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COMPREHENSIVE LAND

USE PLANNING
LECTURE 3

ECOPOLIS 2010
ELEMENTS OF LAND USE
PLANNING Land Use Analysis
1. Human Activities and
PEOPLE
Activity Systems
2. Land Classification
3. Land Database and Land
Mapping
ACTIVITIE a. Land Database
LOCATION
S b. Land Data Sources
c. Land Mapping
4. Land Suitability Analysis
a. The Eight-Step Land
Suitability Analysis
b. GIS-Based Land Suitability
Analysis
c. Data Preparation
d. Calculate Composite Scores
e. Delineation of Developable
Land
5. Impact Analysis

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land
Inventory

ECOPOLIS 2010
Global Land Inventory
EARTH SURFACE
70 % - made up of oceans, seas and large lakes
30% - made up of dry land
Total World Land Area
37% -Virgin Forest
30% - Deserts
23% - Arable Land
The portion of the earth surface upon which we
depend for agriculture to support life is only 3% of
the total surface of the globe.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Classification Status of the Philippines
Total Land
Area of the
Philippines
30 M has
Alienable and Disposable Lands Non Alienable and Disposable Lands
(14,1117,244 has. -47.06%) (15.88 M has.-(52.94%)

Classified Forest Lands Unclassified Forest Land


Titled Lands (Judicially & 15.0 M has. (50%) 881,157 has. (2.94%)
Administratively) Untitled A or D Lands
8.11 M has (27.06%) 6.0 M has. (20%)
Civil Reservations
165,946 has. (0.55 %)
Gov’t-owned Agricultural Lands
Private Lands 4.2 M has. (14%) Military & Naval
Lands Reservations
130,330 has. (0.43%)
Non Agricultural
Lands National Parks
DENR- Non DENR-
Administered 1.800 M Has. 1.34 M has. (4.47%)
Administered Administratively
Lands Lands titled
6.0 M Has. Fishponds
Patrimonial Lands 75,548 has. (0.25%)
160,000 has.
Judicially Timberland
titled 10.0 M has. (33.39%)
Friar Lands 2.0 M Has.

Established Forest Reserves


3.27 M has. (10.91%)
Source: Lands Management Bureau, 1998 - 2-A -

ECOPOLIS 2010
Philippine Land Inventory (2003)
• Total Area – 29,979,215 hectares
• Forestland (generally over 18% slope except specified sites & water
bodies) –15,854,922 hectares
– Classified Forest – 15,061,844 hectares
• Forest Reserve – 7,168,600 (2002)
– Forest Reserve With Forest Cover – 5,391,717
» Dipterocarp  Broadleaf  Closed Canopy - 2,560,872  Old growth: 804,900
» Open Canopy -- 4,030,588
» Residual -- 2,731,117  Pine -- 227,900  Mossy Forest -- 1,040,300  Sub-
marginal -- 475,100
– Critical River Watersheds – 1,153,629
– Mangrove -- 247,362
• Timberland – 9,686,288
– Denuded – 6,500,000
– Integrated Social Forestry / CBFM -- 1,335,999
– Others Covered by CBFMA – 5,710,000
– Commercial Tree Plantations – 329,578
– Industrial Forest Management Agreement– 710,307
– Military Reservations (AFP camps, shooting ranges, etc.) – 130,330
– Civil Reservations (state universities, government laboratories, asylum,
prisons, etc.) –165,946
– Brushland & Grassland -- 2,232,300
– Mineral Lands (Mining & Quarrying) – 8,700
– Unclassified Forest– 769,398
• Rivers, Lakes and Water Bodies – 4,500,000 hectares
– Inland Fisheries -- 595,700
• Coastal Waters – 26,000,000 hectares (Mariculture 255,000
hectares)
ECOPOLIS 2010
Philippine Land Inventory (2003)
• Total Area – 29,979,215 hectares
• Alienable and Disposable land (generally below 18% slope)
- 14,145,078 hectares
–Privately-owned Cropland - 9,728,800 ; Cropland per
capita –1,308.1 sq.m
• CARP and CARPable lands – 4,200, 000
• Total Irrigable – 3,300,000  Actually Irrigated Palay land (NWRB 2005)
1,413,236
• Rainfed Area – 1,000,000 hectares
• Planted to Palay – 3,170,000  Corn – 2,354,200  Coconut --
3,115,800
• High Value Cash Crops, Rootcrops, and Vegetables – 1,706,800
• Orchards and fruit trees – 1,317,800
–Publicly-owned Alienable and Disposable (DENR) --
2,502,000
– Government-owned Agricultural Land – 1,335,106
– Non-agricultural land uses – 3,272,912 
• Settlements – 604,116
• Non-agricultural Coastal Land – 1,100,000
• Other urban uses (commercial, industrial) – 1,527,068

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land
Classification

ECOPOLIS 2010
OLD LAND CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Forest Reserve
Classified Timberland
Forest Parks
Land
Military Reserves
Unclassified
Civil Service

TOTAL Fishpond
LAND
Agriculture
Titled
Residential
Alienable/
Disposable Industrial
Untitled Idle
Others
ECOPOLIS 2010
NEW LAND CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
TOTAL LAND

Public Domain Private Lands

Unappropriated Reserved for Privately Held by State


Lands Gov’t for Owned but as Private entity
Public Use Subject to ED

Disposable Non-Disposable
& Alienable & Non-Alienable

Agricultural Lands National Mineral Forestry


parks lands lands

Agriculture Residential Commercial Industrial

Institutional Educational Town Site

ECOPOLIS 2010
Types of Land
FOREST LAND – land of the public domain which has been classified as
such and declared for forestry purposes. Forestland includes
production and protection forests and are not supposed to be titled.
TIMBERLAND – portion of forestland leased by the State to operators of
commercial forestry production
MINERAL LAND – portion of forestland which DENR, through the Mines and
Geosciences Bureau, has positively confirmed as possessing rare
mineral resources.
TRIBAL OR ANCESTRAL LAND – portion of forestland traditionally
occupied by indigenous cultural communities and delineated using
consultative processes and cultural mapping. An “Indigenous cultural
community” is a group of people sharing common bonds of language,
customs, traditions and other distinctive cultural traits, and who have,
since time immemorial, occupied, possessed, and utilized a specific
territory.
GRAZING LAND, PASTURELAND, OR RANGELAND – portion of forestland
which has been set aside for raising livestock because of suitable
topography and vegetation

ECOPOLIS 2010
Types of Land
ALIENABLE and DISPOSABLE LAND – land classified as not needed for
forest purposes and hence severed from the public domain and
available for disposition under Commonwealth Act 141 as amended by
the Public Lands Act, which says that “No land 18% or over in slope
shall be classified as A & D nor can be titled”
ARABLE LAND – land which is deemed theoretically suitable to agriculture,
fisheries and livestock based on FAO standards including potentially
cultivable land whether there is actual cultivation or not
AGRICULTURAL LAND OR CROPLAND – land actually devoted to
agricultural activity whether intensive regular cropping or
temporary/irregular cropping.
MARGINAL LAND – land not readily useful for either forestry, agriculture, or
settlement, such as riverwash, sandy strips, marshes, swamps, etc.
INDUSTRIAL LAND -- portion of relatively flat A&D land which is devoted to
manufacturing, processing of primary products, construction, storage
and warehousing, and distribution, involving at least 10 persons (it has
to be above micro-scale).

ECOPOLIS 2010
Basic
Definitions in
CLUP

ECOPOLIS 2010
Definition of Terms
• “Land use planning” refers to the rational process “of
allocating available land resources as equitably as possible
among competing user groups and for different functions
consistent with the development plan of the area…” (Sec.3.k,
Art. 1, Republic Act 7279).
• “The land use plan allocates and delineates different land uses
in a community and the structures built upon them. The term
“comprehensive” means that the plan not only encompasses
all geographic parts of the local government unit but also
includes the different sectors such as physical, environmental,
social, economic, administrative and fiscal matters.” (Sec. C.1,
p.6, Vol. 5, HLURB CLUP Formulation Guidelines, 1997).
• "Land use planning means the scientific, aesthetic, and orderly
disposition of land, resources, facilities and services with a
view to securing the physical, economic and social efficiency,
health and well-being of urban and rural communities"[1]
Canadian Institute of Planners

ECOPOLIS 2010
CLUP
• Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP)– A document
embodying specific proposals for guiding and regulating
growth and development. It translates community goals into
spatial form, allocates various sectoral land requirements
considering socially desired mix of land uses, and includes a
land use map as well as a set of land use policies to guide
future development.
• The CLUP defines the physical platform of local development,
and forms the basis for the promulgation of a zoning ordinance
by the local legislature, which ordinance serves as the
enforceable implementing tool warranting the issuance of
locational clearance for all land-using development activities.
The zoning ordinance specifies the different land uses and
boundary descriptions for particular sections of the municipality
and the allowable or permitted uses per zoning district. (p. 64,
Sec. I, HLURB CLUP Formulation Guidelines, 1997).

ECOPOLIS 2010
Definition of Terms
• Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP)– A document embodying
the overall vision of a city/municipality as well as multi-sectoral goals
and objectives, for its growth and development which are translated
into physical strategies, concrete socio-economic programs, and
specific infrastructure projects for the medium term (6 years)
• Zoning – The division of a city/ municipality into zones or districts
according to the present and potential uses of land to maximize,
regulate and direct their use and development in accordance with the
comprehensive land use plan of the city/ municipality. (HLURB
Guidelines for the Formulation/ Revision of the Comprehensive Land
Use Plan, Volume 10).
• Executive Legislative Agenda (ELA)– An integrated plan that is
mutually developed and agreed upon by the Executive and
Legislative departments of the LGUs. The document contains major
development thrusts and priorities of both departments for their 3-
year term of office consistent with the development vision and
mission of the locality. [2004 Philippines- Canada Local Government
Support Program Manual on How to Formulate an Executive and
Legislative Agenda (ELA) for Local Governance and Development].

