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A Scientific hypothesis

Testable hypothesis

What is special about human brain?


Brain size and proportion of neurons: cognitive
ability
Is it true, but how to count them…

There are 86 billion neurons…


Dissolve it into detergent… it destroy the cell
membrane but keeps the cell nuclei
Truth value of statement
Truth value of statement
Null and Alternative hypothesis
Null and Alternative hypothesis
Relationship-Impact-Causation
What would be the Null Hypothesis H0 ?
An advertising agency is testing impact
of an advertisement on brand Attitude.
H0 : There will be no effect of the advertisement on brand attitude
H1 : There will be effect of the advertisement on brand attitude

What would be the Alternative Hypothesis


H1 ?
Exploring differences in groups or
categories

What would be the Null Hypothesis H0 ?


An advertising agency is testing Comparative
Impact of Adverting A and B on Brand Attitude.

H0 : Impact of Advertising A and B on Brand Attitude will be same


H1 : Impact of advertising A and B on brand attitude will not be
same
What would be the Alternative Hypothesis
H1 ?
Hypothesis Testing
• Hypothesis is tested through P-value also know as
probability value.
When P-Value is less than assigned significant value
(P < 0.1; p < .05; p < .005 ) then we reject the null hypothesis
• Generally P-value is tested against assigned significance
level and Conclude
at 10% 5% and that
1%there is a significant
depending on type impact of the
of research
advertisement on Brand Attitude.
Type of Testing Errors
Precisely…
When we say H0 is FALSE when it is TRUE… type I error
FALSE ALARM
FALSE POSITIVE

When we say H0 is TRUE when it is FALSE… type II error


MISDETCTION
FALSE NEGATIVE
Choosing appropriate Statistical
Test
Are Brand loyalty and sales of a brand
related?

Correlation is not about predictability it is about


relationship between or among variables (strength and
direction)

Non-Parametric test option ??


How many variables Two or more

What type of Variable Scale

Do Data meet the


assumptions
Yes
Spearman Correlation
Correlation
Are Brand loyalty and sales of a brand
related?

How many variables Two or more Sales of a brand and Brand


loyalty

Sales of a brand(continuous)
What type of Variable Scale
Brand loyalty score

Correlation
Do Brand loyalty and advertisement
determine sales of a brand?

How many outcome


Variables One

What type of outcome Scale


How many predictor
Variables
Two +

What type of Predictor Scale


Do Data meet the
assumptions
Yes

Multiple Regression
Do Brand loyalty and advertisement
determine sales of a brand?

How many outcome


Variables One Sales of a brand

What type of outcome Cont Sales of a brand(continuous)

How many predictor Brand Loyalty and advertisement


Variables
Two +
Score of Brand Loyalty and amount of
What type of Predictor Scale
Advertisement

Multiple Regression
How many outcome
Do Males and
One
Variables females differ on
What type of outcome Scale their scores of
How many predictor
attitude towards a
One
Variables particular brand?
What type of Predictor Categorical
If Cate Predictor then
how many
Two
Non-Parametric test option ??
If Cate Same or Diff
Participants

Different
Mann-Whitney
Independent T Test
test
scores of attitude towards a particular
brand?

How many outcome


Variables One Attitude towards a particular brand

What type of outcome Scale Score of the Attitude (continuous)

How many predictor


Variables
One Gender Independent T test
What type of Predictor Cate Male or Female
If Cate Predictor then Male and Female
how many
Two
If Cate Same or Diff Male and Female are different samples
Diff
Participants