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algorithmic

governance:
contractual
perspectives
full professor
director of CRDP
faculty of law
University of montreal
Wilson chair in eCommerce
www.gautrais.com
@gautrais
ppt available at …

www.gautrais.com
… in 15 minutes

precise mandate:
what could be done in a near
future to provide a better legal
AI framework?
… in 15 minutes

precise mandate:
what could be done in a near
future for a responsible
development of AI ?
1
formal
contractual
issues
2
substantial
contractual
issues
3
Uncitral /
Unidroit
legal answers?
1
formal
contractual
issues
1a
already
done
contractual capacity
UNCITRAL 2005 Convention

Article 12. Use of automated message systems for


contract formation
A contract formed by the interaction of an automated
message system and a natural person, or by the
interaction of automated message systems, shall not
be denied validity or enforceability on the sole
ground that no natural person reviewed or
intervened in each of the individual actions carried
out by the automated message systems or the
resulting contract.
1b
must be
improved
UNCITRAL 2005 Convention

Article 13. Availability


Nothing in this Convention affects the application of
any rule of law that may require a party that negotiates
some or all of the terms of a contract through the
exchange of electronic communications to make
available to the other party those electronic
communications which contain the contractual terms in
a particular manner, or relieves a party from the legal
consequences of its failure to do so.
1b1
information
must be
improved
availability information
availability protection
information oxygen
1b2
consent
must be
improved
shrinkwrap clickwrap browsewrap

lost information (0,36%)


(Florencia Marotta-Wugler, 2011)
densification of contractual principles
(more information for complex operation
(AI))
2
substantial
contractual
issues
densification of substantial contractual
principles (+ responsability)
consensus of authors / laws
informational loyauty of
asymetry platforms

algorithmic
transparency
technological
due process
more
imputability
no liability = no responsable IA
more transparency as a contractual
obligation
3
Uncitral /
Unidroit
legal answers?
formal normativity

regulations laws

informal normativity
guidelines principles norms

codes of
methods standards
conduct

individual normativity
contract
policies
procedures
measures
3a
intervention
st
at 1 level
(formal)
formal normativity

regulations laws

informal normativity

individual normativity
what could be done?

documentation
transparency

principle-based approach

etc.
loyalty
3b
intervention
nd
at 2 level
(informal)
formal normativity

informal normativity
guidelines principles norms

codes of
methods standards
conduct

individual normativity
standards have become usual tools for
managing technologies
standards have become usual tools for
managing complexity
but...
too
cacophonic not always
efficient

standards deficiency

too
soft

too
much
what could be done?

generalization
publicity

better interaction between law &


standards
uniformization
‘customization’
3c
intervention
rd
at 3 level
(individual)
formal normativity

informal normativity

individual normativity
contract
policies
procedures
measures
normative centre of gravity
2 main solutions
documentation | cryptographic commitment


(own proof)

| (sealed document held by 1/3 party)
 
entreprise itself | public or community-based agency


auto-regulation |

co-regulation
what could be done?
examples of
clauses
examples of
documentations

uniformization of practices

sharing
experience
etc.
list of references used
• DÉCLARATION DE MONTRÉAL IA RESPONSABLE, Les délibérations en un coup
d’oeil, Extraits du bilan sur les résultats des délibérations citoyennes de la
Déclaration de Montréal IA responsable, juin 2018.
• DÉCLARATION DE MONTRÉAL, Bilan des délibérations, juin 2018.
• Vincent GAUTRAIS, Neutralité technologique: rédaction et interprétation des lois face
aux technologies, Thémis, Montréal, mai 2012.
• Frank PASQUALE, The Black Box Society : The Secret Algorithms that Control
Money and Information, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2015.
• Ryan CALO et Alex ROSENBLAT, « The Taking Economy : Uber, Information and
Power », (2017) 117 Columbia Law Review
• Joshua A. KROLL, Joanna HUEY, Solon BAROCAS, Edward W. FELTEN, Joel R.
REIDENBERG, David G. ROBINSON et Harlan YU, « Accountable Algorithms »,
(2017) 165 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 363.
• Danielle K. CITRON, « Technological Due Process », (2008) 85 Washington
University Law Review 1249.
• Loi française n° 2016-1321 du 7 octobre 2016 pour une République numérique,
section 3.
• Paul SCHWARTZ, Data Processing and Government Administration: The Failure of
the American Legal Response to the Computer, 43 HASTINGS L.J. 1321.
• Bruce SCHNEIER, Secret and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World, 2000.
• Florencia MAROTTA-WUGLER, « Will Increased Disclosure Help ? Evaluating the
Recommendations of the ALI’s – Principles of the Law of Software Contracts »,
(2011) 78-1University of Chicago Law Review 165.
• AI NOW, Algorithmic Impact Assessments, avril 2018.
algorithmic
governance:
contractual
perspectives
full professor
director of CRDP
faculty of law
University of montreal
Wilson chair in eCommerce
www.gautrais.com
@gautrais