ECOPOLIS 2010
Mnemonic Device
• CLUP – policies
• CDP – programs
• ELA – political
agreement
• LDIP – projects
• AIP – pesos

ECOPOLIS 2010
Generic Functions of Land Use Planning
• “(1) It interprets higher level policies such as those
embodied in national, regional and provincial
physical framework plans;
• “(2) It provides a basis for medium-term
development planning, investment programming,
and development regulation;
• “(3) It establishes policies and general proposals for
strategic areas to guide the provision of
infrastructure and utility systems;
• “(4) As a strategic plan, the CLUP identifies action
areas which require a greater degree of attention
than other areas thereby focusing investments and
other intervention measures in those areas for
greater impact. (Sec.1.2.1, Guidelines on Municipal
Land Use Planning, NEDA, 1996).

ECOPOLIS 2010
Legal Bases
Formulation
• Formulation of CLUPs and CDPs falls under the mandate of RA 7160 Local
Government Code of 1991.
• RA 7160 mandates that each LGU to have a Local Development Council
which shall initiate a comprehensive multi-sectoral development plan to be
initiated by its development council (the local executive body).
• RA 7160 Section 20, Reclassification of Lands authorizes the city or
municipality through a Sanggunian ordinance to reclassify agricultural lands
and provide for the manner of their utilization in the following cases: (1)
when the land ceases to be economically feasible and sound for agricultural
purposes as determined by the Department of Agriculture or (2) where the
land shall have substantially greater economic value for residential,
commercial, or industrial purposes, as determined by the Sanggunian
concerned.
• RA 7160 Sec. 458 (a)(2)(IX) and (a)(2)(X) likewise directs each LGU
Sanggunian to adopt a comprehensive land use plan.
• R.A. 7279, UDHA, Section 39 also mandates the formulation of
development plans by LGUs for more rational and balanced development of
settlements, residential areas, and socialized housing.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Legal Bases
Evaluation / Approval
• PD 933 and EO 648, s. 1981, as amended by EO 90, s. 1986 – empower
the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) to review evaluate,
and approve or disapprove land use plans of cities and municipalities.
• EO 72, March 25, 1993 – delineates the power and responsibilities of the
LGUs and the HLURB in the preparation and implementation of
comprehensive land use plans under a decentralized framework of local
governance.

Monitoring
• DILG MC No. 92- 41 dated July 6, 1992 mandates LGUs to prepare, as a
minimum requirement, their annual investment programs.
• HLURB monitors the implementation of CLUPs.
• NEDA and other national line agencies play supporting roles.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Who will
plan?

ECOPOLIS 2010
Components of Local Planning Structure

Political Component Technical Component

LPDO, NGAs, Sectoral &


Local Local Devt Council External
CSOs, Private Functional
Sanggunian / Local Special Bodies Consultants
Sector Committees

ECOPOLIS 2010
LOCAL SANGGUNIAN LOCAL CHIEF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT
EXECUTIVE / MAYOR COUNCIL

EXTERNAL
CONSULTANTS

OTHER LGU DEPTS CPDO / MPDO

TECHNICAL WORKING SECTORAL


GROUPS DEVELOPMENT
COMMITTEES

Generic SOCIAL SECTOR

Organization of
ECONOMIC SECTOR

ENVIRONMENTAL

Groups Working
MANAGEMENT

PHYSICAL /
INFRASTRUCTURE

on Land Use INSTITUTIONAL DEVT /


GOVERNANCE

Planning
ECOPOLIS 2010
SUGGESTED SECTORAL COMMITTEE COMPOSITION
Sectoral Committee Core Technical Working Group Expanded Technical Working Full-Blown Sectoral Committee
(Must be there) Group (The more the merrier)
(Nice to have around)

1. SOCIAL MPDO Staff SWDO Police Chief Fire Marshall Sports Organizations Labor Groups
DEVELOPMENT MHO POSO Civil Registrar/Population Officer Religious Leaders Senior Citizens
LDC Rep (brgy) LDC Rep (CSO) PCUP Nutrition Media Reps YMCA/YWCA
District Supervisor PTA Federation Officer Inner Wheel Club School Principals
Sanggunian Rep Housing Board Rep NSO Charitable Organizations
Manager GSIS/SSS

2. ECONOMIC PESO Agriculturist Chambers of Commerce & Lions Club Jaycees


DEVELOPMENT Tourism Officer Coop Devt Officer Industry Rotary Club Academe
MPDO Staff LDC Rep (brgy) DTI Representative Trade Unions Other interested groups and individuals
LDC Rep (CSO) Sanggunian Rep Bank Managers Market Vendors
Sidewalk Vendors Cooperatives
Transport Orgs

3. PHYSICAL/ LAND Municipal Engineer Zoning Officer Electric Coop Water District Other interested groups and individuals
USE MPDO Staff LDC Rep (brgy) Real Estate Developers Academe
DEVELOPMENT LDC Rep (CSO) Sanggunian Rep Professional organizations
Municipal Architect Telecommunications companies

4. ENVIRONMENTAL MPDO Staff Sanggunian Rep Sanitary Inspector Academe Environmental Advocates
MANAGEMENT LDC Rep (brgy) LDC Rep (CSO) CENRO PENRO Other interested groups and individuals
General Services Head LG-ENRO FARMC Reps BFAR Rep
Heads of private hospitals

5. INSTITUTIONAL MPDO Staff HRDO Religious groups


DEVELOPMENT LDC Rep (brgy) Treasurer Good Governance advocates
LDC Rep (CSO) Budget Officer Other interested groups and individuals
LGOO Assessor
Local Administrator Sanggunian Rep Academe

CORE TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP – composed of Local Government officials and functionaries whose tasks and responsibilities address the
concerns of the particular sector directly or indirectly.

“NICE TO HAVE AROUND” – other LGU officials, national government agencies operating in the locality, and important non-government organizations with
functions and advocacies touching on the concerns of the particular sector. When added to the core TWG the resulting body becomes the Expanded
TWG.

“THE MORE THE MERRIER” – other groups and individuals, mainly from non-government sectors, who have a stake in local development in whatever
ECOPOLIS 2010
capacity, enrich and enliven the full-blown committee’s deliberations with their varied views, agendas, and advocacies.
6 Levels of People’s Involvement in Planning

Unsurprised Apathetics / Cynics

Observers / Wait and See

Reviewers / Private Interests Affected

Advisers / Elders of Community

Creators / Plan Proponents

Decision-makers

ECOPOLIS 2010
Partnership between Professional Planners
and The Community

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Use
Planning
Processes

ECOPOLIS 2010
Generic Planning Process

ECOPOLIS 2010
Comprehensive Land Use Planning Process
(Classic Model by Prof. Ernesto Serote)
1 2
SEPP / STATISTICAL
1 2
COMPENDIUM / MAPS

AVAILABLE SUPPLY OF PROJECTED REQUIREMENTS GROWTH / EQUITY/


BUILDABLE LANDS FOR URBAN EXPANSION SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES

LOCATION QUANTITY ADEQUATE? YES

SUPPLY
AUGMENTATION NO 4
STRATEGIES

4 ALTERNATIVE VISION AND


SPATIAL GOALS
STRATEGIES
5
EVALUATION
CRITERIA
DECISION
ZONES PREFERRED
STRATEGY
NATIONAL
POLICIES
6

7 7
COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN

SETTLEMENT INFRA- PRODUCTION PROTECTION


POLICIES STRUCTURE LAND USE LAND USE
POLICIES POLICIES POLICIES
ECOPOLIS 2010 8 9
HLURB Strategic Planning Process
(Atty. Francis Dagñalan, deceased)

ECOPOLIS 2010
HLURB Process, since 2004

ECOPOLIS 2010
DILG’s Rationalized Planning System
by Bureau of Local Gov’t Development
Specification of
Elaboration of Means
Vision C L U P Ends
Physical Planning Spatial Strategies
Goals

Element Location Principles


Descriptors Protection
(what it takes to (what can be Production
close the gap) reasonably done Settlement
Success in 3 yrs) Infrastructure
Indicators
Sectoral Development
Vision- Sectoral Objectives/
Reality Gap Targets
Policies
Goals Legislation Agenda
Current Reality Regulation
C D P Strategies
Programs & Projects
 Ecological Profile
 GIS Thematic Maps
 Local Development Indicators
 Community Based Monitoring System
 Minimum Basic Needs CIDSS
 Local Government Poverty Monitoring LDI P
System

ECOPOLIS 2010
Unified
Planning
Process
(UP SURP
Faculty
model,
2004)

ECOPOLIS 2010
Public Hearings, Plan Legitimization
Citizen’s Referendum
and Approval
Goal Achievement
Matrix (GAM), Plan Evaluation and
Fishbone Analysis Acceptance

Cost-Benefit Analysis,
Planning Balance Sheet
Preferred Spatial Strategy

Scenario Building, CLUP Generation


Planning Steps
GIS Modelling
of Spatial Strategies

& Tools by Spatial Goals,


Objectives
Prof. Ernesto
Objectives Analysis
S-M-A-R-T test & Targets

Vision- reality gap


Serote Vision-Reality Gap
Analysis, SWOT
Problem-Solution
Matrix,
Inter & intra-area Sectoral Development
Analysis Ecological Profiling Issues & Concerns
LDI
LGPMS/SLGR,
CBMS Situational Analysis
ECOPOLIS 2010
Economic
Economic Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Activities
Activities forproduction
for production
National&&
National
Analytical
Population
Population
Patterns
Patterns
Infrastructurefor
Infrastructure forsocial
social
services,institutions
services, institutions
sub-national
sub-national
projects
projects
Framework
Demandfor
Demand forland
land

1 2 Land Use
Scenarios
3 4 Strategy
Supplyof
Supply ofland
land

Vision-Mission-Goalsof
Vision-Mission-Goals of
LGU
LGU
StrategicEnvi
Strategic Envi
Limitedby
byNIPAS
NIPAS Limitedby
byEcologically-
Ecologically- Assessment
Limited Limited Highly-proneto
Highly-prone to Assessment
CostBenefit
Cost BenefitAnalysis
Analysis
ProtectedAreas
Protected Areas ConstrainedAreas
Constrained Areas NaturalHazards
Hazards
Natural Goals-AchievementMatrix
Goals-Achievement Matrix

