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November 2017

Introduction to Differential Equations

Initial-Value Problems

Definitions and Terminology

Introduction

The words differential and equation certainly suggest

solving some kind of equation that contains derivatives.

some of the basic defintions and terminology of the

subject

A Definition

The derivative dy/dx of a functiony = ϕ (x) is itself another

function ϕ '(x) found by an appropriate rule.

For example, the function is differentiable on

the interval (- ∞, ∞), and its derivative is

y, we obtain

Classification by Type

If a differential equation contains only ordinary

derivatives of one or more functions with respect to a

single independent variable it is said to be an ordinary

differential equation (ODE).

Classification by Type

An equation involving only partial derivatives of one or more

functions of two or more independent variables is called a

partial differential equation (PDE).

Notation

Throughout this text, ordinary derivatives will be written

using either the Leibniz notation dy/dx, d2y/dx2, d3y/dx3, •

• • , or the prime notation y', y", y"', ....

Classification by Order

The order of a differential equation (ODE or PDE) is the

order of the highest derivative in the equation.

equation and a fourth-order partial differential equation,

respectively.

Classification by Linearity

Solution

Explicit and Implicit Solutions

You should be familiar with the terms explicit and implicit

functions from your study of calculus.

A solution in which the dependent variable is expressed

solely in terms of the independent variable and constants is

said to be an explicit solution

Systems of Differential Equations

Up to this point we have been discussing single

differential equations containing one unknown function.

must deal with systems of differential equations

Initial-Value Problems

Initial-Value Problem

We are often interested in problems in which we seek a

solution y(x) of a differential equation so that y(x) satisfies

prescribed side conditions-that is, conditions that are

imposed on the unknown y(x) or on its derivatives

Differential Equations as Mathematical

Models

Mathematical Models

Mathematical Models

Mathematical Models

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