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EE 319K

Introduction to Embedded Systems

Lecture 4: Arithmetic overflow,


Branches, Control Structures,
Abstraction & Refinement

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-1
Agenda
Recap
Debugging
I/O
o Switch and LED interfacing
C Programming
o Random number generator, NOT gate in Keil
Outline
Arithmetic Overflow
Conditional Branches
Conditional and Iterative Statements
o if, while, for (In assembly and C)
Abstraction & Refinement
o Device Driver
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-2
Condition Codes
Bit Name Meaning after add or sub
N negative result is negative
Z zero result is zero
V overflow signed overflow
C carry unsigned overflow

 C set after an unsigned addition if the answer


is wrong
 C cleared after an unsigned subtract if the
answer is wrong
 V set after a signed addition or subtraction if
the answer is wrong

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-3
8-bit unsigned number wheel
96+64 224+64
+64
255 0 255 0
224
32

192 64 192 64

160 96
128 128

+64 C bit Set


C bit Cleared
 The carry bit, C, is set after an unsigned addition when the result is
incorrect.
 The carry bit, C, is clear after an unsigned subtraction when the result is
incorrect.
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-4
8-bit unsigned number wheel
160-64 32-64
-64
255 0 255 0
224
32

192 64 192 64

160 96
128 128
-64

C bit Set C bit Cleared


 The carry bit, C, is set after an unsigned addition when the result is
incorrect.
 The carry bit, C, is clear after an unsigned subtraction when the result is
incorrect.
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-5
Algorithm (unsigned)
1. Find values of both numbers
interpreted as unsigned
2. Perform addition or subtraction
3. Does the result fit as an unsigned?
• No -> addition C=1,
subtraction C=0
• Yes -> addition C=0,
subtraction C=1

For example: 255 + 5 = 260, C = 1 and


the actual answer is 260-256 = 4

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-6
8-bit signed number wheel
-32+64 96+64
+64
-1 0 -1 0
-32
32

-64 64 -64 64

-96 96
-128 127 -128 127
+64

V bit Cleared V bit Set


 The overflow bit, V, is set after a signed addition or subtraction when the
result is incorrect.

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-7
8-bit signed number wheel
32-64 -96-64

-1 0 -64 -1 0
-32
32

-64 64 -64 64

-96 96
-128 127 -128 127
-64
V bit Cleared V bit Set

 The overflow bit, V, is normally set when we cross over from 127 to -128
while adding or cross over from -128 to 127 while subtracting.

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-8
Algorithm (signed)

1. Find values of both numbers


interpreted as signed
2. Perform addition or subtraction
3. Does the result fit as a signed?
• No -> V=1
• Yes -> V=0
8-bit
Examples: 10 – 5 = 5, V=0
-100 – 100 = -200, V=1

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-9
Addition Summary

Let the 32-bit result R be the result of the 32-bit addition X+Y.

 N bit is set
 if unsigned result is above 231-1 or
 if signed result is negative.
 N = R31
 Z bit is set if result is zero
 V bit is set after a signed addition if result is incorrect
 V  X 31.M 31.R31  X 31.M 31.R31
 C bit is set after an unsigned addition if result is incorrect
 C  X 31.M 31  M 31.R31  R31. X 31

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-10
Subtraction Summary
Let the 32-bit result R be the result of the 32-bit subtraction X-Y.

 N bit is set
 if unsigned result is above 231-1 or
 if signed result is negative.
 N = R31
 Z bit is set if result is zero
 V bit is set after a signed subtraction if result is incorrect

 V  X 31 & M 31 & R31 | X 31 & M 31 & R31


 C bit is clear after an unsigned subtraction if result is incorrect
 C  X 31 & M 31 | M 31 & R31 | R31 & X 31

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-11
Trick Question
 When the Answer = 159
subtraction (32 –
129) is performed NZVC = 1010
in an 8-bit system
what is the result
and the status of
the NZVC bits?

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-12
Unsigned Promotion
Promotion involves increasing the
precision of the input numbers, and
performing the operation at that higher
precision
Decimal 8-bit 32-bit
224 1110,0000 0000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0000,1110,0000
+ 64 +0100,0000 +0000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0100,0000
288 0010,0000 0000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0001,0010,0000

Then truncate the result back to the


original precision

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-13
Unsigned Ceiling and Floor

