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Perth, The Cleanest city in Australia, The 10th cleanest city in the World 2002 and Bangkok, Capital of Thailand
• Biography of Southern Metropolitan Regional Council (SMRC) and Clean away Council • How waste are managed to be recycled and safe disposed • Current situation and results from the former management • How these results are achieved and what is the potential goals • How is the current waste management system in Thailand and results • Possible applications and challenges for application • Conclusion and recommendation
Biography of Southern Metropolitan Regional Council (SMRC) and Regional Resource Recovery Center (RRRC)
Designed for population 375268 from 146080 households covered land area of 656 Sq Km limited in Northern and Southern Areas and Boundaries Recycling 85% by weight of total domestic waste from 7 regions negotiating with regional councils by surveying with residents Since 1990s
Waste management and recycling system at that site
• The Bedminster In-Vessel Composting Facility turns general household waste into compost for agricultural use. • The Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) separates materials for reprocessing by various industries. • The Green Waste Processing Facility turns green waste into mulch and soil conditioners for parks and road verges
But Clean Away Council manage material recovery from domestic waste of industries
How much waste are managed to be recycled and In Vessel Composting safe disposed
For the processing of Solid Waste Generation in Perth Municipal solid waste 1.8 (Collected from households 1.62 1.62 1.59 1.6 1.53 1.5 1 in the green bin)
1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
109,000 tonnes/year 30,000 tonnes/year
Kg / capita / day
Bio-solids category 1-4
Materials Recovery Facility For the processing of comingled Recyclables (Collected from households 30,000 tonnes/year in the yellow lid bin) Green Waste Processing Facility (Collected from 3 verge side collections/year) Total Capacity
Waste Composition Perth: Year 1996
30,000 tonnes/year 199,000 tonnes/year
1.) Main Stakeholders: • Government:
– State government – Regional council, – Local government.
• • •
Business and industry. Research institution Community
2). ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS Government: – State Government: policy, strategy and guidelines. – Regional council (i.e. SMRC and Clean away) regional waste management strategy, responsible for waste treatment and disposal. – Local government • generally manage the collection of wastes, collection and transport is shared with contractors.
3). Existing Condition • Advanced technology: Compactor trucks, Incinerators, In-vessel composting, Materials recovery facilities. • Intensive Capital. • Economic scale. Research Institution: The Environmental Technology Centre, education and research program: production of high quality art paper by recycling waste paper; composting techniques for organic wastes; wastewater recycling systems.
Scenario Planning Policy on Waste Management
The way forward:
• 2005: Manage the impact • 2008: Management to prevention • 2012: prevention rather than management • 2015: prevention integrated to activities and action • 2020: little/no waste can not be recovered
Avoidance 2005 Impact Management Avoidance 2008 Prevention Management Avoidance 2012 Prev = Mng Management Avoidance 2015 Prev > Mng Management Avoidance ∑recov 2020 Management
Reduce waste by Performance management Recycle
The way forward Zero Waste
Strategies on reducing waste and controlling illegal landfill
• • •
Strategic Direction (Currently)
– – Toward Zero Waste in WA That all western Australians live in a waste free society Principle 1: Prevention – avoid the creation of waste Principle 2: Recovery – efficiently recover, retreat and reuse all waste, Principle 3: Disposal – responsibly manage waste into the environment
Strategic Direction (2007)
Regonized natioanlly and internationally for our excellence and expertise in waste management. Providing resource recovery successfully across the region. Operating in a range of waste management in markets. Actively exploring alternative technologies and investing in research and development. Providing more affordable services to our users. Providing sustainable solutions through simultaneous achievement of environmental, economical and social goals. Achieving our target of 95% reduction of waste from residential properties.
– – –
The way forward Strategic framework:
– – – – – Strategic approach, Measuring success, Focus areas, Project priorities, Reporting and consultation.