Limitedby
byland
landreserved
reservedfor
for Limited by Military and
Limited Limited by Military and
EnvironmentalAmenities
Amenities Civil Reservations
Environmental Civil Reservations

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Use Analytical Framework

Policy Tools:

La
nd
• fiscal
t
en

Us
em
• regulatory

e
ag

• operational

M
an

an
M

• infrastructure

ag
Community
ly

Goals • marketing

em
pp
Su

• education

en
t
• information
Demand Management dissemination

ECOPOLIS 2010
ECOPOLIS 2010
ECOPOLIS 2010
Highest and best use - - “highest” refers to public welfare while “best” refers
to the optimum use
Political/Public Interest
Livability - - the features of the settlement environment that makes it suitable for
human living
Health and safety - - positive aspect - - provision of services to promote health
and safety, e.g., hospitals and clinics, disposal of garbage, negative aspect - -
density controls, control over hazardous areas
Convenience - - cannotes ease of activity and it is a function of the circulation
system and intensity of land development
Economy - - involves savings in time, money and effort; related to the concepts
of efficiency and convenience
Amenity - - the pleasantmess of the environment as a place to live, work and
spend one’s leisure time
Five public purposes for which land use controls are employed in the public
interest: 1. use - - current use of reuse, 2. nonuse or disuse - - idle land, 3. abuse
- - use of land that disregards its carrying capacity and use capacity, 5. misuse - -
use of the land that departs from its recommended or proper use

ECOPOLIS 2010
Cultural
Urban ecology - - related to natural ecology and involves invasions and
succession, centralization and decentralization, urbanization and
suburbanization (Cf. Park and Burgess’ concentric zone theory)
Dominance _ - receding degree of dominance
Segregation - - clustering process of like uses or character
Centralization - - congregation of people and urban functions towards the urban
periphery otherwise term “suburbanization”

ECOPOLIS 2010
Ecological Profile
 Scanning
 Inventory
 Assessment
 Analysis

ECOPOLIS 2010
Content of Ecological Profile
• Population and Social Base
• Local Economy
• Physical Conditions
• Environmental Analysis –
Sustainability of Ecosystems,
Disaster Vulnerability and
Preparedness
• Local Institutional Capabilities

ECOPOLIS 2010
Preparing an Ecological Profile
TEAM ORGANIZATION

DATA GATHERING

SECONDARY PRIMARY
DATA DATA

DATA PROCESSING
(ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS)

Tables/Graphs/
Maps and Text
Figures

DRAFTING THE
ECO PROFILE

ECOLOGICAL
PROFILE
ECOPOLIS 2010
Contents of
“Socio-
Economic
Physical
Profile
(SEPP)” or
‘Ecological
Profile’

ECOPOLIS 2010
‘Land Evaluation’
– a set of methods used
by agriculturists, soil
scientists, agronomers,
and geodetic engineers

ECOPOLIS 2010
FAO Method for Land Evaluation

ECOPOLIS 2010
FAO Method for Land Evaluation
LAND EVALUATION SOCIO-ECONOMIC EVALUATION
1 2 3 4
Land Economic Social
Resources Land Use Database factors
Database Database

1. Costs of 1. Objectives
1. Soil 1. Crop inputs
requirements 2. Resources
2. Climate 2. Sale prices
2. Production 3. Constraints
3. Other factors systems

5
Identify land
management units

6
For each land management unit
identify:
i) possible crop(s) or products
ii) possible production systems
iii) yield levels for each:
iv) input/output ratio;
v) risk factor;
vi) environmental impact

LAND USE OPTIONS

7
Carry out multiple goal optimization exercise to maximise achievement of
desired objectives

8
Select best land use
ECOPOLIS 2010
Soil Quality Assessment
Indicator Relationship to Soil Health
Soil organic matter (SOM) Soil fertility, structure, stability,
nutrient retention; soil erosion

Physical: soil structure, Retention and transport of water


depth of soil, and nutrients; habitat for
infiltration and bulk microbes; estimate of crop
density; water holding productivity potential;
capacity compaction, plow pan, water
movement; porosity; workability

Chemical: pH; electrical Biological and chemical activity


conductivity; thresholds; plant and microbial
extractable N-P-K activity thresholds; plant
available nutrients and potential
for N and P loss

Biological: microbial Microbial catalytic potential and


biomass C and N; repository for C and N; soil
potentially productivity and N supplying
mineralizable N; soil potential; microbial activity
respiration. measure
ECOPOLIS 2010
Surface Texture
• Surface texture--Texture of the surface
soil or "A" horizon; proportion of sand, silt
and clay that makes up the surface soil
• Soil Texture is the relative proportion of
the primary particles in the soil. The gritty
material which you can feel when you rub
the soil with your fingers; individual grains
can be seen or felt.
• Clay--(less than 0.002 mm) Forms lumps
or clods when dry and is plastic and sticky
when wet; when pinched out between the
thumb and finger will form a long flexible
"ribbon”
• Silt--(0.002 to 0.05 mm) The floury
material which you can feel when you rub
the soil with your finger; it is not gritty and
not sticky when wet.
• Sand--(0.05 mm to 2 mm)
• Ideal Soil Type
– 5% organic material
– 45% soil minerals
– 25% soil gases
– 25% soil water
• Bulk density--The weight of dry soil per
unit bulk volume, for example: grams per
cm3 or pound per cubic foot
ECOPOLIS 2010
Soil
Taxonomy

ECOPOLIS 2010
Depth of Soil O
• As soils develop they form layers called Horizons A
in the Soil Profile.
• Depth of soil refers to the total thickness of the soil B
layers readily penetrated by plant roots, air and
water. A restrictive layer may be dense clay,
hardpan or bedrock. C
– Very shallow--Less than 10 inches deep
– Shallow--10 to 20 inches deep
– Moderately deep--20 to 40 inches deep R
– Deep--40 to 60 inches deep
– Very deep--over 60 inches deep
• “O” or organic Horizon: Generally dark in color,
Layer of accumulated organic matter such as
leaves, grass, twigs; Material can be in various
states of decomposition. Humus is organic matter
that is decomposed to the point where it is
unrecognizable
• Topsoil or "A" horizon--Surface, dark-colored upper
layer of natural soil; zone in which seeds are
planted and cultivated; main storehouse for
minerals and moisture
• It takes 100 to 400 years to create 1" of topsoil.
• Subsoil--Layer found just below the topsoil; the "B"
horizon; also a storehouse for moisture and
minerals Hard pan--A hardened soil layer in the
lower "A" or deeper horizon; not readily penetrated
by plantECOPOLIS
roots or water2010
Soil Structure
• Soil structure--Way that
individual soil particles are
grouped together to form
clusters of particles
• Permeability--Rate at which air
and water move through the
soil
• Very slow--Less than 0.06
in/hr; soils that have dense
heavy clay or clay pan subsoil
• Slow--0.06 to 0.2 in/hr; soils
that have crumbly, clayey
subsoil
• Moderate--0.2 to 6.0 in/hr; Granular
Blocky
soils that have highly granular, (Subangular) (Angular)

clay loam subsoil


• Rapid--over 6.0 in/hr; soils
that have sandy subsoils Platy

• Soil pores--Total space not Prismatic Columnar


occupied by soil particles in a
bulk volume of soil Wedge

ECOPOLIS 2010
Soil Permeability and Porosity

Granula Block Platy


r y

ECOPOLIS 2010
Soil Fertility
• Essential Elements
– Carbon (C)

P
– Hydrogen (H)
– Oxygen (O) Phosphorus
– Phosphorus (P)
– Potash (K)
– Nitrogen (N)
– Sulfur (S)
– Calcium (Ca)
– Iron (Fe)
– Magnesium (Mg)
• Nitrogen (N): most important nutrient besides
water; determines rate of growth
– deficiency symptom: yellowing of leaves
• Phosphorus (P): required during germination and
fruit/seed formation
– Deficiency symptoms: stunted growth; purple-colored
leaves
• Potassium (K): regulatory
C.HOPKINS
– Deficiency symptoms: stunted growth; mottled leaves CAFÉ MIGHTY
• Micro-Nutrients
– Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), GOOD
Molybdenum (Mo), Clorine (Cl)

ECOPOLIS 2010
Soil Erosion
• Erosion is the wearing away of material by
wind, water, ice, or other geologic agents.
• Three main types of erosion.
– Sheet erosion – the removal of a uniform thin
layer of soil.
– Rill erosion – numerous and randomly occurring Soil Erosion by Water
small channels are formed.
– Gully erosion – removal of soil from a narrow area
to considerable depths where water accumulates. Soil Erosion by Wind

ECOPOLIS 2010
Soil Drainage
• Refers to the frequency
and duration of periods
of saturation in the soil.
– Excessively drained
– Somewhat
excessively drained
– Well drained
– Moderately well
drained
– Somewhat poorly
drained
– Poorly drained
– Very poorly drained
• Soil drainage is
affected by soil
physical properties
including soil texture
and structure.
• Drainage is also
affected by depth to
water table.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Depth of Water Table

ECOPOLIS 2010
Slope Analysis
• 0 – 3 percent: Level to
Nearly Level
• 4 – 6 percent: Flat to Gently
Sloping / Gently Undulating
• 7 – 14 percent: Moderately
Undulating to Steeply
Sloping
• 14 - 18 percent: Steep
• > 18 Degrees - Not
alienable and disposable
• 18 – 30 percent: Rolling to
Hilly
• 30 – 50 percent: Hilly to
Mountainous
• 50 and above: Mountainous
and Excessively Steep
ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Cover – Vegetation Analysis using
Satellite or Aerial images
• Types of Forest
• Surface Water Bodies
• Grass Shrubs
• Agricultural Crops
• Barren Land / Bare Soil
• Built-up
– Low intensity development (Rural)
– Mixed Urban with xy% impervious
– Paved Urban