Unsigned add Unsigned sub

Promote A to A 32 Promote A to A 32
Promote B to B32 Promote B to B32

R32=A32+B 32 R32=A32-B 32
ok overflow ok underflow
R32 < 255 R32 >255 R32 > 0 R 32 < 0
R32 R32
R=R32 R=255 R=R32 R=0

end end

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-14
Signed Promotion

To promote a signed number, we


duplicate the sign bit

Decimal 8-bit 32-bit


-96 1010,0000 1111,1111,1111,1111,1111,1111,1010,0000
-64 -0100,0000 -0000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0100,0000
-160 0110,0000 1111,1111,1111,1111,1111,1111,0110,0000

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-15
Signed Ceiling and Floor
Signed add Signed sub

Promote A to A 32 Promote A to A 32
Promote B to B 32 Promote B to B 32

R32=A32+B 32 R32=A32-B 32
underflow overflow underflow overflow
R32 < -128 R32 >127 R32 < -128 R32 >127
R32 R32
R = -128 R=127 R = -128 R=127
R=R32 R=R32

end end

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-16
Conditional Branch Instructions
Unsigned conditional branch
follow SUBS CMN or CMP
BLO target ; Branch if unsigned less than (if C=0, same as BCC)
BLS target ; Branch if unsigned less than or equal to (if C=0 or Z=1)
BHS target ; Branch if unsigned greater than or equal to
(if C=1, same as BCS)
BHI target ; Branch if unsigned greater than (if C=1 and Z=0)

CMP R0,R1

R0<R1
BLO
R0≥R1 target
Next instruction
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-17
Conditional Branch Instructions

Signed conditional branch


follow SUBS CMN or CMP
BLT target ; if signed less than (if (~N&V | N&~V)=1, i.e. if N≠V)
BGE target ; if signed greater than or equal to (if (~N&V | N&~V)=0, i.e. if N=V)
BGT target ; if signed greater than (if (Z | ~N&V | N&~V)=0, i.e. if Z=0 and N=V)
BLE target ; if signed less than or equal to
(if (Z | ~N&V | N&~V)=1, i.e. if Z=1 or N≠V)
CMP R0,R1

R0<R1
BLT
R0≥R1 target
Next instruction
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-18
Equality Test

Assembly code C code


LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G uint32_t G;
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G == 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G == 7 ? GEqual7();
BNE next1 ; if not, skip }
BL GEqual7 ; G == 7
next1
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G != 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G != 7 ? GNotEqual7();
BEQ next2 ; if not, skip }
BL GNotEqual7 ; G != 7
next2

Program 5.8. Conditional structures that test for equality.

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-19
Unsigned
Assembly code
Conditional Structures
C code
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G uint32_t G;
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G > 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G > 7? GGreater7();
BLS next1 ; if not, skip }
BL GGreater7 ; G > 7
next1
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G >= 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G >= 7? GGreaterEq7();
BLO next2 ; if not, skip }
BL GGreaterEq7 ; G >= 7
next2
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G < 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G < 7? GLess7();
BHS next3 ; if not, skip }
BL GLess7 ; G < 7
next3
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G <= 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G <= 7? GLessEq7();
BHI next4 ; if not, skip }
BL GLessEq7 ; G <= 7
next4
Program 5.9. Unsigned conditional structures.
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-20
Signed Conditional Structures
Assembly code C code
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G int32_t G;
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G > 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G > 7? GGreater7();
BLE next1 ; if not, skip }
BL GGreater7 ; G > 7
next1
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G >= 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G >= 7? GGreaterEq7();
BLT next2 ; if not, skip }
BL GGreaterEq7 ; G >= 7
next2
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G < 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G < 7? GLess7();
BGE next3 ; if not, skip }
BL GLess7 ; G < 7
next3
LDR R2, =G ; R2 = &G
LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G if(G <= 7){
CMP R0, #7 ; is G <= 7? GLessEq7();
BGT next4 ; if not, skip }
BL GLessEq7 ; G <= 7
next4
Program 5.11. Signed conditional structures.
4-21
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari
If-then-else

G1<=G2 G1>G2

isLessEq isGreater

LDR R2, =G1 ; R2 = &G1 uint32_t G1,G2;


LDR R0, [R2] ; R0 = G1 if(G1>G2){
LDR R2, =G2 ; R2 = &G2 isGreater();
LDR R1, [R2] ; R1 = G2 }
CMP R0, R1 ; is G1 > G2 ? else{
BHI high ; if so, skip to high isLessEq();
low BL isLessEq ; G1 <= G2 }
B next ; unconditional
high BL isGreater ; G1 > G2
next

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-22
While Loops

G2>G1

G2<=G1
Body

LDR R4, =G1 ; R4 -> G1 uint32_t G1,G2;


LDR R5, =G2 ; R5 -> G2 while(G2 > G1){
loop LDR R0, [R5] ; R0 = G2 Body();
LDR R1, [R4] ; R1 = G1 }
CMP R0, R1 ; is G2 <= G1?
BLS next ; if so, skip to next
BL Body ; body of the loop
B loop
next

