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Explain the concept of physical


2.Overall benefits of physical


3.Benefits of exercise on different

body systems.

4.Different types of exercises.

Exercise is any bodily activity that
enhances or maintains physical fitness ,
overall health and wellness. It is performed
for various reasons, including increasing
growth and development,
preventing aging,
strengthening muscles and
the cardiovascular system,
honing athletic skills, weight loss or
maintenance, improving health and also
for enjoyment.
Classification of physical
Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have
on the human body:

*Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use
more oxygen than it would while resting. The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular
endurance. Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping
rope rowing, hiking, playing tennis , continuous training, and long slow distance training.

*Anaerobic exercise which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and tone
muscles, as well as improve bone strength, balance, and coordination. Examples of strength moves
are push-ups, pull-ups, lunges, and bicep curls using dumbbells. Anaerobic exercise also include weight
training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval
training increase short-term muscle strength.

*Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles. Activities such as stretching help to
improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber. The goal is to improve the range of motion which can
reduce the chance of injury.
Benefits of Regular Physical Activity

*Improved cardio respiratory fitness

*Reduced cancer risk
*Improved bone mass
*Improved weight control
*Prevention of diabetes
*Improved immunity
*Improved mental health and stress
*Longer life span
Activity Break: Pop Quiz

 Trueor False: Women who do

strength training will develop bulky
muscles similar to men’s.

 Trueor False: Women need to do

strength exercises different from men.
 False
 Women have only 10 percent the testosterone that
men do, which influences hypertrophy. Thus,
women do not bulk up like men unless they are
using steroids. Genetics influences muscle bulk.

 False
A woman’s skeletal system is almost the same as a
man’s, and the same exercises are good for men
and women.
The Musculoskeletal System
 The skeleton creates a supporting framework and protects the body’s
vital organs. The bones also act as a reservoir for calcium and other
minerals. Weight-bearing exercise strengthens your bones and helps
prevent osteoporosis.
 Exercise also increases muscle strength, coordination, and balance.
Your muscles (and connective tissue linking the bones) are important for
maintaining upright posture against gravity and enabling movement.
They also produce heat which helps the muscles perform functions in a
better way.
 * Increased blood supply between the muscles.
 Blood flow increases significantly to ensure that the working
muscles are supplied with the oxygen they need as well as to remove
waste products such as carbon dioxide

 *Increased muscle temperature

 The amount of heat your muscles produce is in direct relation to the
amount of work they perform.

*The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented.
There is a direct correlation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality,
and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary
artery disease. Low levels of physical exercise increase the risk of cardiovascular
diseases mortality.

*Physical training strengthens your heart and normalizes blood pressure, lowering your
risk of heart disease.

*The blood vessels are supported by the lymph vessels and nodes (which make your
immune cells). The lymphatic system removes toxins and returns them to the blood
circulation. Exercise boosts lymph flow, thus promoting a healthy immune system,
which is crucial for fighting infections.
Your nervous system consists of the brain and nerves. Its
function is to receive, store, process, and send information.
It controls functions such as heart rate and breathing, as
well as motor movement.

Exercise calms your nervous system, as a result of better

circulation and reduced muscle tension. Recent studies
have shown that regular exercise may also improve
thinking skills and enhance memory.
Endocrine system is basically the system which deals
with the hormones in our body. It is responsible for the
entire functioning of our body.

The endocrine system is closely associated with the

nervous system. It sends hormones to the body to
control growth, blood sugar levels, body temperature,
and metabolism. Exercise regulates your hormonal
balance, enhancing organ function and physical
fitness, and lifting your mood.
The lungs provide the body with oxygen, which
is necessary for cellular survival. Exercise
increases the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the
body and contributes to the elimination of
carbon dioxide. The effects of exercise on
respiration are seen almost immediately.
Your mouth, esophagus, stomach and bowels make up the
digestive system. These structures and organs enable you to take
in and digest food, and absorb nutrients into the bloodstream for
use by the body. Your salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and
pancreas facilitate these processes by releasing digestive juices
into your digestive system.

Your digestive system breaks down food into usable nutrients and
eliminates waste products. Over time, it tends to get sluggish and
works less efficiently. Exercise contributes to proper functioning of
the digestive system, and aids the elimination of waste.

Yoga blends mental and physical
aspects of exercise; it promotes
balance, coordination, flexibility,
and mental focus.

Pilates combines stretching

with movement against

Tai chi is a Chinese form of

yoga; it is designed to
increase range of motion
while reducing muscular