ECOPOLIS 2010
Shrink-
swell
potential of
soil

ECOPOLIS 2010
Bedrock

Granite Granite Diorite Andesite

Rhyolite Basalt Limestone Shale


ECOPOLIS 2010
ECOPOLIS 2010
Land
Capability
Classes

ECOPOLIS 2010
Philippine Land Capability Classes (BSWM)
Class A (Very good land). This can be cultivated safely and requires only
simple but good management practices.
Class B (Good land). This can be cultivated safely and requires easily applied
conservation practices.
Class C (Moderately good land). This must be cultivated with caution and
requires careful management and intensive conservation practices.
Class D (Fairly good land). This must be cultivated with caution and requires
very careful management and complex conservation practices for
safe cultivation. This is more suitable for pasture or forest.
Class L (Level to nearly level land). This is too stony or very wet for cultivation
and thus, is limited to pasture or forest use with good soil
management.
Class M (Steep land). This is easily eroded and too shallow for cultivation and
therefore requires careful management to be used for pasture or
forest.
Class N (Very steep land). This land is shallow and rough or dry for cultivation
and very easily eroded. It can be used for grazing or forestry with
very limited management required.
Class X (Level land). This land is very often wet and is suited for fishpond.
Examples are mangrove swamps and fresh marshes.
Class Y (Very hilly and mountainous). This is generally barren and rugged and
suitable for recreation or wildlife.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Capability
Shrink-Swell Potential
Climate: temperature, precipitation and rainfall
Depth of Water Table
Soil Drainage and Surface Runoff
Soil Erodibility: Water and Wind Erosion
Soil Fertility -- Salinity / pH
Stoniness – high, moderate, or low
Soil Permeability and Soil Porosity
Surface Texture and Depth of Soil
Slope and Topography
Bedrock

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Suitability for Agricultural
Crop Types
Mechanical and Vegetative Treatments
Land Capability
Soil Fertility: Salinity / pH
Soil Drainage / Surface Runoff
Climate; 75% probability of rainfall
Mean Temperature
Soil Erodibility: Water and Wind Erosion
Elevation
Slope, Slope Angle, Ease of Water Control
Stoniness – high, moderate, or low
Depth of Soil
Soil Permeability
Soil Surface Texture

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Suitability for Agricultural Crop Types

Class Crops Limitation

I– Vegetables, bananas, none


limited food crops,
sugar cane
II – Vegetables, bananas, Slight
limited food crops, Drainage
sugar cane
III – Vegetables, bananas, Moderate
limited food crops, Drainage
sugar cane
IV – Forest, pasture severe
drainage,
erosion
V– Permanent tree crops, Soil, erosion,
limited food crops severe
drainage
VI – fruit trees, limited food Shallow Soils,
crops, cocoa, citrus, landslips,
avocado, mango erosion,
drainage,

VII – Timber, charcoal erosion


species
VIII – Leave in natural state

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Suitability for Agricultural Crop Types
Land qualities Land Limiting values for land characteristics
characteristic
s S1 S2 S3 N

Sufficiency of Mean annual >24 21-24 18-21 <18


energy temperature,
(°C) or
Elevation (m)*
(m)* 0-600 600-1200 1200-1800 >1800
Sufficiency of 75% probability >1300 900-1300 500-900 <500
water rainfall (mm)
Soil drainage Poorly drained Imperfectly Moderately well Excessively
class drained drained drained
Soil texture C, ZC, ZCL, L SC, SCL, ZL, Z SL S, LS
Soil depth (cm) >80 60-80 40-60 <40
Sufficiency of pH of flooded 6-7 56 4.5-5 <4.5
nutrients soil
7-8 8-8.5 >8.5

Salinity hazard ECe (mS cm-1) <3 3-5 5-7 >7

Ease of water Slope angle <1 1 -2 2-6 >6


control (degrees)
Ease of Stones and rock Nil 1-5 5-10 >10
ECOPOLIS
cultivation 2010
outcrops (%)
‘Landscape
Analysis’ (a set of
methods used by
landscape architects and
design specialists)

ECOPOLIS 2010
Landscape Analysis
• Usually done
by licensed
landscape
architects for
urban areas

ECOPOLIS 2010
Landscape
Analysis

ECOPOLIS 2010
‘Ecological Constraints
Mapping and Geomatics’
(a set of methods used by
planners, conservationists,
geographers, GIS specialists,
and disaster specialists )

ECOPOLIS 2010
Ecological Constraints Mapping
• Manual Sieve Analysis – manual overlay of maps
from DENR-NAMRIA, DAR, DA-BSWM, DENR-
Land Management Bureau, LRA, DOST-
PHIVOLCS
• Geomatics – use of Geographic Information
System, satellite maps, aerial photographs, and
other digital procedures
• Strategic Environmental Assessment – total
review and assessment of public policies that
respond to environmental threats and natural
hazards

ECOPOLIS 2010
Manual Sieve Analysis

Base Map

Analytic Map
(two or more
themes)

Decision Map: To
Thematic Map Develop or Not To
ECOPOLIS 2010 Develop
Choropleth (Density) Maps

This choropleth map


shows density or
intensity in varying
degrees.
-- using hatchings or
monochromatic color
schemes

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Use Accounting: Prof. Ernesto Serote’s
Scheme to Determine Land Supply
• Total Supply of Land
– Minus NIPAS protected areas
– Minus Non-NIPAS protected areas
– Minus prime agricultural land - NPAAAD
– Minus Environmentally-constrained areas
(Geohazard)
– Minus vital open spaces,
– Minus Drainage corridors and legal easements,
other public easements,
– Minus natural landmarks
– Minus beach area, etc.

= EQUALS TOTAL LAND AREA AVAILABLE


FOR DEVELOPMENT

ECOPOLIS 2010
Use of GIS

Transport Demand
Infrastructure
Social Needs
Economic Activities
Land Suitability
Land Capability
NPAAAD
Non-NIPAS areas
NIPAS Areas
Geologic Profile, Geohazards
Topography / Geophysical
Base Map
ECOPOLIS 2010
Use of GIS

ECOPOLIS 2010
Introduction
Introduction to
to GIS
GIS
An Information System For Maintaining and Using
Spatial Information

Views

Product
s
Updates

Analysis
Mobile / LBS
Mission Critical
Applications
A Generic Platform for Working With Geographic
79
Information
ECOPOLIS 2010
What is Geographic Information System?
• Software for creating maps having a direct
relationship to real-world features
• One of the most powerful of all the information
technologies
• Integrates information from multiple sources
• Based in science, trusted, and easily
communicated across cultures, disciplines, and
languages.
• Benefits from Using GIS
– Provides a powerful tool for conducting spatial analysis
(in 2D and 3D) for planning
– Creates a commonly-understood environment (maps) for
collaboration and communication.
– Ability to share data with the field and partners

ECOPOLIS 2010
GIS is Becoming the Language of Planners
Concepts and Methods

Data Tool Data

Geoprocessing
Complex Data
Modeling
Interactive
Mapping

Modeling
Visualization
Integrating Data

. . . That Build on the Theories of Geography


ECOPOLIS 2010
Geohazard Mapping using
GIS
Lithology/ Soil Science
Land Cover: Forestry
Climate / Meteorology
Hydrology
Seismology
Geology
Topography

ECOPOLIS 2010
Aerial Photograph (by twin-engine plane) vs
Satellite Imagery

ECOPOLIS 2010
What is a GIS?
A geographical information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for
mapping and analyzing things that exists and events that happen on
Earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as
query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and
geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities distinguish
GIS from other information system and make it valuable to a wide range
of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting
outcomes, and planning strategies

ECOPOLIS 2010
Components of a GIS?
A working GIS integrant five
key components:
1.Hardware
2.Software
3.Data
4.People
5.Methods
Hardware
Hardware is the computer on which a GIS operates. Today,
GIS software runs on a wide range of hardware types, from
centralized computer servers to desktop computers used in
stand-alone or networked configurations.

Software
GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze and display geographic information. Key software
components are tools for the input and manipulation of geographic query, analysis and visualization a graphical user
interface (GUI) for easy access to related tools

Data
Possibly the most important component of a GIS is the data. Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected
in-hours or purchased from a commercial data provided. A GIS will integrate spatial data with other data resources and
can even use a DBMS, used by most organization to organized and maintain their data, to manage spatial data.

People
GIS technology is of limited value without the people who manage the system and develop plans for applying it to real
worlds problems. GIS users range from technical specialist who design and maintain the system to those who use it to
help them perform their everyday work.

Methods
A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed and business rules which are the models and operating practices
unique to each organization

ECOPOLIS 2010
Vector and Raster Models

Geographic information system work with


two fundamentally different types of
geographic models-the “vector model”
and the “raster model”

In the vector model, information about


points, lines and polygons is encoded
and stored as a collection of x,y coordinates,
the location of point feature, such as a bore
hole, can be described by a single x,y
coordinate. Linear features such as roads
and river, can be stored as a collection of
points coordinate. Polygonal features, such as sales territories and river
catchments, can be stores as a closed loop of coordinates. The vector model
is extremely useful for describing discrete features, but less useful for
describing continuously varying features such as soil type of accessibility
costs for hospital

ECOPOLIS 2010
And analytical questions such as
•Where are all the sites suitable for building new houses?
•What is the dominant soil type for oak forest?
•If I build a new highway here, how will traffic be affected?

