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Aims
Discuss theories of middle childhood

Outcomes
‡ Knowledge of the developmental
milestones of middle childhood
‡ Knowledge of the complexities of
applying theory to child development
a 

Cognitive
Osychoanalytic
Osychological
/Osychosocial
Theories

Moral Ohysiological

Social construction
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Middle childhood usually refers to the


period between the age of five and
the onset of puberty around the age
of 12
2
  
   
‡ µLatency¶ / quiet period
‡ Transition to school
‡ Increased physical development allows
the child to master new skills
‡ The child starts to see the world from
other¶s perspectives
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å 11 Concrete The task of sorting that develops in
Operational relation to conservation continues to
evolve. Sorting then can be managed
on more than one characteristic and
problem solving can take place through
internal thought but will still focus on
manipulating things.
11 Formal In this level of intelligence, thinking can
15 Operational be based on ideas solely and
children/adolescents can consider
hypothetical concepts.

 

‡ Working things out for
themselves (Oiaget¶s
Concrete operational
stage) (Vygotsky: zone of
proximal development)
‡ µMetacognition¶
‡ Increasingly competent
communicators
‡ Need to understand
themselves and their
circumstances
o "  

#$%#& '( lack child understand
categorisation in various ethnic groups, but not
the basis of these groupings
'& )( As cognition matures, the black child
has a clearer understanding of racial groups
)*$#( The ability to conceive racial groups &
a more profound knowledge of these groups

Semaj in Ahmed at al (1991)


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‡ Developing understanding of µself¶
‡ Refining understanding of social world
‡ Developing standards of own behaviour
‡ Developing strategies for managing own
behaviour

(Collins, W.A., (1984) Development during middle years. Washington.


National Academy Oress)
 
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‡ Managing own emotions

‡ µReciprocal attachment¶ ± holding the carer


in mind (owlby)

‡ Carer¶s emotional availability & sensitivity


supports child¶s development (Mary
Ainsworth ± secure attachment)
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Oiaget¶s Theory of Moral Development:
Using the same stages as his theory of cognitive
development, Oiaget conceived a theory of
children¶s moral development.

Kohlberg¶s Theory of Moral Reasoning:


Through interviews with children responding to
scenarios of ethical conflict, Kohlberg developed
a stage theory of moral reasoning from
childhood to adolescence.
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Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral development

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Age 2  .

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5  No: I¶ll be punished


å 8 No: I might lose my gold stars if teacher found
out.
8 9 No: If he knew I stole it, he would be
disappointed in me, and so would I

Adapted from Kohlberg


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Learning disabilities
 2 
 

  3

The difference between the sexes is more than


acknowledging the difference between genitalia
and physical development. There are also
societal and culturally driven influences about
what is male and female, what is masculine and
feminine.
2-2aa

‡ 2  refers to the physical, biological


distinction between the sexes.
‡  
refers to the cultural and social
context that defines what is masculine and
feminine.
‡ 2   refers to acquiring ³behaviors
and characteristics that«(cultures
3
consider) appropriate to one¶s sex.´
2-2aa

‡ 21
 ( biological status
‡ 

 ( * our classification of
ourselves as male or female
‡ a
1 ± while being
anatomically male or female, transsexuals
believe they belong to the opposite sex
o   
‡ Male and female brains are structurally
different
‡ Female brain µhard wired¶ for empathy,
male for µunderstanding and building
systems¶

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‡ Takes social factors into account
‡ The interaction between biological and
social factors is important
‡ The case of the penectomised twin: Joan

Money and Erhardt (19å2) µMan, Woman, oy and Girl:


Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity.¶
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Social Learning Theory
‡ Girls and boys behave differently because
they are treated differently by their parents
and wider society.
‡ They may be given different toys
‡ Oarents will have different gender specific
expectations of sons and daughters
Albert andura

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‡ Children learn to judge themselves
according to the traits considered relevant
to their genders
‡ Their self concept becomes integrated
with µgender schemas¶
‡ Their self esteem will then be influenced
by how they measure up to their gender
schema.
em (1981)
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4. Ahmed, S; Cheetham, J and Small, J (1991)
Social work with black children and their
families. London. atsford.
5. Gross, RD (2005) Osychology: the science of
mind and behaviour. 5th edition. London.
Hodder Arnold.
. em, SL (1981) Gender Schema Theory: A
cognitive Account of Sex Typing. Osycological
Review. 1981. Vol. 88, No.4, 354 34