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FINAL PROJECT SEMINAR ON

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINE

PRESENTED BY-
1. BHUSHAN KOTHEKAR
2. SUSHANT BAPAT
3. SRAVAN NALLAWAR

GUIDED BY-
PROF S.L. BANKAR
CONTENTS
• AVAILABLE ENERGY
• AEROFOIL SELECTION
• BLADE DESIGN
• TRANSMISSION
• GENERATOR AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
• REFERENCES
What are Wind Turbines?
Wind turbines are devices that convert the
wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy.
Basic Parts
B. Shaft

A. Rotor Blades

C. Generator
DATA COLLECTED FROM METROLOGY
• WIND SPEED
• WIND DIRECTION
• RELATIVE HUMIDITY
• PRESSURE
• MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES
• DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
• VAPOUR PRESSURE
JAN-2010
Daily
Observ
ations
2010 Temp. (°C) Dew Point (°C) Humidity (%) Sea Level Press. (hPa) Visibility (km) Wind (km/h) Precip. (mm) Events

Jan high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg high sum

1 27 20 13 13 9 6 88 56 26 1019 1016 1014 6 4 3 14 5 - 0

2 27 18 10 10 8 5 82 53 26 1020 1016 1008 7 5 3 14 5 - 0

3 28 19 11 13 10 9 94 59 30 1019 1016 1013 5 4 3 10 5 - 0

4 29 22 15 19 12 9 78 61 34 1017 1015 1012 6 4 3 10 5 - 0

5 26 22 18 15 13 9 77 61 34 1016 1014 1011 6 4 3 11 6 - 0

6 26 19 12 10 9 9 82 58 34 1017 1014 1012 6 4 0 13 5 - 0

7 26 18 10 10 8 6 82 58 28 1019 1016 1014 6 4 3 11 5 - 0

8 28 19 10 12 9 7 82 60 28 1018 1016 1013 6 4 2 10 5 - 0

9 28 20 12 12 10 9 88 62 30 1017 1015 1013 6 4 3 10 5 - 0

10 29 21 14 13 12 10 77 54 30 1018 1015 1013 6 5 3 10 6 - 0

11 30 22 14 14 13 12 88 62 33 1019 1016 1014 6 4 3 10 5 - 0

12 20 18 17 20 16 13 100 84 68 1018 1016 1014 3 2 1 10 5 - 0 Rain

13 25 22 19 21 19 18 100 92 74 1019 1016 1014 3 1 1 8 3 - 0 Fog , Rain

14 26 21 17 20 16 14 100 76 50 1023 1019 1017 5 3 1 11 6 - 0 Fog

15 25 19 13 16 13 1 94 72 22 1023 1021 1019 4 3 2 11 5 - 0

16 28 20 12 14 12 10 94 69 34 1024 1021 1019 5 4 2 11 3 - 0

17 27 19 11 12 11 9 94 66 36 1023 1020 1018 5 4 3 11 5 - 0

18 28 19 10 13 10 6 100 60 25 1021 1019 1017 6 5 3 10 5 - 0

19 29 20 11 11 9 7 77 53 25 1020 1017 1014 6 5 4 10 3 - 0

20 28 19 11 12 8 5 77 55 23 1021 1018 1016 6 5 3 13 5 - 0

21 38 24 10 11 8 3 77 54 15 1021 1017 1015 6 5 4 11 5 - 0

22 29 19 10 10 8 6 82 55 25 1019 1017 1015 6 5 4 11 3 - 0

23 30 21 13 9 8 7 77 47 23 1020 1017 1014 6 5 3 8 5 - 0

24 29 20 12 11 9 8 77 53 28 1018 1015 1013 5 4 2 11 5 - 0

25 29 20 12 11 9 8 82 60 29 1019 1016 1014 6 4 3 14 5 - 0

26 29 21 13 11 10 9 88 56 29 1020 1016 1015 6 5 3 14 6 - 0

27 29 21 13 9 8 6 77 47 25 1020 1017 1015 7 5 4 11 5 - 0

28 29 21 13 9 8 7 72 45 25 1020 1017 1015 6 5 3 14 6 - 0

29 29 21 14 11 8 7 72 47 25 1020 1017 1015 6 5 3 10 5 - 0

30 30 22 14 11 9 6 77 51 23 1020 1017 1015 6 5 3 14 6 - 0

31 29 21 14 11 9 8 77 48 27 1019 1017 1014 6 5 4 10 5 - 0


WIND SPEED ( km/hr )