•GIS provides both simple point-and-click query capabilities and sophisticated


analysis tools to provide timely information to managers and analysts alike. GIS
technology really comes into own when used to analyze geographic data to look
for patterns and trends, and to undertake “what if” scenarios. Modern GIS, have
many powerful analytical tools, but two are especially important

Proximity Analysis
•How many houses lie within 100m of this water main line?
•What is the total number of customer within 10 km of Sm?
•What proportion of the rice crop is within 500 m of the pumping station

To answer such question, GIS


technology uses a process
called buffering to determine
the proximity relationship
between features

ECOPOLIS 2010
Overlay Analysis

The integration of different data layers


involves a process overlay. At its simplest,
this could be a visual operation, but
analytical operations require one or more
layers to be joined physical. This overlay,
or spatial join, can integrate data on soils,
slopes and vegetation, or land ownership
with tax assessment

Visualization
For many types of geographic operation the end result is best visualized
as a map or graph. Maps are very efficient at storing and communicating
geographic information. While cartographers have created maps for
millennia, GIS provides a new and exciting tools to extend the art and
science of cartography. Map display can be integrated with reports, three-
dimensional views, photographic images, and other output, such as
multimedia.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Scenario-Building
and Strategy
Formulation -- (set of
methods from Management
Science, Public Administration,
Industrial Engineering /
Operations Research)

ECOPOLIS 2010
Scenarios
• Do nothing
• Low Growth
• High growth scenario
• Worst case scenario
• others
Lay down Assumptions:
--Universal Assumptions (No wars, no catastrophic
events)
--Method-Based Assumptions (Future rates)
--Local Area-Based Assumptions (Future of industry)
--Regional-Based Assumptions (region’s future growth)

ECOPOLIS 2010
Overall Development Goals

DEVELOPMENT Public Interest


GOALS AND General Welfare
OBJECTIVES National Policies
Community Development

Beginning Section of MTPDP


Sec. 19 of RA 7160 Local Government
Code

ECOPOLIS 2010
Definition of Spatial Strategy
• Scheme for matching
specific land use General Spatial
demands with land Strategies
supply in a manner
supportive of and
consistent with (0) Do-nothing scenario
enunciated development
vision of the community; (1) Concentration
such strategy specifies
the way land uses are
located, positioned, or (2) Simple Dispersion
distributed (either
concentrated or (3) Dispersed
dispersed) in
consonance with the Concentration
social , political,
economic, cultural and
ecological goals and (4)Concentrated
objectives of the Decentralization
community
ECOPOLIS 2010
In order to generate spatial strategies, we
should have:
A. Goals and Objectives
B. Clear situation analysis that show
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities,
and threats from:
• The Ecological Profile and Field
Verification
• Sectoral Forecasting
• Disaster Risk Assessment
• Other Specialized Studies
• Accurate, Scaled Maps
ECOPOLIS 2010
Considerations in choosing Strategy Options
The strategy for spatial use should from the start take into
consideration:
• Development goals and objectives
• Physical environment – constraints and problems; Level of
available infrastructure and technology to solve them
• Economic activities – people’s livelihood
• Social concerns – population density, security, crowd
movements, disease vector control, and responsiveness to
disasters are all factors affecting spatial lay-out.
• Historical background and Cultural Practices – family-size
tendencies and habitation customs, religion affects growth.
• Political Organization – presence of hierarchies and
centralized power versus more diffuse and democratic
governance.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Determining Policy Statements from Goals &
Objectives
Overall Goal: “Our municipality integrates balanced ecology.”
Objectives:
1.o maintain the existing watershed through preserving the
remaining forest cover.
2.o use all inland waterways and coastal waters sustainably so that
they remain clean and productive.
3.To educate all citizens on ecological properties of our
municipality.
Corresponding Policy with Spatial Effect :
Protection – Area “PT3” shall be designated a wildlife sanctuary
and off limits to any form of human habitation.
- All waterways shall be assigned buffer zones of at
least three (3) meters on both sides, with no
settlements allowed beyond area “PT4”

ECOPOLIS 2010
Generating a Spatial Strategy for the Policy
Statements
Given: PT1, PT2…PTx for protection; PR1, PR2…PRx for
production; I1, I2…Ix for Infrastructure, and S1, S2…Sx
for Settlements, then how do we arrange them, so that
we can achieve our objectives?
Then: We should arrange these in space, giving due
consideration to the lay-outs and relationships that:
1. Promote growth and development (in certain
directions)
2. Limit or regulate growth
3. Reduce or prohibit growth
4. Allow multiple or compatible uses
5. Segregate land uses or require isolation
6. Relate positively (or negatively) with neighboring areas

ECOPOLIS 2010
Detailing the Spatial Strategy
After all proposed general strategies have been
evaluated and once one has been chosen, it will
become necessary to add details regarding:
1. The town center/ poblacion where highest level goods
and services will be available, including the central
business district
2. The various access routes, to and through the
planned city; including proposals for type of
transport.
3. Specific areas for various types of production.
4. Areas for liquid and solid waste treatment, recycling,
storage, and dumping.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Use and Infrastructure Planning

FACILITY PLANNING POSSIBLE INPUTS


Illustrate areas where Soils, slope, floodplains,
geophysical conditions are sensitive resources, viewshed
suitable for new construction
Planning for trails and roads Elevation data, soils, slope

Predict possible congestion Roads, trails, destination


points points, entrance and egress to
an area

ECOPOLIS 2010
Urban Form in
CLUPs: based
on Spatial
Morphology
and
Physiognomy
ECOPOLIS 2010
Retail
Office
Industrial Organic Development – follows
Residential
Highway nature’s contours
Railway 1. accretion occurs around nodes or
core settlement resulting in
agglomeration
2. Relatively low-technology growth
following terrain features
3. Closely integrated urban and
Core environmental functions
4. Sensitive to population pressures and
massive technological alterations.
5. Has high visual amenity.

Developing Along Nature’s Lines – historically and logically the


initial option for human settlements, especially those whose
existence is dependent upon a natural resource such as water,
minerals, or valuable plant and animal species.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Hirschhorn am Neckar,
Germany
Organic (Unplanned) Development
1. accretion occurs around nodes or core settlement
resulting in agglomeration
2. Relatively low-technology growth following terrain
features
3. Closely integrated urban and environmental
functions
4. Sensitive to population pressures and massive
technological alterations.
5. Has high visual amenity.

Developing Along Nature’s Lines – historically and


logically the initial option for human settlements,
especially those whose existence is dependent upon a
natural resource such as water, minerals, or valuable
plant and animal species.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Dispersed (Amorphic Sprawl)
1. New growth at low densities
2. Circulation by individual vehicles on single
trips, with no road hierarchy
3. Maximum flexibility, personal comfort, and
local participation
4. Public service provision expensive

Decentralizing and spreading development –


where land is plentiful and population expansive,
this more relaxed form is possible. It may
however, be chosen for political reasons, to
diffuse pressures, to conquer territory, or even to
expand productive areas.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Galaxy of Settlements (Sprawl)
1. Development clustered into units with intense cores
and low/zero activity spaces in between
2. Specialization among centers possible, and will
need public transport
3. Memorable image improves of center, but not of
whole region

Development in Multiple Centers – at high


population densities over a wide area, it will
soon become necessary to organize citizens
into more manageable settlements. Multiple
centers are easier to govern with delegated
representatives, and can be specialized,
creating a regional organic unity.

Main Road Highway Activity center

ECOPOLIS 2010
Compact or Concentrated Urban Form
Existing node 1. Development packed into small, area with adjacent
Urban land uses.
Area
2. No / zero private transport. Public transport and
pedestrianization are recommend to avoid
pollution.
major 3. Relatively inflexible.
center
4. Memorable, strong visual image.

• Concentrated development – especially desirable for


preserving the surrounding environment, but also prone to ills
of compact living: pollution, social tensions, and traffic. This
strategy is useful where land is limited and where governance
is strong.
• This spatial form entails a concentration of future growth in the
existing urban area.
• Areas for expansion are generated through the strategy of
filling of vacant lands and utilization of idle lands.

ECOPOLIS 2010
a
re
Major Road

A
io
n Ring or Concentric Urban Form
ns

(Burgess, Mann)
pa

1. This urban form exemplifies the


Ex

concentration strategy.
2. It is characterized by an expansion of
development that contiguously grows out of
local the central business district.
roads 3. Congestion is avoided, traffic can be
controlled.
4. Inflexible as a form, and requires strong
Avoiding the congested political will to preserve the central open
central area
space.
Preserving a Unique Core – for areas with an
City outstanding open space feature or productive
Center
agriculture, this annular form creates some of
Secondary
Center the most memorable cities or regions. If
maintained, the “green heart” also serves
Structuring environmental functions.
Suburban
development
ECOPOLIS 2010
Compact Gridiron Development
• Rectangular blocks along
streets and intersections.
• The agglomeration of
development blocks expands to
Blocks occupy a sizeable space unlike
the ribbon or strip type which is
confined in a narrow spread
along roads or rivers.
Main Road Local Roads

ECOPOLIS 2010
Main
Road

Developments

Corridor, Strip, Ribbon, or Linear


Development
1. Simple, efficient if planned for affordable public
transport.
2. Inflexible, and risky in case of need for massive
evacuation.
3. Not very visually memorable.
4. Cheaper to build and maintain.

Strip Development – This is a variant of the


concentrated form but growth appears in a linear
fashion.
when land area is constrained, and there are lower
population densities, growth along one or two major
transport routes can be advocated. The intensity of
corridor use is tied in to neighboring land use
developments.
ECOPOLIS 2010
Radial, Axial, or Urban Star
(Homer Hoyt)
1. Dominant, active core surrounded by centers
(secondary) linked by transport corridors.
2. Flexible, permits more growth, but may cost
much if ring roads are built.
3. Very strong visual image.

• Star shaped pattern of land use


• Travel time rather than transport cost is an
Port important determinant of land use
Manufacturing
District• Takes into account the effect of route ways
District
• Building Along Transport Corridors – access-
CBD oriented and efficient, this strategy works if green
open space sectors can also be maintained. This
strategy also may lead to social segregation or
locational (wedge) specialization of industries,
depending on one’s goal.

ECOPOLIS 2010
“Central and Nodal” or Multiple Nuclei
(Harris & Ullman)
• This entails the simultaneous
development of three or more
areas identified as potential urban
expansion areas.
• This strategy is also known as
dispersed concentration in that it
decongests the central urban area
Central and Nodal
towards new urban centers, but
the decentralized development is
concentrated into the identified
new centers.
• This type of spatial development
assumes a hierarchical form
wherein there is a central
dominant area, which is supported
by pockets of development nodes
in nearby or neighboring areas.
ECOPOLIS 2010
New Towns -- Bi-polar or tripolar
• A planned urban area is developed
as alternative to an old center
• New pole is meant to address the
shortcomings of the old center.
• New Town refers to any large-scale
master-planned development
which includes housing, work
places and related facilities within a
self-contained set-up based on the
assumption that it can be built,
more or less, from zero (tabula
rasa).
• New town will mean private money
and fiscal resources will be drawn
away from old historic center. Can
the town/city afford it?