SMRC’s Mission 2007
• The SMRC’s purpose and core business is: To continue to embrace the Regional Purpose outlined in the Establishment Agreement. Regional Purpose: (d) To plan, coordinate and implement the removal, processing, treatment and disposal of waste for the benefit of the communities of the Participants (Local Government members of the Regional Council.) (e) To influence Local, State and Federal Governments in the development of Regional waste management policies and legislation. (f) To provide administrative services to the South West Group. (g) To prepare, facilitate and implement programmes, measures and strategies for the reduction of greenhouse gases. • • SMRC’s role will also focus on: Utilizing the advantages of economies of scale to achieve best value for the region. • Increasing their consultation and educational role in order to: - Maximize the use of their service; - Reduce costs; - Find out what the community knows about waste management. • Building upon our knowledge and expertise through undertaking research role. • Engaging in consultancy or contracting services on behalf of the region with the goal of reducing or stabilizing costs and adding value for their member organizations. Throughout all of this, our core business of solid waste management will be maintained.
Key Success Factors
The key success factors measure how effectively the Council is achieving its vision on a year-by-year basis. It is SMRC’s scoreboard for continuous improvement and success. 2. Financial • The value of the service outgrows the cost of providing the service; • The approved budget is compiled with; • Extent of revenue growth; • Local Government compliance measures are met. 2. • • Customer The level of Municipal Council satisfaction: Approved budgets are met; Accountable and responsible management; Member Councils’ community satisfaction. Customer base: Current member Council membership; Regional communities’ utilization of services is increased; Number of commercial customers are increased.
Strategic goals, Highlights and Achievements
Environmental Compliance and innovation Waste Management
Successfully undertaken risk management at RRRC To ensure maximum resource recovery from residential waste generated in the region To maximize resource recovery through a satisfied and aware community To capitalize on expertise by actively seeking opportunities to diversify services and markets
To exceed and set trends/ benchmark for the best practice in environmental compliance To 95% recovery
Increasing Community Awareness Diversifying Services and Markets
To maintain and understanding of the community’s knowledge, attitude and behavior in waste management To develop a regional C & D Waste Management Strategies, to identify waste stream not being addressed To investigate and develop a plan for the use of alternative fuels To establish markets for the sale of recycles and organic materials To develop a formal asset management systems, quality assurance program, an information technology plan, strategy to retain intellectual capital and so on
Greenhouse Gas Abatement To assist and facilitate in the reduction of greenhouse gases within the region Business Sustainability To establish and maintain a sustainable, viable and diverse financial base for the SMRC To develop and maintain an organizational culture of continuous improvement and excellence
Operational Effectiveness and Excellence
Current situation and results from the former management
• Reduce waste, reuse, recycle and finally send to landfill that can reduce landfill sites • Energy, Natural fertilizer and recyclables are the results of resource recovery • Those resource recovery leads to chemical free safe food supply to community as organic food • After stabilization, waste goes to safe landfill • Speeded public’s awareness and participation on performance management to waste keep going to lead targeted goal • 10th cleanest city in the World on 2002 • Better, Healthier, prettier environment and society for city dwellers
How is the current waste management system in Thailand and results
To reduce the volume of waste it sends to landfills by 5,000 tons per day Renovation of the On-nut and Nong Kehm transfer stations An integrated waste facility at Onnut A biogas plant at the Nong Khem transfer station to handle 1,000 tons/day of organic waste But there is no main Policy and Prospective for Plan Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality for the Period 1997-2016 by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental policy and planning
13.8 million tons per year or 37,880 tons per day solid waste increasing rate was 1.7% 10 Million people (October 26,2004) living in Bangkok (megalopolis concept) Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) operates US$41 million dollars a year on goods and services for municipal solid waste management The collection services from residential, community and public areas were inefficient due to the limitation of fee collection, which affected the service development.
