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Pavan chauda
 an electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical

 electric motors operate through the interaction between the

motor’s magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to
generate force in the form of rotation of shaft.

 Electric motor can be powered by direct current(D.C.) sources or

by alternating current(A.C.) sources
 converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical
 Yoke:
1. acts as the outer support of a DC motor. 2. provides mechanical support for the poles.
 Poles:
1.pole of a dc motor is an electromagnet. 2. The field winding is wound over the poles.
3. Poles produces magnetic flux when the filed winding is excited.
 Field winding:
1.The coils wound around the pole are called field coils and they are connected in series with each other to form field winding.
2.When current passing through the field winding, magnetic flux produced in the air gap between pole and armature.
 Armature:
1.Armature is a cylindrical drum mounted on shaft in which number of slots are provided.
2.Armature conductors are placed in these slots. 3. armature conductors are interconnected to create armature winding.
 Brushes:
1.Commutator is rotating. So it is not possible to connect the load directly to it.
2.Hence current is conducted from the armature to the external load by the carbon brushes which are held against the surface of
commutator by springs.
 Commutator:
1.A commutator is a cylindrical drum mounted on the shaft along with the armature core.
2.collects the current from the armature conductors and passed it to the external load via brushes.

 Depending on the way of connecting the armature and field windings of D.C.
motors are classified as follows:
DC Motor

DC series Shunt motor Compound Separately

motor motor excited motor

Short shunt Long shunt

compound compound

 Series motor- (high starting torque, variation in speed)

traction system, cranes, air compressors
 Shunt motor- (constant speed)
Fans, lathe machine, conveyors, lifts,
 Compound motors- (higher starting torque, constant speed)
Conveyors, presses, rolling mills
 Separately excited motor- (speed variations)
Rolling mills paper machines

 An AC motor Is an electric motor driven by an alternating current (AC).

 AC motor commonly consists of two basic parts, an outside stator having
coils supplied with alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field,
and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft producing a second
rotating magnetic field.
 The two main types of AC motors are induction motors and synchronous
 Induction motor uses electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of
the stator winding to produce an electric current in the rotor and hence
 synchronous motor, the rotation of the rotor is synchronized with the
frequency of the supply current and the speed remains constant under
varying loads, so is ideal for driving equipment at a constant speed and are
used in high precision positioning devices
 three phase motors consist of a stator and a rotor and between which no
electrical connection exists.
 These stator and rotors are constructed with the use of high-magnetic core
materials in order to reduce hysteresis and eddy current losses.
 Stator frame provides necessary mechanical protection and support for stator
laminated core, windings and other arrangements for ventilation.
 The rotor of three phase AC induction motor is different for the slip-ring and
squirrel-cage induction motors.

 When the motor is excited with three-phase supply, three-phase stator winding produce a
rotating magnetic field with 120 displacements at constant magnitude which rotates at
synchronous speed. This changing magnetic field cuts the rotor conductors and induces a
current in them according to the principle of Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction. As
these rotor conductors are shorted, the current starts to flow through these conductors.
 In the presence of magnetic field of stator, rotor conductors are placed, and therefore,
according to the Lorenz force principle, a mechanical force acts on the rotor conductor. Thus,
all the rotor conductors force, i.e., the sum of the mechanical forces produces torque in the
rotor which tends to move it in the same direction of rotating magnetic field.
 the rotor starts rotating in the same direction of the stator rotating magnetic field. If the rotor
speed more than stator speed, then no current will induce in the rotor because the reason for
rotor rotation is the relative speed of the rotor and stator magnetic fields.
 This stator and the rotor fields difference is called as slip.
 the relative speed between the stator field and the rotor conductors causes to rotate the rotor
in a particular direction. Hence, for producing the rotation, the rotor speed Nr must always be
less than the stator field speed Ns, and the difference between these two parameters depends
on the load on the motor.
 It consists of a stator and a rotor.
 The stator core is constructed with thin silicon lamination and insulated by a surface
coating, to minimize the eddy current and hysteresis losses.
 The stator has axial slots inside, in which three phase stator winding is placed.
 The stator is wound with a three phase winding for a specific number of poles equal
to the rotor poles.
 The rotor in synchronous motors is mostly of salient pole type. DC supply is given to the
rotor winding via slip-rings.
 The direct current excites the rotor winding and creates electromagnetic poles.
 The stator is wound for the similar number of poles as that of rotor, and fed with three
phase AC supply.
 The 3 phase AC supply produces rotating magnetic field in stator. The rotor winding is fed
with DC supply which magnetizes the rotor. Consider a two pole synchronous machine.
 the stator poles are revolving with synchronous speed . If the rotor position is such that, N
pole of the rotor is near the N pole of the stator ,then the poles of the stator and rotor will
repel each other, and the torque produced will be anticlockwise.
 The stator poles are rotating with synchronous speed, and they rotate around very fast and
interchange their position. But at this very soon, rotor can not rotate with the same angle
(due to inertia). In this case, poles of the stator will attract the poles of rotor, and the torque
produced will be clockwise.
 the rotor will undergo to a rapidly reversing torque, and the motor will not start.
 But, if the rotor is rotated up to the synchronous speed of the stator by means of an
external force, and the rotor field is excited near the synchronous speed, the poles of stator
will keep attracting the opposite poles of the rotor Now, the rotor will undergo
unidirectional torque. The opposite poles of the stator and rotor will get locked with each
other, and the rotor will rotate at the synchronous speed.

 Induction motor- (load capacity)

Pumps, conveyor, lifting gear etc.

 Synchronous motor- (speed remains constant under varying

Instrumentation, machines, process control etc.