ECOPOLIS 2010
Comparison of the expected Performance of the Six City Models
TODs,
Criteria Core City Star City Sat City Lin City Reg City
TNDs

Degree of containment of development + +/- +/- - - +/-

Population density relative to land needed + +/- + + + +


Viability of public transport + +/- + - + +
Viability of mixed uses - +/- +/- + - +/-
Access to services and facilities +/- +/- +/- - +/- +/-
- + + + + +
Access to green open spaces (parks, countryside)
- +/- +/- + + +/-
Environmental conditions (noise, pollution, congestion)
- +/- +/- + +/- +/-
Potential for social mix through variety of housing
Potential for local autonomy - +/- +/- + +/- +/-
Potential for self-sufficiency + + + + + +
- +/- +/- - +/- +
Degree of adaptability of city to changing
conditions/needs
+/- +/- +/- - - +/-
Imageability of the city (the physical entity) as a whole
+/- +/- +/- + +/- +/-
Imageability of parts of the city (neighbourhood, district,
towns)
Sense of place and centrality +/- +/- + - - +
Equal weights -1 +2 +6 +1 +1 +6
Weighted (bold) -4 +1 +2 0 0 +3

Note: Sat. = satellite; TOD = transit-oriented development; TND = traditional neighbourhood development; lin. + linear; reg. = regional

ECOPOLIS 2010
Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Spatial Strategies of
Bacolor
Strategy Brief Description Advantages Disadvantages Recommendation
Organic Problems are solved as they Quick reaction to pressing High exposure of town to not recommended
(unplanned arise, following a disjointed problems unpredicted natural hazards
Development) incrementalist trial-and-error
process Allows manageability in Slow, if not stagnant,
solving problem development
Development is along nature's
lines, especially in terms of Concerns are empirically Disorderly and conflicting land
geologic, geomorphic and grounded utilization
hydrologic features but without
technical studies Marked by openness and Lack of integrated planning, i.e.,
fluidity and thus by readiness planning is ad-hoc
Spontaneous accretion occurs to perceive new problems
around nodes, resulting in Problem analysis is limited,
unplanned agglomeration Non-requirement of massive resulting to neglected outcomes,
capital investment outlays policies and values
Relatively low technology
growth, following the use only of Minimal reliance on theory
developable terrain without
infrastructural interventions The usual means-end analysis
conducted is often inappropriate
Sensitive to population or limited
pressures and massive
infrastructural and technological Selection of goals and analysis of
alterations amidst a lack of policies and strategies are not
planning distinct, i.e., they are intertwined

Has high visual amenity as in


developing only certain
landmarks and structures

ECOPOLIS 2010
Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Spatial Strategies of
Bacolor
Strategy Brief Description Advantages Disadvantages Recommendation
Central and Nodal Follows the rational planning Decongestion of main node or Lack of serious consideration of the not recommended
approach marked by Central Business District (CBD) challenges posed by natural hazards
comprehensive analysis, technical
prediction of consequences of Dispersion of developmental Inattention to the varying levels of
planning decisions and efficient impulses to the periphery and land suitability in the area
allocation of resources rural areas
Non-consideration of the uneven
Simultaneous development of three Integration of the whole development levels among minor
or more nodes planning area spatially and nodes
socioeconomically
Dispersed concentration following a Inward-looking, with no attention
process of decentralization of Creation of an active local paid to the attraction of
development into new centers cellular economy through an developmental impulses from
interconnected road network nearby large urban areas
Assumes a hierarchical form where
a dominant area exists and is Consideration of all possible Difficulty of determining whose
supported by pockets of problems and potential values to follow in decision-makers
development nodes in neighboring following comprehensive and institutions which have limited
areas analyses of all the planning power
sectors
Radial road connections between Resolution of problems through
the central node and minor nodes Fairly accelerated socio- political power, making planning a
economic development non-participatory process

Requirements of large infusion of


capital for programs and projects

ECOPOLIS 2010
Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Spatial Strategies of
Bacolor
Strategy Brief Description Advantages Disadvantages Recommendation
B-Nodal Infilling Based on the rational planning Operated on a serious Difficulty of determining whose Recommended
approach characterized by consideration of the challenges values to follow in decision-making–
comprehensive consideration of posed by geological, whether those of politicians,
problems and potentials, provision geomorphic and hydrologic technicians or civil society
of technical base for decision- natural hazards
making, and use of an efficient Difficulty of implementing programs
allocative mechanism for resources Consideration of the varying and projects amidst local decision-
levels of land suitability in the makers and institutions which have
Initial development of two major municipality limited power and financial
nodes and development infilling of capability
environmentally safe but open and Consideration of the uneven
buildable minor urban nodes development levels among Resolution of issues and concerns
minor urban nodes through centralized political power
More focuses and prioritized with less observance of people
development of urban nodes Both inward-and outward- empowerment
looking particularly paying
Dispersed concentration of urban attention to the development Requirement of massive capital
activities to effect a functional impulses coming from two large outlays in the Local development
decentralization within the proximate urban centers Investments Programs (LDIP)
municipality
Dispersion of developmental
Assumes a semi-hierarchical activities to the rural areas
settlement set-up but also a
balanced focus on two major
existing nodes and directing the
developmental trickling down
process to the minor developable
nodes

ECOPOLIS 2010
Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Spatial Strategies of
Bacolor
Strategy Brief Description Advantages Disadvantages Recommendation
Assumes an interconnected Spatial and socio-economic Limited of many areas to non-urban
circulation network integration of the whole uses due to hazard considerations
planning area

Creation of a dynamic local


cellular economy that attracts
external developmental
impulses whose multiplier
effects are not allowed to leak
out rapidly

Consideration of all possible


problems and potentials that
can either hinder or hasten
development in the planning
area

Rapid pace of socio-economic


development

Observation of “highest and


best use” utilization of limited
land in the planning area

ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Use
Allocation

ECOPOLIS 2010
FAO Standards
• Industrial – 2.5 hectares per ‘000 population
• Commercial – 0.10 hectares per ‘000 population
or 1.5 hectares per 15,000 population
• Rural Roads – 1.5 km for every 100 hectares
• Utilities – 0.38 hectares per ‘000 population
• Schools – 0.60 hectares per ‘000 population
• Hospitals – 0.20 hectares per ‘000 population
• Residential -- at least 3 m3 per person
• Recreational Open Space – 0.50 hectares per
‘000 population
• Government / Administrative Area – 0.50
hectares per ‘000 population
• Total Settlement – 5.7 hectares per ‘000
population

ECOPOLIS 2010
HLURB Standards
• Residential – Standards for BP 220 and PD 957, minimum 32
m2 per household to lot area and 24 m2 floor area.
• Industrial – 2.5 hectares per ‘000 population
• Commercial – 1.5%-3.0% of total built-up area
• Roads – 1.0km / 1.0ha (1,000 m X 10 m) for every 100
hectares
• Other Infrastructure – 0.38 hectares per ‘000 population; 5.7
hectares per 15,000 population
• Hospitals/Health facilities – 0.40 hectares per ‘000 population
• Schools – 0.80 hectares per ‘000 population
• Daycare – 0.166 hectares per ‘000 children of age bracket
• Recreational Open Space – 0.10 hectares per ‘000 population
– 0.05 hectares of city/municipal park per ‘000 population
– 0.05 hectares of athletic field per ‘000 population
• Government / Administrative Area – 0.5 hectares per ‘000
population

ECOPOLIS 2010
Projected Urban space Demand and Supply
There is a need to know the demand for urban lands as well as the supply available for
such demand within the 10-year planning period. The analysis will indicate if there is still
enough land for an increasing population and in a place where the land is limited in
extent. In determining the urban land demand for Hagonoy, space allocation standards
from different sources are used. These sources include the HLRB Guidelines for Land
Use Planning, Economic Sector Planning and Zoning ordinance formulation. These
standards are at best indicative guidelines that could be varied on a short-, medium and
long-term basis. In the current exercise, the conservative context is adopted with the aim
of achieving more realistic proportion. In the table below show the standards adopted for
Hagonoy, in which those for residential, industrial and infrastructural uses are relatively
high per 1000 population, considering that these are the space-consuming uses.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Comprehensive
Land Use Plan
(CLUP) – a
coherent set of
policies on land
use and water
use
ECOPOLIS 2010
Generic Outline of a Municipal–level
Comprehensive Land Use Plan
1. Introduction
2. Planning Process and Methodology
3. General Development Framework
1. Linkage to Provincial, Regional, National Plans
2. Local Vision-Mission-Goals and Spatial Objectives
4. Development Needs and Physical Constraints
1. Vision-Reality Gaps
2. SWOT Analysis
3. Natural Hazards Assessment
4. Social and Economic Analyses
5. Landscape Analysis
5. Generation and Evaluation of Spatial Alternatives
– Cost-Benefit Analysis. Goals-Achievement Matrix, Other tools in Decision-making
6. Preferred Spatial Strategy
1. General Land Use Map (whole territory)
2. Urban Land Use Map (urban areas / poblacion only)
7. Land Use Policies
1. Production Land Use – industrial, agricultural, commercial
2. Protection Land Use – NIPAS, Ancestral Domain, etc.
3. Settlements Land Use – urban design, residential, subdivisions,
4. Infrastructure Land Use – Transportation network, public utilities, solid waste
8. Water Use Policies
1. Marine waters
2. Inland surface water bodies
3. Underground water
9. CLUP Implementation
ECOPOLIS 2010
Four Land Use Policy Areas By Ernesto M. Serote

ECOPOLIS 2010
Production Land Use
• areas devoted historically / naturally to producing food,
materials, services, or other items that feed development.
• Productive land refers to areas capable of sustaining
intensive and multiple uses primarily geared to the growing
of food and cash crops or to the production of commodities
for their economic value. These lands are usually neither
environmentally-constrained nor environmentally-sensitive.
Nevertheless, production/cultivation practices should be
carried out in an environmentally-sustainable and socio-
culturally sound manner.