10
12
14
16

0
2
4
8

6
01/01/2010
02/01/2010
03/01/2010
04/01/2010
05/01/2010
06/01/2010
07/01/2010
08/01/2010
09/01/2010
10/01/2010
11/01/2010
12/01/2010
13/01/2010
14/01/2010
15/01/2010
16/01/2010
17/01/2010
18/01/2010
19/01/2010
20/01/2010

Jan-2010
21/01/2010
22/01/2010
23/01/2010
24/01/2010
25/01/2010
26/01/2010
27/01/2010
28/01/2010
29/01/2010
30/01/2010
31/01/2010
MONTHLY WIND SPEED VARIATION

Wind (km/h) avg


Wind (km/h) high
HISTOGRAM OF MEAN DAILY WIND SPEED
600

516
500

437

400
NO OF RECORDS WITH SPEED

329
318

300 274
(days)

213
199
200
148
130

100 87
59
37 29
18 9
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

MEAN DAILY WIND SPEED (km/hr)


CALCULATION OF AVERAGE VALUES

• Total no of days = 2829 (For 8 years)

no of record x wind speed


Mean wind =
speed
total no of days

= 21053/2829
= 7.442 km/hr
WINDROSE
DEFINATION-
A wind rose is a graphic tool used by meteorologists to give a succinct
view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a
particular location.

APPLICATION-
• Environmental Impact Assessment study.
• Oceanography
• Wind Energy
• Agriculture Engineering
• Ambient Air Monitoring
• Air Quality Measurements
• Stack Emissions Measurements
• Indoor Air Quality testing
• Air Dispersion Modelling
• Noise Impact Modeling
• Soil Impact Modeling

SOFTWARE USED-
windrosePRO
WINDROSE PLOT FOR 2010
WINDROSE PLOT AND BAR CHART FOR THE YEAR 2010

70 68

60 57

50
42

WITH SPEED ( days)


41

NO OF RECORDS
40
35

30 27 26

19
20 17

11
10 8
5 4
2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

MEAN DAILY WIND SPEED


(km/hr)

OPTIMUM RANGE OF WIND SPEED FOR OUR TURBINE = 4.5 – 18 Km/hr


= 1.25 – 5 m/s
CONTROL VOLUME ANALYSIS FOR
WIND TURBINES
• CONTROL VOLUME
• CONSERVATION OF MASS
The vector form of conservation of mass
equation is

applying law of conservation of mass to CV

Qr= flow rate out of the cylinder


• CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Force acting on air = - force/thrust acting on blades

Hence for our CV –

• CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM


Torque acting on blades is equal and opposite to that acting on
air. Hence

power= torque*angular velocity


• CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
conservation of energy gives power output as

applying bernoullis equation from upstream face of CV to a


position just upwind of blades

similarly from just downwind of blade to far wake

All these conservation equations together are used to derive


Betz joukowsky limit which states that maximum value of
coefficient of power can never exceed the value of 0.593.
BLADE ELEMENT THEORY FOR WIND TURBINES
ASSUMPTIONS OF BLADE ELEMENT THEORY
• The flow in each streamtube is independent of that in other
streamtubes.
• The forces acting on each blade element are the same as those
on an aerofoil of the same section,angle of attack and effective
velocity.

annular streamtube intersecting a blade element


CONSERVATION EQUATIONS FOR ANNULAR STREAMTUBE
1) CONSERVATION OF MASS

2) CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

3) CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM


assuming there is no swirl upstream of the blades ,
FORCES ACTING ON BLADE ELEMENT
TOTAL EFFECTIVE VELOCITY ON BLADE ELEMENT

= local speed ratio of the blade element

VELOCITY DIAGRAM OF BLADE ELEMENT –

+
LIFT AND DRAG ON A BLADE ELEMENT

BLADE ELEMENT EQUATIONS


1) Total thrust on N blade element is

2) Torque due to circumferential force is


GEOMETRY AND DEFINATION OF
AEROFOILS

Upper surface

Lower surface
Examples of NACA 4-digit series
• First number indicates
camber as a
percantage of chord
• Second number
indicates camber
occurs at X % of chord
• Last two number
indicates max
thickness t as % of
chord
AVAILABLE ENERGY
• From wind data analysis of NAGPUR region we
found that the optimum speed range for our
turbine is
= 1.25 m/s TO 5m/s
• Average wind speed = 2.067 m/s
• FOR 1) U=1.25, POWER = 8.283 W
2) U=2.067, POWER = 37.45 W
3) U=5, POWER = 530 W
• Thus we designed the blade keeping in mind
to extract maximum energy from the available
energy
AEROFOIL SELECTION

