is > 32 mm, cmin,b should
be increased by 5 mm
Table 4.4N (EN1992-1-1): Min cover, cmin,dur requirements for durability

Exposure Class according to Table 4.1 EC 2

Class XC2/XC
X0 XC1 XC4 XD1/XS1 XD2/XS2 XD3/XS3
S1 10 10 10 15 20 25 30

S2 10 10 15 20 25 30 35

S3 10 10 20 25 30 35 40

S4 10 15 25 30 35 40 45

S5 15 20 30 35 40 45 50

S6 20 25 35 40 45 50 55
Table 5.5 & 5.6 (EN 1992-1-2) Minimum dimension and axis distance for beams
for fire resistance
 The minimum area of reinforcement that must be
provided within tensile zone specified in Section
7.3.2 is as follows:
As,min = kc k fct, eff Act / fyk
 The minimum area of reinforcement for beam
specified in Section 9.2.1 is as follows:
As, min = 0.26(fctm/fyk)btd but not less than

 The limits As,max specified by EC2 in Section 9.2.1

is 0.04Ac for tension or compression reinforcement.
 The minimum distance between bars is to
permit concrete flows around reinforcement
during construction and to ensure that concrete
can be compacted satisfactorily for the
development of adequate bond.

 As specified in section 8.2 EN 1992-1-1 the clear

distance between bars should not be less than
the maximum of:
(i) the maximum bar size,
(ii) the maximum aggregate size + 5 mm, or
(iii) 20 mm
 Partial factor of safety allows possible
variations to the strength of the material and
to the actions (loads)
 Partial factor for the material or product
property takes account of the possibility of an
unfavorable deviation of its strength from its
characteristic value as to not overestimate the
strength of material
 Partial factor for the action takes account of
the possibility of unfavorable deviations of
the action value from the representative
values as not to underestimate
 Partial factor for the concrete is given as 1.5
and steel is 1.15 (Table 2.1N EN 1992-1-1)
 Partial factor for the action is given as 1.35 for
characteristic dead action and 1.5 for
characteristic live action (EN 1991)
 Actions generally divided into two types:
Permanent (constant) and Variable (imposed)
 EN 1991 recommends relevant actions on
 Permanent actions are known as Dead actions
(Gk) and Variable actions are known as Live
actions (Qk)
 Various combinations of the characteristic
values of Gk and Qk considering their partial
safety factors must be considered for the
loadings of the structure
The term combinations of actions refers to the value of actions to be
used when a limit state is under the influence of different actions
Action transfer in a building
Action arrangement for beam analysis
 Frame consist of beam and column which connected
monolithic connection to form a rigid frame in the
construction site.
 Analysis should be in the same manner of construction
 Frames analysis is the most possible method to
calculate the maximum moment and shear forces.
 A limit state is formally defined by the description of a
condition for which a particular structural member or
an entire structure fails to perform the function that is
expected of it.
Vertical load

Bracing type X


Beam (horizontal

Vertical load




 These frames can be analyzed as a complete space
frame or be divided into series of plane frames/sub-

3D Frame
 These frames can be analyzed as a complete space frame
or be divided into series of plane frames/sub-frames

2D Plane Frame
 Frame can be analyzed as
a complete frame or it can
be simplified to sub-
 This can be done ONLY
for vertical load analysis
 Sub-frames can take in
many forms; i.e.
 One complete Floor (1)
 Single span combined with
its connecting column and
two adjacent spans (2)
 Single junction to be used to
find the moments in the
columns only (3)