Type References
Business District / Tourism Local Ordinances
SAFDZ AFMA, Fisheries Code, CARL
Non-SAFDZ, but Agricultural AFMA, CARL
Mining Areas Mining Law
Industrial Estates and Special PEZA Law
Economic Zone
ECOPOLIS 2010
Production Land Use - NPAAAD
• Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and Agro-Industrial
Development (NPAAAD) refers to prime agricultural land based
on “land capability” and “land suitability” as scientifically
determined by BSWM. These lands are highly dedicated to
agriculture and highly restricted to non-agriculture uses because
they are the most efficient and stable croplands. They can grow
a wide range of crops with minimum to moderate levels of farm
management. These lands also contain large State investments
on irrigation and agri-support infrastructure. State policies on
non-conversion of agricultural land apply in all NPAAAD areas.
• The CLUP shall seek to preserve all irrigated and non-irrigated
farmlands to ensure food security. As a general goal, the CLUP
shall discourage conversion of any parcel of prime agricultural
land.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Production Land Use – Agrarian Reform
Communities
• “Agrarian Reform Communities” refers to the
DAR-initiated agricultural settlements covered by
the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law which
are characterized by collaborative management of
clustered or convergent farms whose cultivators
are recipients of CLOAs. Its primary land use is
agricultural and agro-industrial, principally the
growing and processing of grains and cereals,
sugarcane and cashcrops. Because they are
usually irrigated or irrigable, CARP lands are
naturally subsumed by the Network of Protected
Areas for Agricultural and Agro-Industrial
Development (NPAAAD).

ECOPOLIS 2010
Production Land Use -- SAFDZ
• “Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries
Development Zones (SAFDZ) are
likewise subsumed by the Network of
Protected Areas for Agricultural and
Agro-Industrial Development
(NPAAAD) as areas of production,
agro-processing and marketing.
SAFDZ coverage is broader than
CARP croplands because SAFDZs
additionally cover suitable areas for
livestock, fisheries, and agro-forestry.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Production Land Use – Agricultural Estates
• “Agricultural estates” are large-scale farms (fields,
orchards, pulpwood harvesting, horticultural
business) characterized by intensive operations and
by very low-density housing. The chosen location
should take advantage of existing access roads,
absence of human population, and presence of
dense vegetation to absorb and diffuse air pollution.
Modern wastewater management should be
observed to prevent pollution of the receiving stream
and to allow future possibility of energy and
materials recovery from waste. Specific buffer
requirements are needed to protect adjacent
properties from adverse effects.
• “Haciendas” which are 50 hectares or more in size
are logically covered by the Comprehensive
Agrarian Reform Law.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Production Land Use – Agro-industrial
Estates
• “Agro-industrial estates” cover commercial-scale
feedlots, piggeries, poultry farms, meat processing
industries, and slaughterhouses characterized by
intensive operations. The chosen location should
take advantage of existing access roads, absence
of human population, and presence of dense
vegetation to absorb and diffuse air pollution.
Modern wastewater management should be
observed to prevent pollution of the receiving
stream and to allow future possibility of energy and
materials recovery from waste. Specific buffer
requirements are needed to protect adjacent
properties from adverse effects.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Production Land Use – Ranches and
Fishponds
• “Pastureland” or “rangeland” refers to
grassland and brushland reserved for
the raising and grazing of livestock at
commercial scale.
• “Aquaculture areas” refer to ponds,
swamps, lakelets, and freshwater or
brackishwater bodies devoted to fish
farming to augment production from
capture fishing in rivers and coasts.
Through the use of fish traps and fish
cages, production of fish in these areas
enhances sufficiency of fish supply.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Protection Land Use
• areas with unique natural qualities, hazards, or irreplaceable
functions where human activities must be forbidden or strictly
regulated by law or local custom.
• “Protected areas” refer to identified portions of land and water set
aside by reason of their unique physical and biological significance,
managed to enhance biological diversity and protected against
destructive human exploitation (Republic Act 7586). Protected areas
are already covered by existing national laws but can be further
protected by local ordinances and community action.

Type References
NIPAS Area RA 7586, Forestry Water, Fisheries
Non-NIPAS Codes, Clean Air/ Water Acts, etc.

Environmentally Constrained EIA law, DOST-Phivolcs Reports,


Areas Local Ordinances,
Geohazard Areas NDCC

Cultural and Heritage Sites Local Ordinances, UN Commitments


ECOPOLIS 2010
Protection Land Use – Permanent
Forests
• “Permanent Forests” perform vital ecological
functions. These must be kept perpetually in their
open character, permanently in their natural state,
and fully free from human intrusion and disruption.
Included here are so-called virgin or old-growth
forest, primary broadleaf forest, areas above one
thousand (1,000) meters elevation, peaks of
mountains or other areas with very steep gradients
(50% slope or more), rare habitats, and habitats of
threatened, endangered or extinct species.
• “National Park” shall be preserved pursuant to
national statutes. Intervention thereof must only be
in the form of rehabilitation and reforestation

ECOPOLIS 2010
Protection Land Use – Environmentally
Constrained Areas
• “Environmentally –constrained areas” are so called because they
pose serious hazards to human settlements due to their high
susceptibility to landslides, subsidence, sinkholes, erosion once their
top soil is exposed, among others.
• Forestland with slope over 18%, with or without tree cover, is
environmentally-sensitive areas shall be permanently maintained in
their original state through an easement or deed restriction which shall
be recorded on the zoning map. In general, development should not
be permitted in areas over 18% slope. Interventions in these areas
shall be limited to rehabilitation and maintenance.
• A buffer zone of 40-meters at the foot of mountains, as legally
specified, is to be observed.
• “Escarpments” and “waterfalls” are environmentally-constrained areas
requiring a buffer of 40-meters around them as per Presidential
Decree 705.
• “High angle fault lines” and fault zones require buffer strips of 40-
meters along the fault line and have to be withdrawn from human use.
• volcanoes
• areas prone to tsunami prone areas noise, air pollution are also
environmentally sensitive.
• probable causes of hazards or risk

ECOPOLIS 2010
Protection Land Use -- Watersheds
• “Watershed or water catchment reserve” is a
section of forestland with an area of 100-meter
radius around rivers and springs which serve as
catchment for water sources being tapped for
domestic water supply and irrigation. Uncontrolled
human activities can jeopardize the quality of water
entering a town’s intake boxes and water pipes and
should therefore be severely prohibited.
• “Critical river watersheds” should be rehabilitated to
arrest further degradation of resources.
Management of watershed should adopt an
integrated approach and a synchronized set of
guidelines on how competing uses such as
irrigation and human water consumption can be
harmonized to achieve economic and
environmental goals.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Protection Land Use – Social Forestry
• Areas of “integrated social forestry” pertain to
forestland where there are “tenured migrant
communities” residing therein who have actually and
continuously occupied the same area for at least five
(5) years prior to its designation as protected area by
RA 7586. These communities are principally dependent
on forest for their subsistence. They are therefore
engaged by government to undertake reforestation and
upland management. Under a separate but kindred
program called Community-Based Forest
Management, organized communities are granted
access to upland resources through the issuance of
long term tenure agreement (CBFMA), an instrument
that grants them peaceful occupation but makes them
responsible and accountable to protect, develop, and
manage forest resources under the principle of
stewardship.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Protection Land Use – Buffer Zones
• “Buffer zones” in forestland are areas
outside or peripheral to designated
principal zones but adjoin or surround
them. They are set aside to serve as
protective barrier or social fence to prevent
encroachment into principal areas by
outsiders. Controlled uses such as non-
consumptive activities may be allowed in
buffer zones. Buffer zones in protected
forest areas are treated as integral part of
said protected forest areas.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Settlements Land Use – areas inhabited as dwelling
and leisure sites.

Type References
High Density Residential Building, Structural and Sanitary
Codes, Clean Air and Water
Low Density Residential Acts
Socialized Housing BP 220
(Public) Open Spaces Local Ordinances
Temporary Residences UDHA

ECOPOLIS 2010
Infrastructure Land Use – areas for connective or
communicative space, and institutional support

Type References
Pedestrian and bicycle Local Ordinances
network
Water, sewage, power, SLF SWMA, Water and Sanitation
net Codes
Social Support Services DILG Regulations, LGC
Air/Sea ports and Depots Building Code, DPWH Regulation

Road, rail, and river network Building Code, DPWH Regulation

ECOPOLIS 2010
Specialized Uses or Integrated Mixed Use
Areas
Sometimes, however, there is a need to
segregate uses that do not fall exactly under
the main policy areas. These may include:
1. Highly-densified and dynamic locations with
multiple uses.
2. Military reservations that include residential and
even limited commercial functions.
3. Scientific institutions and special study areas that
house many functions.
4. Others, as justified by the planner.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Combined Policy Areas -- Policy areas may
occasionally have overlaps or shared users
(e.g. protective areas and settlements). This
should be recognized and managed in the form
of:
1. Buffer Zones Strict Protection
Areas
2. Multiple Use Zones
Water Bodies &
Limited Use by
Indigenous
Peoples
3. Access Corridors Buffer Zone

Eco- Residences
Tourism

Access Corridor Through Buffer


City
Hall
Industry
Expansion Area

ECOPOLIS 2010
Tools to Evaluate Land Use Plan
• Financial Analysis:
– are the proposed land-use types profitable for the producer or other land users?’
– Financial analysis looks at profitability from the point of view of a producer or other
private investor, by comparing the producers' revenues with their costs. Farmers will not
practice a land use unless, from their point of view, it pays. Financial analysis can
answer some immediate, practical questions: • Is this land use the most profitable
option? • Where can this land use be practiced most profitably?