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-23
For Loops

for(i=0; i<100; i++){ for(i=100; i!=0; i--){


Process(); Process();
} }
i=0 i = 100

i < 100 i != 0
i i

i >= 100 Process i == 0 Process

i = i+1 i = i-1

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-24
For Loops

MOV R4, #0 ; R4 = 0 for(i=0; i<100; i++){


loop CMP R4, #100 ; index >= 100? Process();
BHS done ; if so, skip to done }
BL Process ; process function*
ADD R4, R4, #1 ; R4 = R4 + 1
B loop
done

Count up

MOV R4, #100 ; R4 = 100 for(i=100; i!=0; i--){


loop BL Process ; process function Process();
SUBS R4, R4, #1 ; R4 = R4 - 1 }
BNE loop
done

Count down

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-25
System Design
 What does being in a state mean?
 List state parameters
 What is the starting state of the system?
 Define the initial state
 What information do we need to collect?
 List the input data
 What information do we need to generate?
 List the output data
 How do we move from one state to another?
 Actions we could do
 What is the desired ending state?
 Define the ultimate goal

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-26
System Design

Successive Refinement
Stepwise Refinement
Systematic Decomposition

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-27
System Design
Start with a task and decompose the
task into a set of simpler subtasks
Subtasks are decomposed into even
simpler sub-subtasks
Each subtask is simpler than the task
itself
Make design decisions
document decisions and subtask
requirements
Ultimately, subtask is so simple, it can
be converted to software

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-28
System Design
Four building blocks:
“do A then do B” → sequential
“do A and B in either order” → sequential
(parallel)
“if A, then do B” → conditional
“for each A, do B” → iterative
“do A until B” → iterative
“repeat A over & over forever” → iterative
(condition always true)
“on external event do B” → interrupt
“every t msec do B” → interrupt

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-29
Successive Refinement

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-30
Successive Refinement

Successive refinement example for iterative approach


Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-31
Abstraction - Device Driver
Abstraction allows us to modularize our code and give us
the option to expose what we want users to see and hide
what we don’t want them to see.
A Device Driver is a good example where abstraction is
used to expose public routines that we want users of the
driver to call and use private routines to hide driver
internals from the user (more on private routines later)
LED Driver (PE0)
LED_Init
A user simply has to know
LED_Off what a routine expects and
what it returns in order to
LED_On
call it (calling convention).
LED_Toggle Internals do not matter to caller

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-32
Port E LED Abstraction
PE0 EQU 0x4005C004 ;bit-specific address Port E bit 0
LED_Init
LDR R1, =SYSCTL_RCGCGPIO_R ; R1 -> SYSCTL_RCGCGPIO_R
LDR R0, [R1] ; previous value
ORR R0, R0, #0x00000010 ; activate clock for Port E
STR R0, [R1]
NOP
NOP ; allow time to finish activating
LDR R1, =GPIO_PORTE_DIR_R ; R1 -> GPIO_PORTE_DIR_R
LDR R0, [R1] ; previous value
ORR R0, R0, #0x01 ; PE0 output
STR R0, [R1] ; set direction register
LDR R1, =GPIO_PORTE_AFSEL_R ; R1 -> GPIO_PORTE_AFSEL_R
LDR R0, [R1] ; previous value
BIC R0, R0, #0x01 ; disable alt funct
STR R0, [R1] ; set alternate function register
LDR R1, =GPIO_PORTE_DEN_R ; R1 -> GPIO_PORTE_DEN_R
LDR R0, [R1] ; previous value
ORR R0, R0, #0x01 ; enable PE0 digital port
STR R0, [R1] ; set digital enable register
BX LR
Program 4.3. Software interface for an LED on PE0 (SSR_xxx.zip).
Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-33
Port E LED Abstraction
LED_Off
LDR R1, =PE0 ; R1 is 0x4005C004
MOV R0, #0
STR R0, [R1] ; affect just PE0
BX LR
LED_On
LDR R1, =PE0 ; R1 is 0x4005C004
MOV R0, #1
STR R0, [R1] ; affect just PE0
BX LR
LED_Toggle
LDR R1, =PE0 ; R1 is 0x4005C004
LDR R0, [R1] ; previous value
EOR R0, R0, #1 ; flip bit 0
STR R0, [R1] ; affect just PE0
BX LR

Program 4.3. Software interface for an LED on PE0 (SSR_xxx.zip).

Bard, Erez, Gerstlauer, Valvano, Yerraballi, Telang, Janapa Reddi, Tiwari 4-34