Current Waste Generation and Composition (2002)
waste amount (tons per Year 2002)
Community hazardous waste Industrial non hazardous waste Industrial hazardous waste infectious waste municipal solid waste
0 0 00
61880 tons 139810tons 1418400 tons 4473 tons 3456000 tons
00 00 00 00 00 00 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 0, ,0
Ranges Tambon Municipality Muang Municipality Bangkok Municipality Other rural Province
00 00 3, 0 3, 5 00
59-100% 86% >99% 20-30% >99% 25%
00 1, 5
1, 00 0
Waste Generation in Bangkok, 2002
Plastic and Foams
Solid Waste Collection in Municipality
Waste Composition in Bangkok, 2002
Remark on Bangkok Waste Collection System and Landfill Sites
Daily waste collecting system without educating Public and Waste storage tank placing at the corner of streets to reduce waste encourage public to dispose more waste Lack of enough domestic waste recycling facilities, Incinerators, public resentment on appropriate landfills and public awareness lead to landfill shortage and illegal landfills even to Kyauk Phaya river
Municipal and Industrial waste recycling and reuse percentage of total Waste is still quite low But the rate of waste Generation is quite high that waste management Facilities are urgently Needed especially for Industrial hazardous Waste treated in Centralized treatment Facilities which was only 24% of total discharge of Industrial hazardous Waste. Hazardous waste Recycling by industries Is only 18% of total waste generated in Bangkok and vicinity.
• • • • • •
Educating public to extend environmental and health awareness for performance management Enhancing and encouraging institutions to do research on emergency and effective domestic waste management strategy, policy and implementation applicable to current public people behaviors Setting strict and enforced regulation and policies on illegal landfill of Domestic waste Opening markets for waste recycling facilities Encouraging national and international waste recycling companies and facilities under under sustainable and strict law and regulations If, domestic waste recycling facilities can be implemented, those informal waste pickers can get much safer job opportunities rather than current situation.
Challenges for application
Capital sources and labor costs
Over THB 22 billion has been invested in solid waste management but more efficient Waste collection could reduce cost Municipalities allocate less than 25 percent of their budget.
Private sector involvement is limited. Revenues are limited to solid waste collection fees. User fees are not providing adequate revenues. Bangkok raises fees ten-fold.
Multiple Laws All levels of governments are involved.
17. Technologies and technicians availability 19. Difficulties on behavior changes to Public
• In 2000, Thailand has about 2,265 slums that accommodate more than 2 million people. More than half of these slums is located in Bangkok. • The problem of the urban environment and communities is inefficient management system on population growth, and economic growth. • Public resentment on appropriate landfill site lead to conflicts between the local community and the government agency. • Problem of operation and maintenance; especially, budget and manpower
• Waste is not a disgustable things which reflects our behaviors that how we designed to use and how we end up valuable resources. Therefore, waste is the output of our behaviors. That is why we are responsible to manage
PCD= Pollution Control Department ONEP= Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning DEOP= Department of Energy Development and Promotion DOH= Department of Highways PAO= Provincial Administrative Organizations TAO= Tambon Administrative Organization MoNRE = Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment MoPH = Ministry of Public Health MoIND = Ministry of Industry
Very specific targets for every goals and energetic activities Corporate governance and bottom-up management Searching Competitiveness Share Visions within and among public and organization
Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA)
Lack of human resources and on-the-ground presence in many regions is a major barrier to effectively fulfilling their national supervisory and outreach role Municipalities focus on delivery of core services Many local governments are beginning to reach out to the public Staff skills need strengthening. National agencies are overwhelmed and extended Motivating public responsibilities is urgently needed
Clean Away Focus on Eco-efficiency, cleaner Production and customers Biggest waste management company in Western Australia
SMRC and Cleanaway Joint Venture corporation Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (MBA)
• To cope with an increase in the volume of solid waste a combination of supply side and demand side management is strongly recommended, namely, a) adopt the command and control measure to help support the demand side management, b) encourage solid waste reduction, c) promote private investment for solid waste management, and d) encourage behavioral research concerning solid waste management. • Decentralization will increase the role of local governments and regional and provincial offices
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