• Economic Analysis:
– Economic analysis estimates the value of a system of land use to the community as a
whole.If prices to the producer are reduced by taxes or held at an artificially high value
by subsidies, these taxes or subsidies have to be eliminated to arrive at a shadow price
for production. Costs have to be treated in the same way
– what is the value of the proposed changes to the community, within and beyond the
planning area? Are there areas of land of critical importance (for production or
conservation) for certain uses?
– Where there are clear economic consequences of environmental effects, the money
value to the community can be estimated and included in economic analysis.
– Economic analysis is easier where there is general agreement on social values and
development goals and where there are freely competitive markets. It is complicated
where there are distortions of the market or where development brings unintended side-
effects, such as pollution or the loss of communal resources, e.g. access to grazing or
fuelwood. It is the job of the planner to identify these side-effects and to assess their
economic costs.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Tools to Evaluate Land Use Plan
• Environmental Impact Assessment:
– Soil and water resources. Hazard of soil erosion, landslides and sedimentation; security of
water supply and water quality within and beyond the planning area.
– Pasture and forest resources. Degradation of rangelands, clearance or degradation of
forests.
– Quality of wildlife habitat. Structure and composition of forests, grasslands and wetlands;
critical areas needed to maintain wild plant and animal communities, including germplasm
conservation; off-site effects or side-effects of terrestrial developments on wetland
ecosystems;
– Scenic and recreational value for tourism and leisure industries. Tolerance of the disturbance
associated with leisure, and compatibility with other land uses.

• Social Impact Assessment:


– studies the effects of proposed changes on different groups of people. Particular attention is
given to effects on women, minority groups, and the poorest sections of the community.
– There are no fixed procedures for assessing the social impact of a proposed change of land
use. The social purpose of the land-use plan should be laid down at the outset and the
impact of each system of land use can be judged against this goal. Examples of social
factors that might be considered are:
– Population. Its projected size, distribution and age structure; the desirability or otherwise of
migration.
– Basic needs. Food security, lessening of risk (e.g. in planning subsistence production as
compared with cash cropping).
– Employment and income opportunities. For example, mechanization may have been
considered as a means of achieving lower production costs but this could lead to
unemployment.
– Land tenure and customary rights. For example, grazing and water rights.
– Administrative structure and legislation with in which planning must operate.
– Community stability.
ECOPOLIS 2010
Example: Land Use Plan of Taguig City

ECOPOLIS 2010
Example: General Land Use Plan of Antipolo City

ECOPOLIS 2010
ECOPOLIS 2010
ECOPOLIS 2010
Example: Land Use Plan of Baguio City

Central Business District of


Baguio ECOPOLIS
City 2010
ECOPOLIS 2010
Land Use
Implementing
Tools

ECOPOLIS 2010
Conventional Land Use Implementing Tools
LAND-USE TOOLS OBJECTIVES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
ZONING To divide community’s 1. Externalities are 1. Too rigid
space into zoning minimized 2. Land speculation
districts. 2. Land values increases
Three sets of issues are increased 3. social externalities
addressed: 3. Low-cost land use segregating people
1. Land Use tool by social status
2. Intensity 4. Effective tool due to 4. Sterile Environment
3. Regulation of density government police due to separation of
4. Floor Area Ratios power (Euclid vs. land uses
5. Bulk Amber) 5. Traffic increases
6. building size
7. minimum size lot

SUBDIVISON Regulates subdivisions 1. Infrastructure is 1. Rigid


layout and the provision provided 2. Increases housing
CONTROL of some infrastructure 2. synchronization of costs
1. Paving Requirements development and
2. Provision of curbs, capital investment
sidewalks, internal
sewers, water lines

OTHER 1. Housing Ordinances


2. Sign Ordinances
REGULATIONS 3. Tree Ordinances
4. Grading Ordinances
5. Building Permits
ECOPOLIS 2010
Zoning
• Regulatory process that controls the location
and intensity of specific land uses
• It is based on the POLICE POWER of the
State to regulate private actions to promote
health, safety and welfare of the public.
• Aims to direct, manage and control growth to
protect quality of life.
• To create compatibility between adjacent land
uses
• To prevent incompatible uses
• To designate selected land uses and building
requirements to appropriate areas in the
community.
• To insure coordination of infrastructure
services

ECOPOLIS 2010
Concerns Regulated by Zoning
• Zone identification
• Type of Land Use
• Permitted uses by right - Intensity of Use, Density
limitations, Minimum and maximum lot size, area and width,
• Lot Coverage - Maximum coverage, Floor Area Ratio,
• Bulk -- Building Size and Building Height
• Setbacks - Front setback Back setback Side setback, one
side, total
• Parking regulations (e.g., one per 200 square feet for retail
business).
• Sign requirements
• Right-of-way width
• Cartway width
• Curb requirements
• Sidewalk requirements
• Fence regulations
• Storage requirements
• Landscape ordinance
• Permitted uses by special exception

ECOPOLIS 2010
Specialized Zoning Techniques
• Planned Unit Development (PUD) –
mixes land uses
• Overlay Zoning – Historic Districts,
Heritage Conservation, Tourism Zones,
floodplains, Geohazard Zones,
Performance Zones -- focus on
impacts not uses
• Agricultural Zoning (e.g. NPAAAD,
ARC, SAFDZ) – leads to food security

ECOPOLIS 2010
Other Land Use Implementing Tools
• Taxes and Impact fees - Internalize costs
• Development Agreements -- Reduces legal costs
• Transfer of development rights (TDR) -
incorporates a market mechanism to mitigate
whatever financial burden local law might have
imposed on property. Planning concept was first
upheld by the US Supreme Court in the 1976
case of “Penn Central Transportation Co., Fred
French Investing Co., Inc. versus City of New
York”

ECOPOLIS 2010
Types of Zoning
Cluster Zoning or
Euclidean or Performance
Mixed Use or
Conventional Zoning: based on Transect Zoning
Zoning: standards (from New Urbanism):
Restrictions • Noise • incentives such as
– Exclusionary • Traffic density bonuses for
Use • Pollution Mixture of Uses
– Height • Complementarity of
• Energy Use uses
– Bulk
• Aesthetics • Integratedness
• To preserve open
space
• Continuum of 6, 3-
Form-Based Zoning Dimensional
– Regulates Building Development
Form, Not Land Use Standard Zones from
– For better urban Rural to Urbanspace
design and aesthetics
ECOPOLIS 2010
Performance Zoning
• Lane Kendig’s
1980 book
Performance
Zoning is the bible
of performance
zoning
• Performance
standards are
either minimum
requirements or
maximum limits
for use
characteristics
(e.g., the
allowable
amounts of
gaseous
emissions, smoke,
odor, noise, heat,
vibration, glare,
traffic generation,
and visual
impacts).
ECOPOLIS 2010
Spot Zoning - Dysfunctional Zoning
• Essentially sets
aside the overall
principles and
objectives of a Plan
• At macro-scale, it
can result positively
in “mixture of uses”
• But can also end up
negatively – e.g.
‘cybersex-den at the
middle of an
university district’
• Arbitrary on the part
of zoning officers –
can be a cause of
graft

ECOPOLIS 2010
Color Codes for Philippine Zoning Map (General)
ZONING CATEGORY COLOR
CODE
1. Built-up yellow

2. Agricultural green

3. Forest Dark green

4. Special Use
4.1 Mining/ brown
Quarrying
4.2 Grassland/
Pasture dark green

4.3 Agro-Industrial violet


red
4.4 Tourism
Appropriate color other
4.5 Other Uses than the above

ECOPOLIS 2010
Color Codes For Philippine Zoning Map (Urban)
ZONING CATEGORY COLOR CODE
1. Residential lighter yellow
R1
light yellow
R2
R3 yellow
2. Commercial
C1 lighter red
C2 light red
C3 red
3. Institutional
Gl blue
Sl sky blue
4. Industrial
I1 light violet
I2 violet
I3 royal blue
5. Infrastructure
black
6. Open Space
light green
7. Others
(Cemetery, Land fill Appropriate color other
than the above
site)
ECOPOLIS 2010
Subdivision Control
• Regulatory process that controls the creation of
new land parcels
• Subdivision platting based on the administrative
authority to record property plats and deeds
– Types of lots. Lot Layout and Configuration
– Types of ownership.
– Easements, buffers, conditions,
– Paving Requirements
– Street and Intersection Design - Provision of curbs,
sidewalks
– Infrastructure Construction - Utility Easements,
Wastewater disposal, drainage internal sewers, septic
tanks, water lines
– Infrastructure Finance
– covenants and restrictions,
– performance guarantees.

ECOPOLIS 2010
Density Controls in Zoning: Floor Area
Ratio

ECOPOLIS 2010
Density Controls in Zoning
units per hectare Persons per
hectare
Low density 35 and below 210 and below
Medium density 36 to 150 211-900
High density 151 and above 900 and above

‘Density Bonuses’ can be given by LGUs


to PUDs and to innovative projects which
try to preserve as much unbuilt land in
its site development (more than 30% of
total area).
ECOPOLIS 2010
LGU Authority Levers for Plan Implementation
• Regulation
– Zoning (Locational Clearance)
– Subdivision Regulation (“Deeds of Restrictions”)
– Building Regulation (Building Permit, Building Code oversight)
– Environmental Law Enforcement ordinances – trees, signs, grading, air quality
• Taxation
– Basic Taxes
– Special Levies on Property - Idle Lands Tax
– Impact Fees
– Special Benefit Levy
– Special Education Fund
• Acquisition
– Fee Simple Purchase
– Dedications
– Eminent Domain
– Exactions
– Conservation Easements
• Public Investment
– Expenditure
– Local Development Investment Program / Annual Investment Plan
• Private Investment Incentives
– Fiscal Policies
– Joint Ventures
– B-O-T Schemes
• Co-management
ECOPOLIS 2010
Real Property Taxation -- Example
• Assessed Value: P120,000
• Taxable Value
– 10% Residential Property
– 15% Commercial Property
– 30% Motor Vehicles, et al.
• Taxable Value: 12,000 (120000/10)
• Tax Rate: Millage - Millage Rate is the
tax rate per P1000 of value.
• Millage Rate: 110.00
• Tax Levy: 12 * 110.00 = P1,200.00

ECOPOLIS 2010
ECOPOLIS 2010