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Classifying Nonchord

Tones
Nonchord Tones
• There are nine types of non chord tones.
• Passing Tone
• Neighbor Tone
• Suspension
• Retardation
• Appoggiatura
• Escape Tone
• Neighbor Group
• Anticipation
• Pedal Tone
Other Terms Used When Classifying
Nonchord Tones
• Accented
• Used when labeling nonchord tones that happen on the strong beat.
• Unaccented
• Used when labeling nonchord tones that do not happen on the strong beat.
• Diatonic
• Used when labeling nonchord tones that are in the written key.
Other Terms Continued
• Chromatic
• Used when labeling nonchord tones with chromatic alterations.
• Ascending and Descending
• Used to determine the direction in which the line is moving.
• Upper and Lower
• Used to determine whether it is a lower or upper neighbor.
Passing Tone
• Passing tones are nonchord tones approached by step and left by step in the
same direction.
• They are used to fill the space between two other tones nornally with a space
between them of a third.
• In analysis they would be labeled PT.
• The can be labeled ascending/descending, diatonic/chromatic, and
accented/unaccented.
Neighbor Tone
• Neighbor tones are nonchord tones approached by step and left by step in
the opposite direction.
• They are used to embellish the tone heard before and after it.
• In analysis they would be labeled NT.
• It can be labeled accented/unaccented, upper/lower, and
diatonic/chromatic.
Suspension

• A suspension holds onto a chord tone after other parts of the chord have
moved on.
• Suspensions require a preparation, the tone before the suspension, which is
the same pitch as the suspension and a resolution the tone immediately
following the suspension which is a 2nd below it.
• Suspensions are categorized based off of their intervallic relationship of the
suspension and resolution with the bass.
• So the would be written as SUS 9-8, SUS 7-6, SUS 4-3, or SUS 2-3
• SUS 2-3 being the only suspension that happens in the bass
Retardation

• A retardation is a suspension that resolves upward.


• This means it would follow the same rules of requiring a preparation and
resolution only the resolution will be moving up a 2nd.
• Often occurring in conjunction with other suspensions as a RET 7-8.
Appoggiatura
• Appoggiaturas are nonchord tones approached by leap and left by step.
• In analysis an appoggiatura would be labeled APP.
• They are normally on an accented beat.
Escape Tone
• Escape tones are approached by step and left by leap.
• They are essentially the reverse of an appoggiatura.
• In analysis they would be labeled ES.
• They are usually shorted than the beat, unaccented, and diatonic.
Neighbor Group
• A neighbor group is a combination of two nonchord tones in succession the
first being an escape tone the second an appoggiatura.
• Also known as double neighbor tone, cambiata, or changing tones.
• In analysis they would be labeled NG or DN.
Anticipation
• An anticipation surprise... anticipates a chord that is going to arrive.
• This nonchord tone moves by step or leap to a pitch in the upcoming chord
but is not present in the preceding chord.
• In analysis it would be labeled ANT.
Pedal Tone
• A pedal tone is a begins as a chord tone then becomes a nonchord tone as the
harmonies around it change finally becoming a chord tone again when the
harmonies once again agree with it.
• They are in a class of their own when it comes to nonchord tones as they
are nearly independent of the surrounding chords unlike other nonchord
tones