NACA 0012 SECTION SHAPE


BLADE DESIGN
• We divided the complete blade into 22 elements and decided
the twist chord distribution along the blade length as follows-
TIP SPEED RATIO
• Now our aim was to choose the best tip speed ratio to extract
maximum power from available energy
• Tip speed ratio ranges from 7 to 10 for a turbine operating at
maximum coefficient of power which is universally accepted
for the design of small wind turbine
• Thus for power calculations we considered 4 cases-
1) tip speed ratio = 7 wind velocity = 5m/s
2) tip speed ratio = 8 wind velocity = 5m/s
3) tip speed ratio =9 wind velocity = 5m/s
4) tip speed ratio = 10 wind velocity = 5m/s
CASE 1:-TSR=7,SPEED=5m/s
CASE 2:-TSR=8,SPEED=5m/s
CASE 3:-TSR=9,SPEED=5m/s
CASE 4:-TSR=10,SPEED=5m/s
NUMBER OF BLADES
• After deciding the tip speed ratio the next important parameter was
to decide the number of blades.
CASE 1 – number of blades = 2, TSR = 9, speed=5m/s
CASE 2- number of blades=3, TSR=9, wind speed=5m/s
CONCLUSION
• Tip speed ratio for our turbine is 9
• Using formulae for tip speed ratio we can find the
angular velocity
• Angular velocity = 30 rad/sec
• Speed of turbine shaft at 5m/s = 286.478rpm
= 287 rpm
• Number of blades = 3
• Coefficient of power = 0.481887
• Coefficient of thrust = 0.75
• Power = 255.469 W
• Thrust =79.526 N
TRANSMISSION
MAIN SHAFT

SPECIFICATION
1) POWER TO TRANSMIT = 255.64 W
2) RPM = 300
3) DESIGN TORQUE = 117.8 N-m
4) MAX BENDING MOMENT = 2.943 N-m
5) STANDARD SHAFT DIAMETER = 25 mm
MAIN BEARING

SPECIFICATION
1) AXIAL THRUST = 79.526 N.
2) RADIAL THRUST = 142.95 N.
3) RPM = 300
4) SHAFT DIAMETER = 25 mm
5) EQUIVALENT LOAD ON BEARING = 424.58 N
6) DYNAMIC LOAD CAPACITY = 2239.75 N
7) BEARING SERIES IS 0105
8) FINAL DIMENSION OF BEARING
a) bore diameter = 25 mm
b) outside diameter = 47 mm
c) width = 12 mm
COUPLING
SPECIFICATION
1) HUB DIAMETER = 62.5 mm
2) HUB LENGTH = 51.25 mm
3) NO OF BOLTS = 4
4) BOLTS DIAMETER = 6.25 mm
5) FLANGE THICKNESS = 6.25 mm
6) FLANGE PROTECTER WIDTH = 15.625 mm
7) PITCH CIRCLE DIAMETER = 100 mm
8) OUTER DIAMETER = 137.5 mm
9) DESIGN OF KEY
a) WIDTH = 8 mm
b) HEIGHT = 7 mm
c) LENGTH OF KEY = 51.25 mm
GENERATOR AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
• GENERATOR TYPE : PMG
Specification
1) shaft power = 500 watt
2) rotor speed = 300 rpm
3) torque = 14.8 N-m
4) generator weight = 12.7 kg
5) no of poles = 16
6) rated stator phase voltage = 20 V
7) rated stator current = 14.4 A
GENERATOR AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
• GENERATOR CIRCUIT

Main components :
1)Rectifier – convert AC into DC
2)Capacitor – block the AC and allow the DC
3)DC bus –transfer DC current to battery
4)Invertor – to convert DC into AC
GENERATOR AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
• RECTIFIER CIRCUIT

• Vdc = 1.35 VLL


• Vdc – average rectified output voltage
• VLL – generator line to line rms voltage
GENERATOR AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
• INVERTER CIRCUIT

Inverter circuit basically used to convert dc current


into required frequency of ac current (50Hz)
REFERENCES
• Small wind turbines-David Wood
• Anderson(1982): Performance on a 3m
diameter HAWT(presented at international
syrupon wind energy systems)
• Databook by B.D. Shiwalkar
• Design of machine elements by V.B. Bhandari